« AnteriorContinuar »
year 1862 and at its close, were as follows: less advantage to the agricultural interests of four, Jan. 1, 1862, $5.40 to $8.25 per barrel; the country than its framers had expected. The Dec. 31, $6.05 to $10. Wheat, Jan. 1, $1.26 "propagating garden,” established at Washingto $1.52) per bushel; Dec. 31, $1.30 to $1.75. ton many years since by the Patent Office, is Corn, Jan., 65 to 68 cts. per bushel; Dec., 83 to indeed maintained; and large quantities of 95 cts. Rye, Jan., 82 to 85 cts.; Dec., 90 to $1.02. seeds are distributed through the members of Barley, Jan., 67 to 80 cts. per bushel ; Dec., Congress to their constituents; but no effort $1.33 to $1.55. The prices of other agricultural has yet been made or proposed to obtain products showed a still greater appreciation. reports of the condition or prospects of the Cotton, as was to be expected, rose from 32 to crops, analyses of soils and plants, or to ascer34 cts. in Jan., to 68 to 72 cts. in Dec. Rice, tain the meteorology or climatic peculiarities $6.75 to $7.75 per cwt. in Jan., was $9 per cwt. of different sections of the country, the adaptain Dec. Potatoes, $1.38 to $2.25 per bbl. in tions of their soil or temperature to different Jan., were $1.60 to $3 in Dec. Butter, which classes, species, or varieties of plants. The inranged from 11 to 21 cts. in Jan., was from 16 vestigation of the grasses, cereals, and root to 26 in Dec. Mess pork, $11.75 to $12.37 per crops most serviceable and profitable for each bbl. in Jan., was $14.62 to $14.75 in Dec. section, and the introduction of useful plants
Three measures, enacted by Congress in the and fruits of other countries, or the developsession of 1861–2, had an important bearing ment under favorable circumstances of some apon agriculture. The first was the establish- of the wild plants and fruits, are also objects ment of a distinct department or bureau of properly coming within the scope of such a deagricoltare, which had hitherto been attached partment, but as yet they have received little to the Patent Office. Isaac Newton, Esq., of or no attention. Pennsylvania, was appointed the commissioner The encouragement of the immigration of of the new department. Second, the passage of practical agriculturists by means of “Homethe Homestead bill, designed to encourage the stead" acts, has been tried successfully in other development of the new lands of the West by countries less eligibly situated, and bids fair to actual settlers, who should, on certain con- produce good results here. Texas, before comditions of loyalty and actual improvement of ing into the Union, had largely increased her the lands for a term of three years, become the population by land grants, and Missouri and proprietors in fee simple of a small farm, by Michigan have both offered 'State lands in small paying only the register's fee, was in effect a law quantities to actual settlers, either entirely free for the promotion of agriculture, to which sim- or at a nominal price. ilar enactments on the part of some of tho The “Agricultural College Act" cannot fail of newer States also contributed; and third, the effecting much good. The necessity of scien"Agricultural College Act," by which there tific instruction in agriculture has long been were granted to each State 30,000 acres of land felt by many of the more intelligent tillers of at the minimum price of $1.25 per acre, for each the soil; and while some have sought instrucsenator and representative they might have tion in the great agricultural schools of Gerin Congress, according to the apportionment many and France, others have attempted to under the census of 1860, to constitute an en- effect the establishment of such schools in this dowment for at least one college, in which, country, and with some success. The scientific without excluding classical or other scientific schools attached to Harvard, Dartmouth, and studies, instruction should be given in agricul- Yale colleges
, each provide for instruction in ture and the principles of the mechanic arts. Ten some of the branches of agricultural science, per cent of the proceeds of the lands so granted and have proved of great advantage to the inmight be used for the purchase of a farm or telligent practical farmers who have availed farms for practical instruction in agriculture, but themselves of the course; neither of these, no portion of it could be expended for buildings however, has an experimental farm, and for the or furniture; and the remainder of the proceeds want of which they have been compelled to should constitute a permanent and inviolable confine themselves to theoretical instruction. fund, to be invested in stocks at not less than The State of Michigan was the first to estab5 per cent. (to be made good by the State if lish an agricultural college, having approprilost), the interest whereof should be applied to ated $50,000 for the purpose in 1855, and purthe teaching of " such branches of learning as chased a tract of 7,000 acres of land near Lanare related to agriculture and the mechanic sing, upon which were erected buildings for arts
, in such manner as the legislatures of the the institution. In 1857 the Legislature apStates may respectively prescribe, in order to propriated a further sum of $40,000, and in promote the liberal and practical education of May, 1857, the first class was admitted. For the industrial classes in the several pursuits and some cause the college has within the past professions of life." The several States, in or- two years suspended operations. It is now under to avail themselves of the benefits of this der the care of the State Board of Agriculture. act, must signify their acceptance of it within An agricultural college was incorporated in two years from its passage.
