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been so nicely apportioned and di- refusing to receive Missouri votes, rected to the several districts and resigned under duress, and was repolls that they elected all the mem placed by another who made no obbers, with a single exception, in either jection. One Missourian voted for House-the two Free-Soilers being himself and then for his son, ten or chosen from a remote inland district eleven years old. Three of those which the Missourians had overlook- they thus elected to the Legislature ed or did not care to reach. Al- were residents of Missouri at the though but 831 legal electors voted, time. These details might be conthere were no less than 6,320 votes tinued indefinitely, but it is needless. polled. Even at Lawrence, where The Missourians voted at other polls there were but 369 voters in all, and with less circumspection, easily drivnot half a dozen of them pro-Slavery, ing off all who objected to their prothe vote returned wasm-pro-Slavery, ceedings, and then doing as they 781; Free State, 253. At Marysville, chose. The Weston Reporter (Miswhere there were 24 legal voters, 328 souri), of the day before, had said: votes were returned, all pro-Slavery. I 6Our minds are already made up as to There was no disguise, no pretense the result of the election in Kansas to-mo of legality, no regard for decency. row. The pro-Slavery party will be trium

phant, we presume, in nearly every precinct. On the evening before and the morn

Should the pro-Slavery party fail in this ing of the day of election, nearly a contest, it will not be because Missouri thousand Missourians arrived at Law- has failed to do her duty to assist her

friends. It is a safe calculation that two rence, in wagons and on horseback,

thousand squatters have passed over into well armed with rifles, pistols, and the promised land from this part of the bowie-knives, and two pieces of can- State within four days." non loaded with musket balls. They The Platte Argus (Missouri); in its had tents, music, and flags, and en- next issue, said: camped in a ravine near the town. “It is to be admitted that they—the MisThey held a meeting the night before sourians — have conquered Kansas. Our

advice is, let them hold it, or die in the the election at the tent of Claiborne

attempt.” F. Jackson.? Finding that they had

A week or two thereafter, rumors more men than were needed to carry

were in circulation that the Goverthe Lawrence district, they dispatch

nor did not indorse, in all respects, ed companies of one to two hundred

the legality of this election; whereeach to two other districts. Meeting

upon The Brunswicker (Missouri) one of the judges of election before

said: • the poll opened, they questioned him

“ We learn, just as we go to press, that as to his intended course, and, learn- | Reeder has refused to give certificates to ing that he should insist on the oath four of the Councilmen and thirteen memof residence, they first attempted to

bers of the House! He has ordered an elec,

tion to fill their places on the 22d of May. bribe and then threatened to hang | “This infernal scoundrel will have to be him. In consequence of this threat, hemped yet.” he failed to appear at the poll, and The Parkville Luminary, issued a Missourian was appointed in his in Platte County, Missouri, was the stead. One of the remaining judges, only journal on that side of the bor. 27 Democratic Governor of Missouri, elected in 1860; died a Rebel refugee in Arkansas, 1862.



239 der that dared and chose to speak a one act whereby the laws of Missouword for the Free-State settlers of ri generally were adopted and deKansas, maintaining their rights un- clared laws of Kansas, and other der the organic law. Though guard- acts specially upholding and fortify. ed and careful in its language, it could ing Slavery, whereof the following not escape the discipline meted out in are but specimens : that region to all who favored “ Abo

"Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Governor lition.” On the 14th of April, 1855, and Legislative Assembly of Kansas, That its office and materials were destroy

every person, bond or free, who shall be

convicted of raising a rebellion or insurreced by a mob, and its editor constrain tion of slaves, free negroes, or mulattoes, in ed to flee for his life.

this Territory, shall suffer death.

