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all that part of Florida north and east of a line extend these were abandoned as the gunboats proing from Cape Canaveral northwest to the Gulf coast, ceeded. The distance from the mouth of the thence north to the Georgia line. The headquarters Stono to Wappoo Creek is about eight miles. of this district will be at Port Royal, South Carolina, Little was done in the river by the fleet for and Brig.-Gen. H. W. Benham (who will relieve Brig. many days, except silencing some of the ConfedGen. Sherman) is appointed to command this district erate batteries, and preventing the erection of division, to be called the First Division of the Depart. ed on the march toward Charleston, of which
others in commanding points likely to be needment of the South.
2. The second, to be called the Southern District, will this was designed as a preliminary movement. comprise all of Florida and the islands adjacent, south No signs of the approaching army appeared for west to the Gulf coast, just north of Cedar Keys. The two weeks, during which several reconnoisbeadquarters of this district and the troops will remain,
sances were made by the fleet. The fire of the as at present, under command of Brig.-Gen. J. M. forts at the entrance to Wappoo Creek was Brappan.
drawn from two large rifled cannon at the 3. The third, to be called the Western District, will lower battery of seven guns. The Huron and comprise that part of Florida west of the line before Pembina were anchored within range of these described as running north from Cedar Keys to the Georgia line. The headquarters of this district will guns and within three miles of Charleston. remain at Fort Pickens, as at present, with Brig.-Gen. From their mastheads could be seen a dozen L. G. Arnold commanding.
spires, cupolas and observatories, the top masts The preparations, commenced by Gen. Sher- of two or three large ships, and nearly all the man for the capture of Fort Pulaski, were northwestern part of the city. On the 2d of pushed forward by Gen. Hunter, until the fort June the military advance with Gens. Hunter surrendered in April, as has been above de- and Benham arrived and were landed on James scribed. The subsequent movements under Island, to await the coming of Gen. Wright with Gen. Hunter consisted in reconnoissances in cavalry, artillery, and additional infantry from force toward Charleston. The southern boun- the Edisto. An important fortification which dary of the harbor of Charleston is formed by had been vacated was occupied on James Island. James Island. This island is bounded on the On the 5th the additional forces arrived, and a north by the harbor of Charleston and the series of skirmishes ensued for the next ten Ashley river, on the northwest by Wappoo days both on James and John's islands. On Creek, on the south and southwest by Stono the 13th a sharp contest occurred between sevriver, and on the east are a few small islands eral New York and Pennsylvania regiments and the ocean. Wappoo Creek connects with and the 47th Georgia. the Ashley river in the immediate rear of Meanwhile a diversion was made by a small Charleston, and by entering Stono river and Confederate force against Hilton Head, which into Wappoo Creek, gupboats can reach Charles- caused much consternation there, but effected ton. The next island south of importance is nothing further. John's Island, and the next Edisto Island. Be- It was soon manifest that the Confederate tween these and Hilton Head is a number of force had been increased, and nothing of imislands of much less size. Early in May Com. portance could be further effected by Gen. Dupont ordered the channel of Stono river to Hunter without reënforcements. As the Govbe sounded out and buoys to be placed. This ernment had none at this time to send, not was completed on the 20th of May, and the being able to reënforce the more important gunboats Unadilla, Pembina, and Ottawa crossed army in Virginia, military operations were the bar and entered the river. · Along the comparatively suspended. river, owing to its great importance as a means Up to this time movements of some im. of access to the city, a vast number of earth- portance had taken place in Missouri and Ar. work fortifications had been erected. All of kansas. Two sharp skirmishes for the num
bers engaged took place,-the one at Mt. Zion, eighteen miles southwest of Sturgeon, on the 28th of December, 1861, and the other near Fayette, on the 8th of January
of the year 1862. In the former, Brig.John's I.
Gen. Prentiss commanded, and in the lat
ter Major Torneru. They produced no Pleasant
special influence on the campaign in that
department. On the 29th of January, Gen. James I.