New York in 1853, but no means were proThe establishment of the “ Agricultural De- vided for its support. In 1855 a subscription partment" seems thus far to have been of much was commenced, and an act passed the Legislature in the same year, loaning the college $40,; quired over $40,000 more for their completion, 000 for twenty years without interest, provided and other expenditures to the extent of $15,000 a like sum could be raised by private subscrip. more were needed to fit it for a true agricultural tion. This amount, and a considerable sum in college. In 1861 the Legislature granted a furexcess of it, was raised, a farm of 700 acres pur- ther appropriation of $50,000, which enabled chased in Ovid, Seneca county, and buildings the corporation to complete their buildings and erected sufficient for the accommodation of 150 furnish the necessary apparatus and implements. students; the first class was organized in Dec. The college was opened for pupils in 1858; four 1860, but the college was closed from the de- classes had been organized in the summer of pression produced by the war, and has not since 1862, and two classes had graduated. The been opened. The “People's College" at Ha- trustees had secured at the beginning the servana, Schuyler county, was also intended to be vices of Evan Pugh, Ph.D. and F. C. S., as the partially agricultural in its character, and has a president, and he spent two years in Europe farm of 200 acres; buildings have been erected, visiting the agricultural colleges, collecting a but it is not yet opened for students. The library and cabinet of geology and mineralogy, Maryland Agricultural College was incorporated and familiarizing himself with the methods of in 1856, and is located on a farm of 400 acres, instruction there pursued, and returned in 1860 ten miles north of Washington, D. O. ; $50,000 to take charge of the college. Besides his duwere raised for it by subscription, and the State ties as president, Dr. Pugh also acts as profesmakes an annual appropriation of $6,000 for sor of chemistry, scientific agriculture, mineralits support. It was opened for students in ogy, and geology. There are four other pro1860 and is still in operation. Its course of fessors: one of English language and literature, instruction differs but little from that of ordi- and moral and intellectual philosophy; one of nary colleges, and it does not require manual botany, physiology, zoology, horticulture, and labor from the students. The Minnesota Agri- gardening; one of the mathematical sciences, cultural College was incorporated in 1858, and and one of the science and art of veterinary has a farm of 320 acres in Glen county, but has surgery; two assistants in analytical chemisnot yet erected buildings.
try, and five superintendents of the farm, nurIowa has purchased a farm, and made a be- sery garden, &c. The course of study occupies ginning toward the erection of buildings for an four years, and the student who passes succesagricultural college ; but has as yet no organ- fully the several examinations and presents a ized school. Illinois and Wisconsin have also thesis, receives on graduating the degree of taken some legislative action relative to such bachelor of scientific agriculture (B. S. A.). institutions. Oregon, at the session of her Legis- After a fifth year of study he may receive lature in Sept., 1862, incorporated a State agri- the degree of master of scientific agriculture cultural college at Eugene City, Lane county. (M. S. A.). There are partial scientific and pracThere are also collegiate institutions for in- tical courses, without degrees, for those who struction in agriculture established by private are unable to take a full course. The course enterprise near Chicago, Illinois, and near Cin- of study comprises for the first year arithmetic cinnati, Ohio.