“Sec. 2. Every free person, who shall aid William Phillips, a Free-State law

or assist in any rebellion or insurrection of yer of Leavenworth, saw fit to sign | slaves, free negroes, or mulattoes, or shall furthe protest against the wholesale nish arms, or do any other act in further

ance of such rebellion or insurrection, shall frauds whereby the election at that

suffer death. place was carried. A few days there “SEC. 3. If any free person shall, by after. he was seized by a crowd of speaking, writing, or printing, advise, per

suade, or induce, any slaves to rebel, conspire Missouri ruffians, taken by force to against, or murder, any citizen of the TerriWeston, Mo., eight miles distant, tory, or shall bring into, print, write, pub

lish, or circulate, or cause to be brought into, and there tarred and feathered, rid

written, printed, published, or circulated, or den on a rail, and finally sold at auc shall, knowingly, aid or assist in the bringtion to a negro, who was compelled

ing into, printing, writing, publishing, or

circulating, in the Territory, any book, paper, to purchase him.

magazine, pamphlet, or circular, for the Gov. Reeder did set aside the elec purpose of inciting insurrection, rebellion, tion in the only six districts from

revolt, or conspiracy, on the part of the

slaves, free negroes, or mulattoes, against which protests were seasonably for- the citizens of the Territory, or any part warded to him, with distinct proof of

of them, such person shall suffer death.

"SEC. 4. If any person shall entice, decoy, frauds: whereupon, new elections or carry away, out of this Territory, any were held in those districts, and all slave belonging to another, with the inof them but Leavenworth were car

tent to deprive the owner thereof of the

services of such slave, he shall be adjudged ried Free-Soil. Leavenworth, being | guilty of grand larceny, and, on conviction directly on the Missouri border, was

thereof, shall suffer death, or be imprisoned

at hard labor for not less than ten years. carried pro-Slavery by fraud and vio

“Sec. 5. If any person shall aid or assist lence, as usual. The Free-State men in enticing, decoying, or persuading, or car

rying away, or sending out of this Territory, elected at this second election were

any slave belonging to another, with the inrefused seats by the pro-Slavery tent to procure or effect the freedom of such majority, and the pro-Slavery men

slave, or deprive the owners thereof of the

services of such slave, he shall be adjudged chosen on the regular day of election

guilty of grand larceny, and, on conviction duly installed in their places.

thereof, shall suffer death, or be imprisoned

at hard labor for not. less than ten years. The Legislature was called to meet

“Sec. 12. If any free person, by speaking at Pawnee City on the Kansas river, or writing, shall assert or maintain that pernearly a hundred miles west from

sons have not the right to hold slaves in

this Territory, or shall introduce into this the border. It was immediately ad

Territory, print, publish, write, circulate, journed, over the Governor's veto, to or cause to be introduced into the Ter

ritory, or written, printed, published, and Shawnee Mission, directly on the line

no | circulated in this Territory, any book, paof Missouri. It proceeded to pass per, magazine, pamphlet, or circular, con

. taining any denial of the right of persons | “To one subject, however, he would alto hold slaves in this Territory, such person | lude--Slavery. His official life and characshall be deemed guilty of felony, and pun- | ter were not unknown to a portion, at least, ished by imprisonment at hard labor for a of the citizens of Kansas. He had no interm of not less than two years.

| tention of changing his political faith. He “Seo. 13. No person who is conscienti- | thought, with reference to Slavery, that, as ously opposed to holding slaves, or who does Missouri and Kansas were adjoining States, not admit the right to hold slaves in this -as much of that immense trade up the Territory, shall sit as a juror on the trial of Missouri, which was already rivaling the any prosecution for any violation of any of commeroe between the United States and the sections of this act.”

some foreign countries, must necessarily lead

to a great trade and perpetual intercourse Another act of this remarkable

between them,-it would be well if their Legislature, entitled 6 An act to institutions should harmonize; otherwise,

there would be continual quarrels and borpunish persons decoying slaves from

der feuds. He was for Slavery in Kansas their masters," has this unique pro- (loud cheers).” vision :