Earl Van Dorn took command of the Con
federate forces in the trans-Mississippi disSimonerie trict, which comprised a considerable por
tion of the State of Missouri, with his
headquarters at Little Rock. On the [Charleston Lt.IO
preceding day, the division of the Union army under the command of Col. Jeff. 0.· Davis left Marseilles for Springfield. It consisted of four regiments—the 8th
and 220 Indiana, 37th Illinois, and 9th Mis- extensive barracks at that place. The Federal souri, with two batteries, and three compa- forces had now, for some days, been subsisting nies of cavalry. The other forces immediately chiefly on provisions which they had captured. moved forward, and combined under Gen. On the 27th, Gen. Halleck sent the following Curtis. On the 11th of February this army despatch to Washington: moved forward from Lebanon, formed in three
HEADQUARTEES, St. Louis, February 27. divisions—the right under Col. Davis, the cen- Maj.-Gen. McClellan: tre under Gen. Sigel, and the left under Col.
Gen. Curtis has taken possession of Fayetteville, ArCarr. Şix miles from Springfield on the 12th, kansas, capturing a large number of prisoners, stores, a skirmish took place between the advance of The enemy burnt a part of the town before they left. this force and a body of Confederate troops, They have crossed the Boston Mountains in great conwith serious loss to both sides. During the fusion. We are now in possession of all their strong
holds. night a continuous fire was kept up between
Forty-two officers and men of the Fifth Missouri car. the pickets. On the next morning the Con- alry were poisoned at Mud Town by eating poisoned federate force had retreated, and Gen. Curtis food which the rebels left behind them. The gallant occupied Springfield without opposition. About Capt. Dolfort died, and Lieut. Col. Von Dutch and six hundred sick and a large amount of stores Capt. Lehman have suffered much, but are recovering. were left behind by the Confederate General The anger of our soldiers is very great, but they
have been restrained from retaliating upon the prisonPrice. Gen. Halleck, in command of this de- ers of war. H. W. HALLECK, Major-General. partment, sent the following despatch to the commander-in-chief , Gen. McClellan, at Wash- Missouri, under date of Feb. 25 :
Gen. Price thus reported his retreat from ington: St. Louis, February 14, 1862.
“About the latter part of January my scouts The filag of the Union floats over the court house in reported that the enemy were concentrating in Springfield. The enemy retreated after a short en. force at Rolla, and shortly thereafter they ocgagement, leaving a large amount of stores and equip- cupied Lebanon. Believing that this movements, which were captured by Gen. Curtis. Our car. ment could be for no other purpose than to atalry are in close pursuit. H. W. HALLECK, Major-General.
tack me, and knowing that my command was
inadequate for such successful resistance as the Such had been Gen. Halleck's skilful man- interests of iny army and the cause demandagement of this department, that a few days ed, I appealed to the commanders of the Conprevious he had received the following despatch federate troops in Arkansas to come to my asfrom the Secretary of War:
sistance. This, from correspondence, I was WASHINGTON, February 8, 1862. led confidently to expect, and relying upon it, Maj.-Gen. Halleck, St. Louis : Your energy and I held my position to the last moment, and, as ability received the strongest commendation of this the sequel proved, almost too long; for on Department. You have my perfect confidence, and Wednesday, February 12, my pickets were dertakings. The pressure of my engagements has driven in, and reported the enemy advancing prevented me from writing you, but I will do so fully upon me in force. No resource was now left in a day or two.
me except retreat, without hazarding all with REDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. greatly unequal numbers upon the result of one As Gen. Price retreated Gen. Curtis followed engagement. This I deemed it unwise to do. rapidly in pursuit. On the 16th his army had I commenced retreating at once. I reached advanced sixty-nine miles south of Springfield, Cassville with loss unworthy of mention in and on the 18th had crossed the Arkansas line. any respect. Here the enemy in my rear comSeveral skirmishes took place in the mountain menced a series of attacks running through defiles. The following despatch was sent to four days. Retreating and fighting all the Washington by Gen. Halleck:
way to the Cross Hollows in this State, I am St. Louis, February 18, 1862.
rejoiced to say my command, under the most To Maj.-Gen. McClellan, Washington:
exhausting fatigue, all the time with but little The flag of the Union is floating in Arkansas. Gen. rest for either man or horse, and no sleep, susCurtis has driven Price from Missouri, and is several tained themselves, and came through, repulsing miles across the Arkansas line, cutting up Price's the enemy upon every occasion with great derear, and hourly capturing prisoners and stores. The termination and gallantry. My loss does not army of the Southwest is doing its duty nobly. H. W. HALLECK, Major-General.