and elementary algebra, horticulture, elementThe most complete organization for agricul. ary anatomy and physiology, physical geogratural training in this country, and the only one phy and elementary astronomy, English gramnow in operation which gives a course ap- mar and composition, elocution, history, pracproaching in thoroughness and extent the agri- tical agriculture, and the details of management cultural colleges of the continent of Europe, is on the college farm. For the second year, adthe Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, situ- vanced algebra and geometry, general chemisated on a farm of 400 acres in Centre county, try, vegetable anatomy and physiology, zoology near Bellefonte, not far from the geographical and veterinary surgery, geology, paleontology, centre of the State. This college was projected practical agriculture and horticulture, logic and in 1853, and incorporated in 1854, at first under rhetoric. The studies of the third year are: the name of the" Farmers' High School of surveying, navigation, levelling, drafting with Pennsylvania,” which was changed in 1862 to the use of instruments, analytics, trigonometry that of “ Agricultural College of Pennsylvania." and calculus, natural philosophy, chemical The State Agricultural Society appropriated analysis, veterinary surgery, entomology, agri$10,000 toward its establishment; the Legisla- cultural botany, practical agriculture and poture in 1857 granted $25,000, upon condition mology, political and social economy. The that $25,000 more were raised by private sub- fourth year's studies are analytical geometry, scription. A second sum of $25,000 was granted differential and integral calculus, engineering, upon the same terms; and in 1856 Gen. James drafting, mechanical drawing, quantitative Irvin gave 200 acres, and sold 200 more at a low chemical analysis, veterinary pharmacy, garprice to the trustees, from his estate in Centre dening, agricultural accounts and farm managecounty, for the location. Centre county raised ment, moral and intellectual philosophy. Every about $15,000 in addition for the college, and, in- student is required to perform three hours' cluding the State appropriation, there had been manual labor on the farm or in the garden, raised in 1859 about $103,000.' The buildings nursery, or orchard daily. The cost of board were, however, but partially erected, and re- and tuition, room, rent, and washing, is $100 per annum, and incidentals bring it up to about Astrachan had 13 votes, William's Favorite 7, $125. In 1862 the college had 110 students. Saps of Wine 3, and Golden Sweet 6. For
The tendency, especially in the Western autumn apples the Porter and Gravenstein States, to perform the heavy labors of gather. had each 13 votes, the Fall Pippin 8, the Faing and securing the crops by the aid of ma- meuse 4, and the
Maiden's Blush and Northern chinery, has stimulated the inventive genius of Sweet 3 each. For winter apples, the whole the people to the utmost, and every year, even 17 pronounced the Baldwin best, and of other at a period when the great interest seems to varieties, the Rhode Island Greening had 14 centre in firearms, projectiles, and other im- votes, the Roxbury Russet 11; Hubbardston plements of war, witnesses the applications at Nonsuch 7; Peck's Pleasant 6, and the Esopus the Patent Office of a host of inventors of mow- Spitzenberg and Northern Spy 3 each. The ing machines, reaping machines, machine rakes, Ladies' Sweeting was the only winter sweet aphoes, caltivators , corn shellers, threshers, drills
, ple commended. In New York the first prefsoed planters, steam ploughs, cow milkers, &c., ences in summer apples were the same as in &c. In 1861 about 400 patents were issued for New England; of 17 fruit growers all declared agricultural implements, and the number was for the Early Harvest, 16 for the Sweet Bough, not much less in 1862. Among these were 25 and 13 for the Red Astrachan. In other varifor beehires, 51 for oultivators, 26 for churns, eties the selection differed from that of the 70 for harvesting implements, 26 for corn plant- New England fruit culturists; the American ers
, 41 for ploughs, 45 for seeding machines, 19 Summer Pearmain and Early Joe receiving 4 for threshing machines, and smaller numbers votes each, and the Early Strawberry and for a great variety of other implements. At Primate 3' each. In autumn apples, in the the international exhibition at London in 1862. State of New York, the Fall Pippin stood 11 of the 85 awards to American exhibitors highest, receiving 14 votes, the Gravenstein Fere for agricultural machines and implements. next with 13 votes, the Porter 11, the Hawley One of them, the milking machine of Kershaw 4, and the Twenty Ounce and Primate each and Colvin, attracted much attention from the 3. The northern sweet autumn apples most English farmers.
