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it to be " the second coming of Christ.” The ing. The force of Gen. Grant was posted at command of the army was taken by Gen. Pittsburg and along both sides of the river toGrant soon after its arrival at Savannah, and it ward Crump's Landing and Savannah, but kept was advanced seven miles to Pittsburg Landing. in active service scouring the country. The Savannah was made a depot for stores, with importance of the approaching contest to the only a few troops. Here troops and supplies Confederate States could not be concealed. If were sent to Gen. Grant by Maj. Gen. Halleck, Corinth fell, Memphis would also fall, and the both from St. Louis and Cairo. There had also whole territory of the Gulf States would be been such a change in the position of the en- open to an army larger than that of the Potoemy before Gen. Buell at Nashville, that the mac. The plan adopted by Gens. Johnston and original plan was altered, and he was directed Beauregard was to strike an unexpected blow by Maj.-Ġen. Halleck to make a junction of his before the arrival of Gen. Buell's forces. On forces with those under Gen. Grant. By Gen- the 3d of April, Gen. Johnston issued the foleral War Order No. 3 of the President, dated lowing address to his soldiers : March 11th, the Departments of Kansas and Kentucky, respectively under the command of
HEADQUARTERS ARMY OR MISSISSIPPI,
CORINTII, Miss., April 3. Gen. Hunter and of Gen. Buell, were united Soldiers of the Army of the Mississippi : with that of the Missouri, under the designation I have put you in motion to offer battle to the inof the Department of the Mississippi, and of vaders of your country, with the resolution and disthis consolidated Department Gen. Halleck was
cipline and valor becoming men, fighting, as you are,
for all worth living or dying for. You can but march assigned the command.
to a decisive victory over agrarian mercenaries sent to It was the original plan of Gen. Buell to subjugate and despoil you of your liberties, property, advance with his army in several columns and honor. upon northern Alabama over the principal
Remember the precious stake involved; remember roads leading to that region from Nashville. sisters, and your children on the result. Remember
the dependence of your mothers, your wives, your With this object in view, the divisions of Gens. the fair, broad, abounding lands, the bappy homes Mitchell, Nelson and McCook left Nashville that will be desolated by your defeat. The eyes and on the same day, and by different roads. But hopes of eight million people rest upon you. You are the Confederates, having retired from Mur- expected to show yourselves worthy of your valor and freesboro and formed along the new line they noble
devotion in this war has never been exceeded in
courage, worthy of the women of the South, whose proposed to defend, rendered necessary & cor- any time. With such incentives to brave deeds, and responding change in the plan of Gen. Buell. with the trust that God is with us, your general will A direct advance upon Alabama by Gen. lead you confidently to the combat, assured of success.
(Signed) Buell's forces would not only have involved
A. S. JOHNSTON,
General Commanding. an unnecessary amount of labor and slowness of movement, owing to the destruction of The orders accompanying the address dibridges over the watercourses, and other im- vided “the Army of the Mississippi "into three pediments, but the passage of the Tennessee corps. Gen. Beauregard was proclaimed to into northern Alabama being practicable for a be in command of the whole force. The first large army at a few places only, the Confederates corps was assigned to Gen. Polk, and embraced could by means of the railroad have easily all the troops of his former command, exceptcollected a large force to dispute it at anying detached cavalry and artillery, and reserves point. This concentration of the main body detached for the defence of Fort Pillow and of the Confederate forces in localities within Madrid Bend. The second corps was assigned the contemplated field of the operations of Gen. to Gen. Bragg, and was to consist of the second Grant's army, not only gave to the latter an division of the army of the Mississippi, less opportunity to employ the whole of his force artillery and cavalry “hereafter detached.” to the best possible advantage, but enabled The third corps was assigned to Gen. HarGen. Halleck to order Gen. Buell to turn his dee, and consisted of “the Army of Kentucky.” army toward western Tennessee, to cooperate To Gen. Crittenden was assigned a command with Gen. Grant and cross the river. Thus of reserves, consisting of not less than two combined, they were regarded as certain to be brigades. superior to the Confederate army in the num- From two to three miles out on the road to ber, armament, and fighting trim of their com- Corinth from Pittsburg Landing lay the five dimands.
visions of Gen. Grant's army. The advance On the 28th of March, Gen. Buell left Nash- line was formed by three divisions : Brig.-Gen. ville and passed the advance of his divisions at Sherman's, Brig.-Gen. Prentiss's, and Maj.-Gen. Columbia. On the 28th, 29th, and 30th the McClernand's. Between these and the landing divisions of his army had crossed Duck river lay the two others, Brig.-Gen. Hurlbut’s and on a new bridge, and advanced through Maj.-Gen. Smith's, commanded in his absence Columbia, distant eighty-two miles from Savan- by Brig.-Gen. W. H. L. Wallace. On the exnah.
