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THE CAPTURE AND SACK OF LAWRENCE. 243 ists.” The call was promptly made May, 1856, Lawrence was surrounded by proclamation from the governor, and surprised by various parties of and the whole Missouri border came enemies, part of them under Gen. over to execute vengeance on Law Atchison, who, with the “Platte rence and the Free-State men. This County Rifles," and two pieces of army encamped at Franklin, a pro artillery, approached from LecompSlavery settlement, a few miles from ton on the west, while another force, Lawrence, and there remained seve composed in good part of the volunral days, during which Thomas W. teers from the Atlantic Southern Barber, a Free-State man, returning States, under Col. Buford, beleaguerfrom Lawrence to his home, seven ed it on the east. They bristled with miles off, was shot dead by some of weapons from the United States Arthem, but no other serious damage mory, then in charge of the Federal done. Finally, articles of negotiation officers in Kansas. Nearly all the and adjustment were agreed up pro-Slavery leaders then in Kansas, on between Gov. Shannon and the or hovering along the Missouri borFree-State leaders, in Lawrence, der, were on hand; among them, which suspended the feud for the Col. Titus, from Florida, Col. Wilkes, present. The Missourians dispersed, from South Carolina, Gen. Stringand the troubled land once more had fellow, a Virginian, Col. Boone, peace.

hailing from Westport, and many In the Spring of 1856, the pro- others of local and temporary fame. Slavery party on the Kansas border The entire force was about 800 were reënforced by Col. Buford, from strong, having possession of Mount Alabama, at the head of a regiment Oread, a hill which commanded the of wild young men, mainly recruited town. The pretext for this raid was in South Carolina and Georgia. a desire to serve legal processes in They came in military array, armed, Kansas, although deputy marshal and with the avowed purpose of Fain, who held a part of those promaking Kansas a Slave State at all cesses, had been in Lawrence the hazards. On one of their raids into evening before, and served two writs Kansas, a party of Buford's men, without a sign of resistance, as on who were South Carolinians, took a several previous occasions. He now Mr. Miller prisoner, and, finding rode into the town with ten men, that he was a Free-State man, and a and arrested two leading Free-State native of South Carolina, they grave citizens, no one making objection. ly tried him for treason to his native Meantime, the posse, so called, were State! He was found guilty, and busy in the suburbs, breaking open escaped with his life only, losing his houses and robbing their inmates. horse and money.

Fain remained in town until afterKansas now swarmed with the noon, eating dinner with his party at minions of the Slave Power, intent the principal hotel, but neglecting to on her subjugation; their pretext pay for it; then returned to the being the enforcement of the laws camp on the hill, and was succeeded passed by the fraudulent Legislature. by “Sheriff Jones” of that county,

On the morning of the 21st of whose authority, being derived from

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the sham Legislature, the people dided at $150,000. None of them were not recognize Jones rode into killed or wounded; but one of the town at the head of twenty men, at ruffians shot himself badly, and three P. M., and demanded that all another was killed by a brick or the arms should be given up to him, stone, knocked by one of their canon pain of a bombardment. The non from the upper story of the people, unprepared to resist, consent- Free-State Hotel. ed to surrender their artillery, con- Such were the beginnings of the sisting of a twelve-pound howitzer, so-called “Kansas War,” a desultory, and four smooth-bore pieces, carrying wasteful, but not very bloody coneach a pound ball. All these had flict, which continued, with alternabeen buried some days before, but tions of activity and quiet, throughwere now dug up and made over to out the next year. One of its most Jones. A few muskets were like noted incidents is known as the wise surrendered by their owners. “ battle of Black Jack," wherein 28 The pro-Slavery army now marched Free State men, led by old John down the hill, and entered the south Brown, of Osawatomie, fought and end of the town, where Atchison defeated, on the open prairie, 56 made a speech to them, declaring “ border ruffians," headed by Capt. that the Free State Hotel and the H. Clay Pate, from Virginia, who two Free-State printing-offices must professed to be an officer under Marbe destroyed. “Sheriff Jones” de- shal Donaldson. It terminated in clared that he had an order to that the surrender of Pate and all that effect from Judge Lecompte, of the remained of his band, twenty-one Federal Court. The whole force ac-men, beside the wounded, with cordingly marched into the heart of twenty-three horses and mules, wagthe town, destroyed the printing-offi- ons, provisions, camp-equipage, and ces, and fired some fifty rounds from a considerable quantity of plunder, their cannon at the Free State Hotel, obtained just before by sacking a which, being solidly built of stone, little Free State settlement, known as was not much damaged thereby. Palmyra. + Four kegs of gun-powder were then The Legislature chosen under the placed in it and fired, but only two Free-State Constitution was sumof them exploded, making little im- moned to meet at Topeka on the 4th pression. Fire was now applied to of July, 1856, and its members asthe building, and it was burnt to the sembled accordingly, but were not bare and blackened walls. The allowed to organize, Col. Sumner, 30 dwelling of Gov. Robinson 29 was with a force of regulars, dispersing next set on fire, and, though the them by order of President Pierce. flames were twice extinguished, it The village of Osawatomie, in the was finally consumed. The total loss southern part of the Territory, was to the citizens of Lawrence by that sacked and burned on the 5th of day's robbery and arson was estimat- June by a pro-Slavery force, headed

% Elected Governor under the embryo organi- 30 Since known as Maj.-Gen. Edwin V. Sumzation, by the great body of her settlers, of ner: fought bravely in several battles of the Kansas as a Free State.

| War: died at Syracuse, N. Y., early in 1863.