were Jersey Sweeting, Autumn The culture of fruit is yearly becoming a Bough and Northern Sweet. Of winter apmore important branch of American agricule ples, New York, like New England, gave the ture, and the improvement of the qualities first preference to the Baldwin, and the secand the selection of the best varieties for ond to the Rhode Island Greening; but after cultivation, is & topic of great interest. Many these, the Esopus Spitzenberg had 11 votes, portions of the Northern and Western States the Roxbury Russet 7, Northern Spy and King possess especial adaptation to fruit crops; of Tompkins County each 6, Hubbardston Nonamong these are notably Northern New York such and Swaar each 4, Westfield Seek-no-furand Ohio, the lower peninsula of Michigan, and ther and Newtown Pippin each 3. Of sweet lova, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, for apples and winter apples, the Talman Sweeting was the pears; and New Jersey, Delaware, Southern first favorite, having 10 votes, and the Ladies' Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, Kentucky, Sweeting the next. From New Jersey, PennTennessee, and Southern Indiana, Illinois, and sylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia, 18 Missouri, for peaches. In the size and luscious- fruit growers reported. Their preferences for Dess of its fruits, California bears away the summer apples were the Early Harvest, Red palm, though it will find a formidable rival in Astrachan and American Summer Pearmain, Eastern Oregon, which is destined to be the and for sweet apples the Sweet Bough and fruit garden of the Pacific.
Golden Sweet. In autumn apples the Rambo Efforts have been made during the past year, stood highest, receiving 7 votes; next the Fall and with considerable success, to obtain opin- Pippin and Porter, each having 5 votes; and ions from large numbers of intelligent fruit the Maiden's Blush and Smokehouse each 4. growers in different sections of the country The Jersey Sweeting was the only autumn relative to the varieties of fruit best adapted to sweeting approved. In winter apples the profitable cultivation in their respective re- Baldwin was the first choice, having 9 votes, gions
. The following statement, condensed and next in order the Rhode Island Greening from the “ American Agriculturist” for May, and Smith's cider apple, having 6 votes each; 1862, gives the result of the opinions of seventy- the Roxbury Russet and Fornwalder, having seven eminent fruit growers in the different 4 votes each, and the Northern Spy and Ridge sections of the Union, in regard to the best Pippin, having 3 each. The Ladies' Sweeting Farieties of apples, sweet and sour, winter and was the only winter sweet apple named. summer, for cultivation in each section.
From Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan 16 fruit In New England reports were received from growers reported, and of them 12 gave their 17 fruit growers, all of them distinguished for suffrages for the Early Harvest, and 6 for the long experience and thorough knowledge of Red Astrachan, among summer apples; while the fruit_culture. Fourteen of these pronounced Summer Queen, and Summer Rose, the Carothe Early Harvest the best summer apple (not lina Red June, and the Benoni had each their sweet), and fifteen the Sweet Bough the best admirers. Of sweet summer apples the Sweet sweet summer apple; after these the Red Bough and Golden Sweet were the favorites.
Among autumn apples the Rambo occupied the D'Angoulême, White Doyenne, Beurre Diel, highest place, receiving 12 votes, while the Fall Eastern Beurre, Fondante D'Automne, Beurre Pippin had 10, and the
Maiden's Blush 8; other D'Anjou, Vicar of Wakefield, Winter Nelis, Ty. favorites, receiving 3 votes each, were the Porter, son, Kirtland, Doyenne, D'Ete, Seckel, Flemish Gravenstein, Lowell, Late Strawberry, and Fall Beauty, Bartlett, and Glout Morceau. Wine. Of sweet fall apples none but the Jersey In grapes, the following seems to be the verSweeting was named. Of winter apples, the dict of the best grape growers: North of lat. Yellow Bellflower received the most votes, and 43° the best wine grapes are the Delaware and next in order, having 5 votes each, were the Clinton; the best table grapes, the Delaware, Rhode Island Greening and the Belmont; then Hartford Prolific, Concord and Logan. Befollowed the Westfield Seek-no-further, Rawle's tween 40° and 43°, for wine, the Delaware, Janet, the Wine Sap, Smith's Cider, and Rome Chester, and Catawba; for the table, the DelaBeauty. The Broadwell and Talman Sweet- ware, Rebecca, Diana, and Isabella.' South of ing were the favorite sweet apples.