exceed four to six killed and some fifteen to On the 19th Gen. Price had been reënforced eighteen wounded." by Gen. McCulloch, and made a stand at Sugar
On the 1st of March, Gen. Curtis issued the Creek crossing, but was defeated after a short following address to the people of the Southengagement, and retreated. Squads of recruits
HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE SOUTHWEST, ! from Missouri, on their way to join the Con
CAMP HALLECK, ARK., March 1, 1862. federate force, were captured at this time, I have received a private communication from an inamong whom was Brig.-Gen. Edward Price, telligent writer, a citizen of Arkansas, who says: “We, son of Gen. Price. On the 26th Gen. Price had as citizens, have left our homes and firesides for the been driven from his stronghold at Cross Hol- purpose, as we supposed, of having to defend ourselves lows, leaving his sick and wounded, and such ble homes, and outrage the chastity of our wives and
against a brutal soldiery that would lay waste our humstores as he could not destroy. He burned his daughters, and place our own lives in jeopardy. We bare organized what is called Home Guard Companies, females with violence, and I have not heard of a com. partly of Union men and partly of Southern men,
all plaint of any kind. Í enjoin on the troops kindness, of whom are anxious to return to their homes. We protection, and support for women and children. Í are happy to find that you and your men are not com- shall, to the best of my ability, maintain our country's posed of that class of persons commonly called jayhawk. flag in Arkansas, and continue to make relentless war ers, who do not regard the rights of citizens and prop- on its foes, but shall rejoice to see the restoration of erty, but confine the war to its legitimate object.' peace in all the States and Territories of our country
The falsehoods circulated concerning us have driven --that peace which we formerly enjoyed and earnestly thousands from their homes, and I take the liberty of desire; and I implore for each and all of us that ultiresponding publicly to the sentiments expressed by the mate, eternal peace "which the world cannot give or writer, because these falsehoods have involved the take away." I have the honor to be, whole community in the troubles which he seeks to Very respectfully, your obedient servant, mitigate.
SAMUEL R. CURTIS, The only legitimate object of the war is peace, and Brig.-Gen. Commanding Army of the Southwest. the writer only does me justice when he says I adbere to this legitimate object. Peaceable citizens shall be On reaching Arkansas the forces of Gen. protected as far as possible. I act under strict orders Price were rapidly reënforced by regiments of Maj.-Gen. Halleck. The flight of our foes from their camps, and the imitation of their conduct by the which had been stationed in Arkansas and the citizens, in Heeing
from their homes, leaving their ef- Indian Territory. Knowing this fact, Gen. fects abandoned as it were for the victors, have much Curtis expected an attack would soon be made embarrassed me in my efforts to preserve discipline in upon him. He therefore selected Sugar Creek, my command, as these circumstances offered extraordinary temptations.
as the strongest of several strong places taken The burning of farms and fields of grain in Missouri, from the enemy, to make a stand against any and extensive barracks and valuable mills in Arkansas and all odds. The position of Gen. Curtis's by the enemy, has induced some resentments on the force on the 6th of March was as follows: part of my troops, which I have severely punished. The first and second divisions, under Gens. Necessary supplies for my command could not keep up with my rapid movements, and peaceable citizens Sigel and Asboth, were four miles southwest not being at home to sell them to my quartermasters, of Bentonville under general orders to move I am compelled to take them without purchase, make round to Sugar Creek about fourteen miles ing settlement difficult and doubtful; occasioning ir. east. The third division, under Col. Jeff. C. regularities which I have always labored to counteract. Davis
, had moved to take position at Sugar turn home, and check the clandestine, stealthy warfare Creek, under orders to make some preparatory that is carried on under the cover and cloak of peace- arrangements and examinations for a stand able citizens, much of the havoc of war will be avoided, against the enemy. The fourth division was at and many poor families can be protected from distress
Cross Hollows under command of Col. E. A. and misery. I have followed the war-path through the entire State of Missouri, have seen the havoc and Carr, about twelve miles from Sugar Creek on devastation surrounding it, and I deplore the prospect the main telegraph road from Springfield to of these disasters in the virgin soil of Arkansas. Fayetteville. The number of his force is stated
Armed men, in the garb of citizens, are concealed by Gen. Curtis to have been not more than by citizens, and the