treme left of the line was one brigade of Gen. Meantime most active preparations had been Sherman's division, while the other brigades made to assemble a large Confederate force at were some two miles distant, forming the exCorinth, and to fortify that position, which is treme right of the advance line. To the left, about eighteen miles south of Pittsburg Land- though rather behind a portion of the line formed by Sherman's main brigades, lay Gen. camps of Gen. Smith's division, commanded McClernand's division, and between it and by W. H. L. Wallace. Thus the divisions of Gen. Sherman's brigade, on the extreme left, Prentiss, Sherman, and McClernand were drivlay Gen. Prentiss's division. No preparations en back, their camps were all in the hands of had been made for any means of defence in case the Confederates, and the whole front line, of attack, although the position was an exposed for which Hurlburt and Wallace were but the one.
reserves, was gone, excepting Stuart's brigade The information that Gen. Buell was near at of Sherman's division, on the extreme left. hand, determined Gen. Beauregard to make the The position of this brigade was along the cirattack at once. The movement of his troops cuitous road from the Landing to Hamburg, from Corinth commenced on the 3d of April. some two miles distant from the former, and Owing to the difficulties of the roads, they did near the crossing of Lick Creek. They had not reach the vicinity of the Federal forces remained isolated until after the division of until Saturday afternoon, the 5th. It was then Gen. Prentiss fell back, when the Confederates determined that the attack should be made on advanced upon them in such force as to be ir. the next morning, at the earliest hour practi- resistible in their position, and they fell back cable, and in three lines of battle: the first and a fourth of a mile and made a stand for three second extending from Owl Creek, on the Con- fourths of an hour. At this juncture a brigade federate left, to Lick Creek on their right—a of Gen. Wallace's reserve, under McArthur, was distance of about three miles-supported by the sent over to their support. They were, howthird and the reserve. The first line consisted ever, soon forced to fall back to one ridge, of Gen. Hardee's corps, augmented on his right and then to another, and finally at twelve by Gladden's brigade of Bragg's corps, deployed o'clock, badly shattered and disordered, they in line of battle, with their respective artillery retreated to the right and rear of McArthur's following immediately, and the cavalry in rear brigade to reorganize. of the wings. The second line followed the Six hours had passed since the approach of first at a distance of five hundred yards, in the the Confederates, and at this time only the same order as the first. The corps under Gen. divisions of Gens. Hurlbut and Wallace stood Polk followed the second line, at the distance between the army and destruction or surrenof about eight hundred yards, in lines of bri- der. Still all was not lost. The divisions of gades, deployed with their batteries in rear of Gens. Hurlbut and Wallace began to make a each brigade, the left wing supported by caval- most gallant stand. The brigade of the latter ry. The reserve followed closely the third line had been sent to reënforce McArthur's, and in the same order, its right wing supported by thus reunited, filled the space in the line on cavalry. These two corps constituted the re- the left made vacant by the falling back of Gen. serve, and were to support the front lines of Prentiss's division and Stuart's brigade of Gen. battle by being deployed, when required, on the Sherman's division, and thus were on the left right and left, or otherwise act according to the of Hurlbut's division. By the early breaking exigencies of the battle.
of Gen. Prentiss's line, the onset of the ConAt half past five on the morning of April 6, federates had been made to veer chiefly to the the Confederate lines and columns
were in mo- Union left. Here the contest continued stubtion. Like an Alpine avalanche they came, at- born. Four times the Confederates attempted tacking first the left of Gen. Grant, under Gen. to charge on Gen. Wallace's men. Each time Prentiss, who, with two thousand of his men, the infantry poured in rapid volleys, and the were soon made prisoners. This attack was in artillery redoubled their efforts, thus compart a surprise. Scarcely had the men time to pelling them to retreat with heavy slaughseize their weapons and form, after knowing of ter. Farther to the right, Gen. Hurlbut's dithe approach of the Confederates. Gen. Grant vision, which had taken an advanced position, himself was at Savannah at the commencement, was compelled to fall back through its camp but early reached the raging field. Gradually, to a thick wood behind. Here, with open as the Confederate line came up, the engage- fields before them, they could rake the apment had become general, and as Gen. Pren- proach of the Confederates. Three times their tiss's division fell back, abandoning their camp, heavy masses bravely charged upon the divisthey were supported by Gen. Hurlbut, and ion, and each time they were repulsed with thus for a time checked the progress of the severe loss. The troops from the driven diConfederates. At the same time the left of visions were reorganized so far as available, Gen. Sherman's division on the right was and re-sent to the field. Thus the right of forced back, and the brunt of the battle, in the Gen. Hurlbut, which was almost wholly unprocentre, fell upon Gen. McClernand's division. tected, and the weakness of which does not Desperate as was their determination, yet at appear to have been discovered by the Confedeleven o'clock this division had been pressed erates, was in a measure patched out. It had back in a line with Gen. Hurlbut. It still did been previously determined that in case of an some gallant fighting; once its right swept attack at Pittsburg Landing, the division under round and drove the Confederates for a con- Gen. L. Wallace at Crump's Landing, five miles siderable distance, but again fell back, and at below, should come up on the right and flank the last it brought up near the position of the the enemy. But no message was sent to this