40°, for wine, the Catawba and Delaware; for From Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, and Utah, 9 the table, the Delaware, Catawba, Rebecca, Direports were received. In summer apples the ana, Isabella, and To Kalon. In strawberries, Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, and Carolina there is much diversity of opinion; but the preRed June were the favorites, while the Kes- vailing sentiment seems to be in favor, for famwick Codlin had 3 votes. Of sweet summer ily use, of the Triomphe de Gand, Hooker's, apples the High Top was the only one named. and Wilson's seedlings. Other varieties may In autumn apples the Rambo, as generally be better for market purposes. throughout the Middle and Western States, ALABAMA, one of the States bounded on the takes the lead, followed by the Maiden's Blush, south by the Gulf of Mexico contains, an area Fameuse, and Fall Pippin, while the Pumpkin of 50,722 square miles and in this respect is Sweet is preferred as a fall sweet apple. the fourteenth in comparative size. In popAmong winter apples the Yellow Bellflower is ulation it is the thirteenth in rank, containing the prime favorite, and after this in their or: 964,201, of whom 526,431 are whites, 2,690 der Rawle's Janet, the Wine Sap, Westfield free colored, and 435,080 slaves. Of the Seek-no-further, and Golden Russet. Talman's whites 270,190 are males; 256,081 females; of Sweeting is the only winter sweet apple named. the slaves 217,766 are males and 217,314' fe
From Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and males. In density of population it is the twenMinnesota five reports were received. Of tieth in rank, having 19.01 inhabitants to the summer apples, the Early Harvest, as every- square mile. Its ratio of increase per square where else, was first. After this the Carolina mile, during the last ten years, has been 3.80. Red June and the Red Astrachan, and for a The number of slaves manumitted during the sweet apple the Sweet Bough. Of autumn ap- ten years preceding 1860 was 101, and the ples, none save the Gravenstein was named. number of fugitives was 36. The mortality in Among winter apples, Rawle's Janet occupied the State during the year ending May 31st, the first place, and after it the Yellow Bell- 1860, was 12,760, of whom 6,753 were males, flower, Wine Sap, Fornwalder, Limber Twig, and 6,007 females. The most fatal diseases and Pryor's Red.
were consumption, croup, diarrhea, typhoid Taking the whole country, the following ap- fever, and pneumonia. The number of violent ples seem to be most generally approved and deaths was 549 males and 356 females, nearly adapted to all the varieties of climate: for all of which were accidental. Deaf and dumb, summer apples the Early Harvest, Red Astra- 235. The value produced in iron founderies chan and Sweet Bough; for autumn the Fall during the same period was $142,480; coal 10,Pippin, Porter, Gravenstein, and Rambo; for 000 bushels; value of lumber produced $2,017,winter the Baldwin and the Rhode Island 641. Flour and meal, $807,502. Spirituous Greening.
liquors distilled, 528,800 gallons. Capital investA few other varieties, more lately introduced, ed in cotton manufactures, $1,306,500; Spindles but possessing high merit, receiving only single 28,540, looms 663; annual products, $917,105. votes in these reports, are yet worthy to be Capital invested in the manufacture of woollen named. Among these are the Early Bough goods, $100,000; spindles, 1,000; looms, 20. and the Summer Paradise among the summer Annual products, $218,000. Value of leather apples; the Willis Sweeting, and the Fall produced, $340,400. The improved lands Orange among the autumn varieties ; the Van- amount to 6,462,987 acres and the unimproved dervere, an apple of admirable flavor, the 12,687,913 acres. The cash value of farms is Prentiss Russet, and the Moore and Pound $172,176,168; value of live stock, $43,061,805. Sweetings among the winter apples.
The crop of cotton amounted in 1860 to 997,A similar, though less extensive canvass in 998 bales of four hundred pounds each. Wheat, regard to pears, gives this result, the pears be- 1,222,487 bushels; rye, 73,942; corn, 32,761,ing named in the order of their value: Stand- 194; oats, 716,435; rice, 499,559 pounds; ards—Bartlett, Flemish Beauty, Lawrence, tobacco, 221,284 pounds; wool, 681,404 pounds. Beurre Clairgeau, Beurre Giffard, Rostiezer, Miles of railroads, 743; cost of construction, Winter Nelis and Beurre Superfin. Dwarfs- $17,591,188. Louise Bonne de Jersey, Rostiezer, Duchess The amount of cotton received at Mobile, the only port of the State, from the first of Septem- such a war as, in the providence of God, we may be comber to the first of December, 1860, was 362,- pelled to wage in order to vindicate the inalienable 370 bales, being nearly one third of the
right of self-government.