unfortunate condition of Missouri 10,500 cavalry and infantry with forty-nine plicity of yourselves in the struggle. If you do not pieces of artillery. The following were the discriminate by requiring soldiers to wear some dis- forces engaged in the battle of Pea Ridge: 1st tinctive badge, you must not complain if we cannot division, under command of Col. Osterhans,– discriminate. There is no honor, no glory, no good that can be talion of 3d, two battalions of Benton Hussars
36th Illinois, 12th Missouri, 17th Missouri, bathomes, for we do not wish to molest them if you are cavalry, one battalion 39th Illinois cavalry, batpeaceably disposed. We only wish to put down rebel- teries A and B, twelve guns. A brigade, confion by making war against those in arms, their aiders sisting of the 25th and 44th Illinois, was comand a bettors. We come to vindicate the Constitution, manded by Col. Coler. Another brigade was to preserve and perpetuate civil and religious liberty, under a flag that was embalmed in the blood of our
commanded by Col. Greusel. Revolutionary fathers. Under that flag we have lived The second division, commanded by Brig.in peace and prosperity until the
flag of rebellion in- Gen. Asboth, consisted of the 2d Missouri, Col. volved us in the horrors of civil war.
Schæfer; 2d 'Ohio battery, six guns, Lieut. We have restored the Stars and Stripes to north. Chapman ; 15th Missouri, Col. Joliet; 6th Misrejoice to see the emblem of their former glory, and souri cavalry, Col. Wright; light battery of hope for a restoration of the peace and happiness they six guns, Capt. Elbert; battalion 4th Missouri have enjoyed under its folds. A surrender to such a cavalry, Maj. Messaur. These two divisions flag is ooly a return to your natural allegiance, and is more honorable than to persist in a rebellion that sur
were commanded by Gen. Sigel. rendered to the national power at Forts Henry and
The third division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Donelson, at Nashville and at Roanoke, and throughout Jeff. O. Davis, consisted of 2 brigades: the 1st, the most powerful Southern States. Why then shall commanded by Ool. Barton, was composed of the West 'be devastated to prolong a struggle which the 8th, 18th and 220 Indiana, and an Indiana the States of Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, North battery of six guns. The 2d brigade, command
Disband your companies; surrender your arms; for ed by Col. White, was composed of the 37th Illiin all instances where men in arms have voluntarily nois, 9th Missouri, 1st Missouri cavalry, and a surrendered and taken the oath of allegiance to our battery of four guns. common country, they have been discharged. No pris. opers have, to my knowledge, been shot or hung, or
The fourth division, commanded by Col. Carr, cruelly treated by us.
consisted of 2 brigades; the 1st, commanded by I know of no instance where my troops have treated Col. Dodge, was composed of the 4th Iowa, 35th Illinois, and an Iowa battery. The 2d brigade, enforcements from Gen. Curtis arrived. What commanded by Col. Vandever, consisted of the made this march a more difficult achievement, 9th Iowa, 25th Missouri, 3d Illinois cavalry, and was the condition of the roads, which were in a battery. There were also two battalions of many places very narrow and badly cut up. the Iowa 3d cavalry and a mountain howitzer This movement brought Gen. Sigel's division battery of four guns. A considerable number of to the west end of Pea Ridge, where he formed sick soldiers belonging to many of these regi- a junction with Gen. Davis and Col. Carr. ments had been left at Rolla and Lebanon. On this day Gen. Curtis had been engaged
On the 5th of March, a cold, blustering day, in diligently preparing earthwork defences snow having fallen so as to cover the ground, and cutting timber to check the progress as Gen. Curtis was engaged in writing, not ap- of the enemy along the Fayetteville road, prehending an immediate attack, he was in- where they were confidently expected by him. formed by scouts and fugitive citizens that the But during the day and the ensuing night Gen. enemy were rapidly approaching to give battle. Van Dorn moved his entire army around the His cavalry would be at Elm Springs, twelve west side of Gen. Curtis's army, so that Gen. miles distant, that night, and his infantry had Price occupied the Fayetteville road north of then passed Fayetteville. Couriers were im- Gen. Curtis's camp, while Gens. McCulloch and mediately sent to Gen. Sigel and Col. Carr to McIntosh lay north of Gen. Sigel. Thus the move with their divisions to Sugar Creek. Confederate forces fronted south, and the divi
The Confederate forces were under the com- sion under Gen. Price formed their left wing. mand of Gen. Van Dorn, who had arrived at The distance apart of the main bodies of the their camp on the 2d of March. They were stat- two wings of each army was nearly three miles, ed to be composed of between twenty-five and thus forming in fact four distinct armies
. thirty thousand men, as follows: Missouri troops Gens. Van Dorn and Price were opposed to under Brig.-Gen. Price; Arkansas, Louisiana, Gen. Curtis, who had with him Gen. Davis and and Texan troops under Brig.-Gen. McCulloch; Cols. Carr and Asboth, leaving one division Choctaw, Cherokee, and Chickasaw Indians un- to Gen. Sigel opposed to Gens. McCulloch der Brig.-Gen. Pike.