The actual settlers of Kansas were “ SEC. 3. If any person shall entice, decoy, / little disposed to submit to the impuor carry away, out of any State or other

dent and hostile usurpation which Territory of the United States, any slave belonging to another, with intent to pro had seized their ballot-boxes and imcure or effect the freedom of such slave, or

posed on them a fraudulent Legislato deprive the owner thereof of the services of such slave, and shall bring such slave

ture. They held a mass convention into this Territory, he shall be adjudged at Big Springs on the 5th of Septemguilty of grand larceny, in the same man

ber, wherein they repudiated the laws ner as if such slave had been enticed, decoyed, or carried away, out of this Terri and officers imposed on Kansas by the tory; and in such case the larceny may be Border-Ruffian election and Legislacharged to have been committed in any county of this Territory, into or through

ture, and refused to submit to them which such slave shall have been brought They further resolved not to vote at by such person, and, on conviction thereof,

the election for a Delegate to Conthe person offending shall suffer death."

gress, which the bogus Legislature This Legislature, whose acts were had appointed to be held on the 1st systematically vetoed by Gov. Reed- of October. They called a Delegate er, but passed over his head, memori Convention to be held at Topeka on alized the President for his removal, the 19th of that month, whereat an which was, in due time, effected. Executive Committee for Kansas TerWilson Shannon, 28 of Ohio, was ap- ritory was appointed, and an election pointed in his stead. On his way to for Delegate to Congress appointed for Kansas, he stopped at Westport, Mon, the second Tuesday in October.' Gov. the headquarters of border ruffian Reeder was nominated for Delegate. ism, and made a speech to those So, two rival elections for Delegate who crowded about him. In that were held on different days, at one of speech, he declared that he consid- which Whitfield (pro-Slavery), and ered the Legislature which had re- at the other Reeder (Free-Soil), was cently adjourned to Shawnee Mis- chosen Delegate to Congress. And, sion a legal assembly, and regarded on the 23d of October, a Constituits laws as binding on the authorities tional Convention, chosen by the setand on every citizen of the Terri- tlers under the Free State organizatory. He added:

tion aforesaid, assembled at Topeka,

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28 Elected Democratic Governor of Ohio over Thomas Corwin, in 1842.



and formed a Free State Constitu- the sitting delegate, John W. Whitfield, tion, under which they asked admis

holds his seat, was not held in pursuance of

any valid law, and that it should be regarded sion into the Union as a State. only as the expression of the choice of those

resident citizens who voted for him. The XXXIVth Congress assem

Fifth : That the election under which

the contesting delegate, Andrew H. Reeder, bled at Washington, December 3d, claims his seat, was not held in pursuance of 1855, no party having a majority in

law, and that it should be regarded only as

the expression of the choice of the resident the House. Several weeks were citizens who voted for him. consumed in fruitless ballotings for “Sixth : That Andrew H. Reeder received Speaker, until, finally, a majority

a greater number of votes of resident citizens

| than John W. Whitfield, for Delegate. voted-Yeas 113, Nays 104—that a Seventh : That, in the present condition plurality should suffice to elect after

of the Territory, a fair election cannot be .

held without a new census, a stringent and three more ballots. Under this rule,

well-guarded election law, the selection of Nathaniel P. Banks, Jr., of Massa impartial judges, and the presence of United chusetts, received 103 votes to 100

States troops at every place of election.

Eighth : That the various elections held for William Aiken, of South Caroli by the people of the Territory preliminary to na, and 11 scattering. It was there

the formation of the State Government, have

been as regular as the disturbed condition of upon resolved-Yeas 155, Nays 40

the Territory would allow; and that the Conthat Mr. Banks had been duly elected stitution framed by the Convention, held in Speaker. The House, on the 19th

will of a majority of the people." of March, resolved-Yeas 101, Nays 93—to send a Special Committee to Whitfield held his seat, notwithKansas, to inquire into the anarchy standing, to the end of the Congress, by this time prevailing there. That despite strenuous efforts by the Committee was composed of Messrs. Republican members to oust him; William A. Howard, of Michigan, and a bill admitting Kansas as a John Sherman, of Ohio, and Morde- State under her Free Constitution cai Oliver, of Missouri, who immedi- was first defeated in the House by ately proceeded to Kansas, and there 106 Yeas to 107 Nays, but afterward spent several weeks in taking testi reconsidered and passed by 99 Yeas mony; which the majority, on their to 97 Nays. In the Senate, which return to Washington, summed up in was strongly pro-Slavery, it was an able and searching Report. Their promptly defeated. conclusions were as follows:

