Trade and the Environment: Law, Economics, and Policy
Trade and the Environment is an important primer for anyone concerned with the impact of trade agreements on the global environment. After examining some of the broader aspects of the debate, the book turns to specific concerns: When is it appropriate for one country to use trade measures to influence industrial behavior in another country? How are international environmental standards set? When are low environmental standards in one country a subsidy to that country's industries? With chapters representing the views of industrial leaders, trade advocates, environmentalists, international organizations, and policymakers from both the developed and developing world, Trade and the Environment provides insight into the full spectrum of issues, concerns, and parties involved in this critical debate.
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What is New Since 72?
The International Trade Regime and the Municipal
Managing Through Prices Managing Despite Prices
An Action Agenda for Trade Policy Reform to Support
The Organization for Economic Cooperation
A European Perspective on Trade and the Environment
A Business Perspective on Trade and the Environment
Why Environmentalists Are Angry about
The United States Government Public Participation
Complementarities between Trade
Environmental Strategies for Agricultural Trade
Environmental Harmonization and Trade Policy
Selected Sources and References
Foreign Direct Investment and Environmental
The False Conflict?
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achieve action adopt agenda agree agricultural American approach areas authority become benefits border cause competition concerns continue cooperation costs countries create debate decisions direct domestic economic effects efficient enforcement environmental policies environmental protection environmentalists establish European example exist export foreign free trade GATT global goals groups growth harmonization impacts important impose increased industries institutions integration interests international trade investment issues laws less means measures ment mental Mexico multilateral NAFTA natural necessary negotiations objectives OECD Organization participation parties Pays pollution practice President prevent principle problems production programs promote question reason reduce regulations represented require restrictions result rules standards subsidies sustainable development tariffs tion trade agreements trade and environment trade liberalization trade measures trade policy treaties United Uruguay Round values
Página 224 - Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures: [....] (b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health; [....] (g) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption.
Página 152 - Ideas, knowledge, science, hospitality, travel — these are the things which should of their nature be international. But let goods be homespun whenever it is reasonably and conveniently possible, and, above all, let finance be primarily national.
Página 174 - Trade policy measures for environmental purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. Environmental measures addressing transboundary or global environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus.
Página 40 - PRINCIPLES a) Cost allocation: the Polluter-Pays Principle 2. Environmental resources are in general limited and their use in production and consumption activities may lead to their deterioration. When the cost of this deterioration is not adequately taken into account in the price system, the market fails to reflect the scarcity of such resources both at the national and international levels. Public measures are thus necessary to reduce pollution and to reach a better allocation of resources by...
Página 16 - Code of Good Practice, which figures in Annex 3 of the TBT Agreement: Members shall ensure that their central government standardizing bodies accept and comply with the Code of Good Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards in Annex 3 to this Agreement (referred to in this Agreement as the 'Code of Good Practice').
Página 152 - I sympathize, therefore, with those who would minimize, rather than those who would maximize, economic entanglement between nations. Ideas, knowledge, art, hospitality, travel — these are the things which should of their nature be international.
Página 51 - Annex 104.1, such obligations shall prevail to the extent of the inconsistency, provided that where a Party has a choice among equally effective and reasonably available means of complying with such obligations, the Party chooses the alternative that is the least inconsistent with the other provisions of this Agreement.
Página 109 - ... projects and activities. Contributing to the awareness of the importance of indigenous concerns was the role played by indigenous peoples and their supporters at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992.
Página 296 - Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, GATT Doc.
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