THE SACK OF LEAVENWORTH.

245 by Gen. Whitfield. But few of the save of their passage-money, which male citizens were at home, and was in no case returned. A large there was no resistance. .

party was finally made up of those Leavenworth, being directly on whose progress to their intended the border, and easily accessible from homes had been thus obstructed, who a populous portion of Missouri, was proceeded thither slowly and toilespecially exposed to outrages. It somely, by a circuitous route through was long under the control of the Iowa and Nebraska; but who, on enpro-Slavery party, being a military tering Kansas, were met by a Fedepost, and a point whence overland ral military force, and all their arms trains and mails were dispatched, taken from them. and at which a vast Federal patron- Yet the immigration continued ; so age was concentrated. The office of that, while the office-holders, the The Territorial Register (Free-State) military, and all the recognized was destroyed by a Missouri band, power and authority, were on the December 20, 1855. Many collisions side of Slavery, the Free State preand murders occurred here, and in ponderance among the settlers conthe vicinity; and at length, on the stantly increased. The pro-Slavery recurrence of the municipal election forces made strong incursions or raids (September 1, 1856), a large force, into the Territory from time to time, mainly of Missourians, took posses- but subsided into Missouri after a sion of the town; and, under the few days; and, while a good share pretense of searching for arms, plun- of the fighting, with most of the dered and ravaged as they chose. burning and plundering, was done William Phillips, a lawyer, refused by them, nearly all the building, the to submit to their search, and stood clearing, the plowing, and the planton his defense. He killed two of ing, were the work of Free-State men. his assailants, but was finally killed Meantime, dissipation, exposure, and himself; while his brother, who aid- all manner of irregularities, were ed him in his defense, had his arm constantly thinning the ranks of the shattered by a bullet. Phillips's pro-Slavery volunteers from the house was burned, with several South, while many of the better class others, and every known Free State among them, disgusted and remorseman put on board a steamboat and ful, abandoned their evil work, and sent down the river. It was boasted shrank away to some region wherein by the Missouri journals that not a they were less generally detested. single “ abolition vote" was cast at Under all its persecutions and desothat election!

lations, Kansas was steadily maturing Meantime, the emigrants flocking and hardening into the bone and to Kansas from the Free States were sinew of a Free State not only, but arrested on their passage through of one fitted by education and expeMissouri and turned back: cannon be- rience to be an apostle of the gospel ing planted along the Missouri river of Universal Freedom. to stop the ascending steamboats for this purpose. Not many of these The Democratic National Convenemigrants were actually plundered, tion for 1856 met at Cincinnati on

the 2d of June. John E. Ward, of | Democratic principle to the organization of

Territories, and the admission of new States Georgia, presided over its delibera

with or without domestic Slavery, as they tions. On the first ballot, its votes may elect, the equal rights of all the States for Presidential candidate were cast,

will be preserved intact, the original com

pacts of the Constitution maintained inviofor JAMES BUCHANAN, 135; Pierce,

late, and the perpetuity and expansion of 122; Douglas, 33; Cass, 5. Bu the Union insured to its utmost capacity of chanan gained pretty steadily, and

embracing, in peace and harmony, every

future American State that may be constiPierce lost; so that, on the ninth tuted or annexed with a republican form of ballot, the vote stood: Buchanan, i government.” 147; Pierce, 87; Douglas, 56; Cass, The dissolution of the Whig party, 7. On the sixteenth, Mr. Buchanan commenced by the imposition of the had 168; Mr. Douglas, 121. And, Southern platform on its National on the seventeenth, Mr. Buchanan Convention of 1852, was consummated received the whole number, 296 by the eager participation of most of votes, and was nominated. On the its Southern members of Congress in first ballot for Vice-President, John the repudiation of the Missouri ComA. Quitman, of Mississippi, received promise by the passage of the Kansasthe highest vote—59; but, on the Nebraska bill. Those, of whatever second, his name was withdrawn, party in the past, who emphatically and John C. BRECKINRIDGE, of Ken condemned that repudiation, and who tucky, was unanimously nominated. united on that basis to ignore past