division until nearly noon, and it missed the division, and Gen. Buell with his forces, part way on coming up, and did not arrive until of which took part in the battle of the afternight. The division of Gen. Hurlbut at length noon, and it was decided after the sounds of became exhausted, and fell back out of sight battle had ceased, to attack the Confederates as of their camps to a point within half a mile soon as possible after daybreak. Gen. Wallace's of the Landing. Iu consequence of losing this division was to take the right and sweep back support, the division of Gen. Wallace, thus in toward the position from which Gen. Sherman isolated advance, was compelled to fall back, had been driven during the morning, and Gen. the last to leave the field. Just at this moment Nelson was to take the extreme left. Gen. its commander was mortally wounded. Crittenden was to take a position during the
It was now half past four o'clock. The front night next to Gen. Nelson, and Gen. McCook line of the divisions had been lost since eleven with his division next to Crittenden. The space o'clock, and the reserve line was gone too. The between Gens. McCook and Wallace was to Confederates occupied the camps of every divi- be filled with the reorganized divisions of Gen. sion except Smith’s, commanded during his Grant's army. Stealthily the troops crept to sickness by Gen. Wallace, who had just been their new positions, and lay down in line of wounded. The whole army was crowded in the battle on their arms. All through the night, region of Wallace's camp, and to a circuit of one Gen. Buell's men were marching up from Sahalf to two thirds of a mile around the Land- vannah to the point opposite Pittsburg Landing. The next repulse would put it into the ing, and were ferried across, or were coming river, and there were not transports enough to ap on transports. At nine o'clock, the guncross a single division before the enemy would boats commenced a cannonade of the Confedbe upon them. Nearly half the field artillery erate position, which was kept up all night. It was lost, nearly all the camps and camp equi- produced little or no effect. page. Prisoners had been taken in great num- Gen. Beauregard thus reported his position bers.
on Sunday night: “At six o'clock P. M., we At this time a lull took place in the firing, were in possession of all encampments between the first which had occurred since sunrise. It Owl and Lick creeks but one. Nearly all of was thought that the enemy were either pre- his field artillery, about thirty flags, colors, and paring for the grand final rush that was to standards, over three thousand prisoners, incrown the day's success, or that they were cluding a division commander (Gen. Prentiss) puzzled by the last retreat, and were moving and several brigade commanders, thousands of cautiously. These few minutes were golden small arms, an immense supply of subsistence, ones for that driven and defeated army, and forage, and munitions of war, and a large amount they were improved. Col. Webster, chief of of means of transportation-all the substantial staff
, arranged the guns which he could collect fruits of a complete victory—such indeed as of those that remained, in a sort of semicircle rarely have followed the most successful bat. to protect the Union centre and left, upon tles; for never was an army so well provided which it was thought the enemy were now as that of our enemy. sure to advance. Corps of artillerists to man “ The remnant of his army had been driven them were gathered from all the batteries. in utter disorder to the immediate vicinity of Twenty-two guns were thus placed in position, Pittsburg, under the shelter of the heavy two of which were long 32's. In front was guns of his iron-clad gunboats, and we remaina victorious enemy; behind were the remnants ed undisputed masters of his well-selected, of the repulsed divisions of the army driven admirably provided cantonments, after over within half a mile of the Landing, beyond twelve hours of obstinate conflict with his which was a deep and rapid river. Gen. Wal- forces, who had been beaten from them and lace’s division at Orump's Landing had not been the contiguous covert, but only by a sustained heard from. Across the river now was seen onset of all the men we could bring into acthe first glitter of the advance of Gen. Buell, tion." but it could not be brought over in time to do The Federal forces arranged for the battle of much good. Suddenly a broad flash of light the next day were: the divisions of Gens. Nel. leaped out from the darkening woods, and the son, Crittenden, McCook, Hurlbut, McClernand, whistling leaden hail swiftly followed. The and Sherman, including in the three latter the enemy were about to make their crowning ef- shattered and disorganized commands of Prenfort for the day. Instantly the artillery re- tiss and W. H. L. Wallace, which were without plied, and as they approached nearer, the in- commanders, and the fresh division of Gen. L. fantry fired volley after volley. At this time Wallace. These divisions were arranged in the the gunboats, Lexington and Tyler, approached order above named, beginning on the left. the mouth of Lick Creek, and were able with The change produced in the position of the their guns to reach the field occupied by the Confederate forces, by the shells of the gunConfederates near the river. This was a fire in boats during the night, prevented them from their flank, which disconcerted their plans. opening the battle at daylight. Amid this terrible conflict darkness came on. At seven o'clock in the morning, Gen. Nelson The enemy had been held at bay.
on the extreme left formed his line of battle, Meantime Gen. Wallace had arrived with his and advanced, with skirmishers thrown out, for