Meantime, the settled antagonism “ First: That each election in the Terri- in Kansas between the Federal autory, held under the organic or alleged Ter thorities and the Territorial functionritorial law, has been carried by organized

aries and enactments recognized and invasions from the State of Missouri, by which the people of the Territory have been upheld by them on the one side, and prevented from exercising the rights secured the great mass of her people on the to them by the organic law. " Second: That the alleged Territorial

other, had resulted in great practical

o Legislature was an illegally constituted body, disorders. On the 21st of Novemand had no power to pass valid laws; and

ber, 1855, William Dow, a Freetheir enactments are, therefore, null and void. Third: That these alleged laws have

State settler on the Santa Fé road, not, as a general thing, been used to pro- near Hickory Point, was shot dead tect persons and property and to punish

in open day by one Coleman, a prowrong, but for unlawful purposes. Fourth: That the election under which / Slavery neighbor, in plain sight of



and the In the Federgonism


several persons. Dow was unarmed, garding him as a deadly and danger. and was set upon by three armed ous foe. His posse was made up of pro-Slavery men, who had no cause pro-Slavery men, including two of of quarrel with him but their differ- those who had witnessed and abetted ence in politics, although they made the murder of Dow, though Coleman a pretense of claiming the land on -however active in raising, fitting which he had settled. The murderer out, and arming the party—had been fled to Missouri, but immediately re- persuaded not to accompany it. turned to Shawnee Mission, and sur- Branson was found by them asleep rendered himself to Gov. Shannon, in his bed, and taken out by Jones, who allowed him to go at large. The who professed his intent to take him body of the murdered man lay in to Lawrence for examination. Whethe road from noon till evening, ther he did or did not entertain that when Jacob Branson, the Free State purpose, he lingered and drank by settler with whom he boarded, hear the way, so that a party of the neighing of his death, went after and re- boring Free-State settlers, fifteen in covered it. Five days thereafter, a number, was hastily collected, by meeting of Free-State men was held which Jones and his party were inat Hickory Point, at which the mur- tercepted near Blanton's Bridge over der and its authors were forcibly the Wakarusa, and Branson rescued denounced, and a Committee ap- from Jones's custody. There was no pointed to bring the murderers to actual collision—not even a gun justice. This meeting was made the snapped—but the Free State men pretext for bringing on a collision formed across the road in a bright between the people and the authori- moonlight evening, and called Branties. Branson was soon after arrest- son to come over to them, which he ed on an affidavit of one of the three did, notwithstanding free threats of armed men who had compassed the shooting on the part of Jones and death of Dow, who swore that he was his followers, answered by a cocking in fear of his life. The arrest was of Sharpe's rifles and revolvers on made by a party headed by Samuel the other side. Jones, who had been J. Jones, postmaster at Westport, speaking daggers up to this time, Mo., and one of the foremost in wisely concluded to use none, though the conspiracy by which Kansas had his party was well armed, and decidbeen so far subjugated to “Border- edly the more numerous. Branson Ruffian” rule through the wholesale and his rescuers moved off toward corruption of her ballot-boxes. For Lawrence, the citadel of Free State his zeal and efficiency in this work, principles, which the discomfited sherthe fraudulent Legislature at Shaw- iff protested he would soon visit at nee Mission had made him sheriff of the head of five thousand men, and Douglas County, wherein are Law- “ wipe out.” He accordingly called rence and Hickory Point. Of course, on Gov. Shannon to order out three the “Free-State" settlers, constitut- thousand militia, to enable him to ing a large majority of the people of “execute the laws,” and sent to that important county, scouted his President Pierce an affidavit that he assumption of official authority, re- had been resisted by “ forty abolition

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