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ARTICLE XIII. Every State shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State.

And whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the Legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said articles of confederation and perpetual union. Know ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained: and we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said confederation are submitted to them. And that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, and in the third year of the independence of America.

On the part f behalf of the State of New Hampshire Josiah BARTLETT

JOHN WENTWORTH, Junr

August 8th, 1778

On the part and behalf of the State of Massachusetts Bay JOHN HANCOCK

FRANCIS DANA SAMUEL ADAMS

JAMES LOVELL ELBRIDGE GERRY

SAMUEL HOLTEN

On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode Island and

Providence Plantations WILLIAM ELLERY

JOHN COLLINS HENRY MARCHANT

On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut ROGER SHERMAN

TITUS HOSMER SAMUEL HUNTINGTON

ANDREW ADAMS OLIVER WOLCOTT

On the part and behalf of the State of New York Jas. DUANE

WM. DUER FRA. LEWIS

Gouv. MORRIS

On the part and in behalf of the State of New Jersey

Novr. 26, 1778 JNO. WITHERSPOON

NATHL. SCUDDER

On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania ROBT. MORRIS

WILLIAM CLINGAN DANIEL ROBERDEAU

JOSEPH REED, 220 July, JNO. BAYARD SMITH

1778

On the part of behalf of the State of Delaware Thos. M'KEAN, Feby. 12, JOHN DICKINSON, May 5th, 1779

1779 NICHOLAS VAN DYKE

On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland JOHN HANSON, March 1, DANIEL CARROLL, Mar, 1 1781

1781

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On the part and behalf of the State of Virginia RICHARD HENRY LEE

JNO. HARVIE JOHN BANISTER

FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE THOMAS ADAMS

On the part and behalf of the State of No. Carolina John Penn, July 21, 1778

JNO. WILLIAMS Corns. HARNETT

On the part of behalf of the State of South Carolina HENRY LAURENS

RichD, HUTSON WILLIAM HENRY DRAYTON Thos. HEYWARD, Junr JNO. MATTHEWS

On the part f behalf of the State of Georgia. JNO. WALTON, 24th July, EdwD. LANGWORTHY

1778 Edwd. TELFAIR

Treaty with France 1778

Treaty of Alliance between the United States of North America and His Most Christian Majesty, concluded at Paris February 6, 1778; Ratified by Congress May 4, 1778.

The Most Christian King and the United States of North America, to wit: New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhodes Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, having this day concluded a treaty of amity and commerce, for the reciprocal advantage of their subjects and citizens, have thought it necessary to take in consideration the means of strengthening those engagements, and of rendring them useful to the safety and tranquility of the two parties; particularly in case Great Britain, in resentment of that connection and of the good correspondence which is the object of the said treaty, should break the peace with France, either by direct hostilities, or by hindring her commerce and navigation in a manner contrary to the rights of nations, and the peace subsisting between the two Crowns. And His Majesty and the said United States, having resolved in that case to join their counsels and efforts against the enterprises of their common enemy, the respective Plenipotentiaries impowered to concert the clauses and conditions proper to fulfil said intentions, have, after the most mature deliberation, concluded and determined on the following articles:

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If war should break out between France and Great Britain during the continuance of the present war between

the United States and England, His Majesty and the said United States shall make it a common cause and aid each other mutually with their good offices, their counsels and their forces, according to the exigence of conjunctures, as becomes good and faithful allies.

ARTICLE II

The essential and direct end of the present defensive alliance is to maintain effectually the liberty, sovereignty, and independence absolute and unlimited, of the said United States, as well in matters of government as of commerce.

ARTICLE III

The two contracting parties shall each on its own part, and in the manner it may judge most proper, make all the efforts in its power against their common enemy, in order to attain the end proposed.

ARTICLE IV

The contracting parties agree that in case either of them should form any particular enterprise in which the concurrence of the other may be desired, the party whose concurrence is desired, shall readily, and with good faith, join to act in concert for that purpose, as far as circumstances and its own particular situation will permit; and in that case, they shall regulate, by a particular convention, the quantity and kind of succour to be furnished, and the time and manner of its being brought into action, as well as the advantages which are to be its compensation.

ARTICLE V

If the United States should think fit to attempt the reduction of the British power, remaining in the northern

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