The Convention, in its platform, political denominations, with a view after adopting nearly all the material to united action in the future, were resolves of its two immediate prede first known simply as 55 anti-Nebrascessors, unanimously

ka," but gradually, and almost spon

taneously, assumed the designation "1. Resolved, That, claiming fellowship with and desiring the coöperation of all

of “Republicans.” As such, they who regard the preservation of the Union carried most of the Free State elecunder the Constitution as the paramount

tions of 1854, but were less decidedly issue, and repudiating all sectional parties and platforms concerning domestic Slavery, successful in those of 1855. Their which seek to embroil the States and incite first National Convention was held to treason and armed resistance to law in the Territories, and whose avowed purpose,

at Pittsburgh, Pa., on the 22d of if consummated, must end in civil war and February, 1856 ; but no nominations disunion, the American Democracy recog

were there made. Their nominating nize and adopt the principles contained in the organic laws establishing the Territories Convention met at Philadelphia on of Kansas and Nebraska, as embodying the the 17th of June, Col. Henry S. only sound and safe solution of the Slavery question, upon which the great National

Lane, of Indiana, presiding. JOHN idea of the people of this whole country C. FREMONT, of California, was nomcan repose in its determined conservation

inated for President on the first balof the Union, and non-interference of Congress with Slavery in the Territories or in

lot, receiving 359 votes to 196 for the District of Columbia.

John McLean, of Ohio. WILLIAM “2. That this was the basis of the Compro

L. DAYTON, of New Jersey, received mises of 1850, confirmed by both the Democratic and Whig parties in National Conven 259 votes on the informal ballot, to tions; ratified by the people in the election 110 for Abraham Lincoln and 180 of 1852, and rightly applied to the organization of the Territories in 1854.

scattering, for Vice-President. Mr. "3. That, by the uniform application of the Dayton was thereupon unanimously NOMINATION OF FILLMORE AND DONELSON.

247

nominated. The more material re- but those who are citizens of the United solves of this Convention are as fol- |

States, under the Constitution and laws

thereof, and who have a fixed residence in lows:

any such Territory, ought to participate in " Resolved, That, with our republican

enactment of laws, for said Territory or fathers, we hold it to be a self-evident

State." truth, that all men are endowed with the inalienable rights to life, liberty, and the This Council proceeded to conpursuit of happiness; and that the primary l demn the National Administration. object and ulterior design of our Federal Government were, to secure these rights to among other things, for “rëopening all persons within its exclusive jurisdiction; sectional agitation by the repeal of that, as our republican fathers, when they had abolished Slavery in all our National

the Missouri.compromise.” This was territory, ordained that no person should not satisfactory to the “anti-Nebrasbe deprived of life, liberty, or property, ka” members of the nominating Conwithout due process of law, it becomes our duty to maintain this provision of the Con- vention ; on whose behalf, Mr. Kilstitution against all attempts to violate it, | linger, of Pennsylvania, proposed the for the purpose of establishing Slavery in

following: any territory of the United States, by positive legislation, prohibiting its existence Resolved, That the National Council has and extension therein. That we deny the no authority to prescribe a Platform of prinauthority of Congress, of a Territorial Legis ciples for this Nominating Convention; and lature, of any individual or association of that we will nominate for President and individuals, to give legal existence to Sla Vice-President no men who are not in favor very in any Territory of the United States, of interdicting the introduction of Slavery while the present Constitution shall be into territory north of 36° 30' by Congresmaintained.

sional action.” Resolved, That the Constitution confers upon Congress sovereign power over the This resolve was laid on the table, Territories of the United States for their by 141 votes to 59. The 66 anti-Ne. government; and that, in the exercise of this power, it is both the right and the duty

braska” delegates, to the number of of Congress to prohibit in the Territories about fifty, thereupon withdrew from those twin relics of barbarism-Polygamy

the Convention. On the first ballot and Slavery."

for President, MILLARD FILLMORE, of An “American" National Con

New York, received 71 votes ; George vention was held at Philadelphia on

Law, of N. Y., 27; and there were 45 the 22d of February; all the States

scattering. On the next ballot, Mr. represented but Maine, Vermont,

Fillmore received 179 to 64 for all Georgia, and South Carolina. An

others, and was nominated. On the “American” National Council (secret)

first ballot for Vice-President, Anhad met three days before in the

| DREW JACKSON DONELSON; of Tennessame place, and adopted a platform.

see, received 181 votes to 24 scatterThe following plank is the most ine and was unanimously nomina essential :

“The recognition of the right of native- The nomination of Mr. Fillmore born and naturalized citizens of the United States, permanently residing in any Terri- was ratified by a Whig Convention. tory thereof, to frame their Constitution which met at Baltimore on the 17th and laws, and to regulate their domestic and of September—Edward Bates, of Missocial affairs in their own mode, subject only to the provisions of the Federal Con souri, presiding. stitution, with the privilege of admission Mr. Fillmore was absent in Europe into the Union whenever they have the who

i when the American nomination was requisite population for one Representative in Congress: Provided, always, that none | made; but, returning early in July,

ted.

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