and McIntosh. Gen. Curtis was thus comGen. Sigel
, upon receiving the orders of pelled to make a change of front, and formed Gen. Curtis to march to Sugar Creek, and be- it almost two miles further north and resting coming aware of the dangerous position of his on the brow of a range of hills fronting command, immediately ordered Col. Schæfer north, called Pea Ridge. In this position the to break up his camp, and send the cavalry enemy occupied the line of retreat for Gen. company to Osage Springs to cover his right Curtis, if defeated. The battle commenced on flank and to march with his regiment to Ben- the 7th on the right of Gen. Curtis's column, tonville. All the other troops he ordered to and raged furiously during the entire day. The be prepared to march at two o'clock on the brunt of it was borne by Col. Carr's division. next morning. Commencing his march in the The Confederate forces, owing to their superior morning, he reached Bentonville, and, retaining numbers, the numerous and deep ravines and a small force to set as a rear guard, he sent his the thick brush which covered the hills, suctrain forward. At ten o'clock it was reported ceeded in driving the Union right from the that large masses of troops, consisting of in- ground occupied in the morning, with a severe fantry and cavalry, were moving from all sides loss on both sides. They encamped on the toward the front and both flanks of the rear battle ground during the night, and the right guard at Bentonville. By a mistake a part of wing of Gen. Curtis fell back nearly a mile. this force designed to act as rear guard had The field occupied by this portion of both gone forward, leaving about six hundred men armies during the day did not exceed three with five pieces of the light battery. These fourths of a mile in diameter. troops were ordered by Gen. Sigel to march On the left wing Gen. McCulloch commenced in the following order: two companies of the in the morning by moving his force to the south 12th Missouri regiment at the head of the and east, evidently intending to form a junccolumn deployed on the right and left as tion with Gens. Van Dorn and Price. Gen. skirmishers, followed by the light battery; oneSigel, perceiving this movement and the effect company of the same regiment on the right it would have toward surrounding the Federal and one on the left of the pieces, marching by force, sent forward three pieces of light artilthe flank, and prepared to fire by ranks tolery, with a supporting force of cavalry, to take the right and left, the remainder of the regi- a commanding position and delay the movement being behind the pieces; two companies ment of the enemy until the infantry could be of cavalry to support the infantry on the right brought into proper position for an attack. and left, and the rest of the cavalry with one Hardly had the artillery obtained their position piece of artillery following in the rear. Thus and opened fire, when an overwhelming force the troops advanced slowly in this formation, of the enemy's cavalry came down upon them, modified from time to time according to cir- scattering the cavalry and capturing the arcumstances, fighting and repelling the enemy in tillery. This terrible onslaught of the enemy front, on the flanks, and rear, whenever be stood allowed their infantry to reach unmolested the or attacked, for five hours and a half, when re- cover of a dense wood. On the west of this
wood was a large open field. Here and in the charge the enemy in the woods was given. surrounding wood a protracted struggle ensued Then the infantry rising up pressed forward between Gen. McCulloch and the forces of into the dense brush, where they were met by a Col. Osterhaus. But the arrival of Gen. Davis's terrible volley, which was fiercely returned; force, as a reēnforcement, so strengthened Gen. volley followed volley, still the line pushed forSigel that the enemy were finally routed and ward until more open ground was obtained, driven in all directions. At the same time when the Confederate force broke in confuGens. McCulloch and McIntosh and a number sion. As Gen. Sigel advanced, Gen. Curtis of the Confederate officers were killed.