crop raised in the State during that year. The About the same time, the militia of the counamount received during the same period in ties of Mobile, Washington, Clark, Baldwin, 1861, was 29 bales. That which was raised Marengo, Choctaw, Sumter, Green, Perry, Wilwas kept on the plantations, as the blockade cox, Monroe, Dallas, Pickens, Tuscaloosa, Bibb, cut off all shipments. The commerce of the Shelby, Covington and Antagua were ordered State was entirely destroyed, except what took to hold themselves in readiness to be called out place with the adjoining States. In 1862 & for ninety days. The entire body of militia in very short crop was produced, owing to the these populous counties was to take the field, small breadth of land planted and the unusual and in addition sixty companies of volunteers. shortness of the yield. The corn crop was Each company was to consist of one captain, also short, bat sufficient for home consumption. one first and two second lieutenants, five serThe wheat and oat crops were an entire failure, geants, four corporals, and not less than sixtyowing to an unprecedented drought, which four nor more than one hundred privates. Each continued through twelve weeks.
company was also to be provided with at least Alabama is rich in mineral treasures. Lead six axes, four hatchets and four shovels and ten and saltpetre, which were greatly needed by days' rations, and be prepared as minute men to the Confederate Government, exist within proceed to Mobile. Each man was desired to her limits, and vigorous efforts were made to provide himself with twenty rounds of ammuprocure them. Four caves in the State were nition suitable for the gun he carried, and to take worked for nitre, which yielded in a few with him his bullet mould and powder flask. months over twelve thousand pounds, at a cost The force which the State had contributed of seventy-five cents per pound.
to the war previous to the call of President The arrival of the Federal forces under Gen. Davis for an additional quota of 12 regiments, Benjamin F. Butler at Ship Island, at the begin- was 22 regiments, and battalions, of at least ten ning of 1862, caused great alarm at Mobile. It companies of horse and as many of foot. The was supposed that an immediate attack would conscription act followed, by which every man be made upon that city. The governor, John between eighteen and thirty-five was declared Gill Shorter, on the 1st of March issued a proc- to be a soldier. This law created much dislamation to arouse the people to action. He satisfaction in the State, and some suits were requested the citizens and directed the military commenced to test its constitutionality, but the officers to burn "every lock of cotton within authorities waived the question, and sustained the State, if it became necessary to prevent it the Confederate Government. from falling into the hands of the public enemy; On the approach of the Federal force in He further urged them not to plant one seed north Alabama (see ARMY OPERATIONS), much of cotton beyond their home wants, but to put apprehension was raised that Montgomery down their lands in grain and every other kind might be captured. At the time more than and description of farm produce, and to raise fifty thousand bales of cotton were stored there. every kind of live stock, which might contrib- Orders were issued by the Government, requirute to the relief of the needy families of the ing the railroads to prepare transportation to soldiers of the army. There were at that time remove it at once when desired by the owners, eighteen hundred persons supplied with the and all public drays were impressed into sernecessary articles of food at the free market, vice to remove other portions to a warehouse which had been opened in Mobile. He further without the city, where it could be burned appealed to the people to contribute their shot without endangering the city. At the same guns to arm the soldiers, saying:
time all persons were forbid to remove the Men, brare and gallant men, responding to the call cotton from their warehouses to their private of their bleeding country, are rushing by thousands residences. Great alarm was produced throughto the field. Their cry is for arms with which to engage the foe. People of Alabama!
will you not com
out the northern part of the State by the apmit your arms into their hands? People of Alabama! proach of the force under Gen. Mitchell. It will you not send the shot guns and rifles rusting in was supposed that the Federal army would your houses, that I may place them in the hands of
cross the Tennessee river, at the extreme southyour own sons to defend your altars and your homes? ward point of that river in Alabama, near If they do not find you I beg you to find them. Let Gunter's Landing. This is within fifty miles every sheriff and judge of probate, and all State of- of Gadsden on the Coosa river, which distance ficers, civil and military, receive and forward arms. might be passed in one day, and the passage Expenses will be promptly paid by the State. Let every man do something toward arming our
of any more steamboats up to Rome might thus troops, if he cannot go to the battle field. Turn your be cut off; or the boats might be seized and stops into laboratories for the manufacture of arms and a force transported to Rome, where some most munitions of war. Send me thousands of shot guns important establishments for the manufacture and rifles, bowie knives and pikes. Send powder and of cannon and small arms were in operation. lead and ball. What you cannot afford to give, the At this point engines and cars in large numbers of the people be devoted to the one great purpose of might also have been captured and a movement war-war 'stern and unrelenting-war to the knife made to destroy the bridges of the railroad.