also ordered the centre and right wing forward. Thus the right wing of Gen. Curtis was de- The right wing turned the left of the enemy feated, and his left was victorious. The dis- and cross-fired into his centre. This placed cipline of the right wing, however, was such as him in the arc of a circle. The charge was to keep the troops completely together, while then ordered throughout the whole line, which the right wing of the enemy, which was de- utterly routed their forces as above stated, feated, was greatly disorganized in consequence and compelled them to retire in complete conof their loss of otficers and lack of discipline. fusion, but rather safely through the deep and During the night all the Confederate forces almost impassable defiles of Cross Timbers. formed a junction on the ground held by their Gen. Sigel followed toward Keetsville, and the left wing, which was a strong position, and cavalry continued the pursuit still further. they felt confident of a complete victory on The Union loss in this battle was 212 killed, the next day. On the Federal side the pros- 926 wounded, and 124 missing. The Confedpect was gloomy. The night was too cold to erate killed and wounded was larger in numsleep without fires, and their position and near- bers, with a loss of nearly 1000 prisoners. ness to the enemy would not allow fires along Among their killed were Gens. McCulloch and the advance lines. The men were exhausted McIntosh. by two days' fighting and the loss of sleep. On the 9th Gen. Van Dorn, under a flag of The enemy's forces, in far superior numbers, truce, requested permission to bury his dead, . held the only road for their retreat, and nearly which was readily granted. In the reply to a thousand of their companions were dead or this request Gen. Curtis said: “The General wounded. No alternative was presented to regrets that we find on the battle-field, conthem but to conquer or be destroyed.
trary to civilized warfare, many of the Federal With the rising sun the battle commenced. dead, who were tomahawked, scalped, and their Col. Carr's division had been reěnforced by a bodies shamefully mangled, and expresses the large part of that of Gen. Davis, thus ena. hope that this important struggle may not debling the right barely to hold its position. Gen. generate to a savage warfare." Sigel began to form his line of battle by chang- To this statement, Gen. Van Dorn replied: ing his front so as to face the right flank of the “He hopes you have been misinformed with enemy's position. For this purpose he first regard to this matter, the Indians who formed ordered the 25th Illinois, Col. Coler, to take a part of his forces having for many years been position along a fence in open view of the ene- regarded as civilized people. He will
, howmy's batteries, which at once opened fire upon ever, most cordially unite with you in repressthe regiment. He next ordered a battery of six ing the horrors of this unnatural war; and that guns, partly rifled twelve-pounders, into a line you may coöperate with him to this end more one hundred paces in the rear of the 25th in- effectually, he desires me to inform you fantry, on a rise of ground. The 15th Missouri that many of our men who surrendered themthen formed into a line with the 25th Illinois selves prisoners of war, were reported to him on their left, and another battery of guns was as having been murdered in cold blood by their similarly disposed a short distance behind them. captors, who were alleged to be Germans. Thus more infantry with batteries in their rear The general commanding feels sure that you was placed until about thirty pieces of artillery, will do your part, as he will, in preventing each about fifteen or twenty paces from the such atrocities in future, and that the perpeother, were in continuous line, the infantry in trators of them will be brought to justice, front lying down. Each piece opened fire as it whether German or Choctaw." came in position, and the fire was so directed as Gen. Curtis in answer further said: "I may to silence battery after battery of the enemy. say, the Germans charge the same against your
For two hours the Confederate forces stood soldiers. I enclose' a copy of a letter from unshaken before that fire, with their crowded Gen. Sigel, addressed to me before the receipt ranks decimated and their horses shot at their of yours, in which the subject is referred to. guns. One by one their pieces ceased to reply, As dead men tell no tales, it is not easy to see Then onward crept the infantry and onward how these charges may be proven, and the came the guns of Gen. Sigel. The range be- General hopes they are mere .camp stories,' came shorter and shorter. No charge of the en- having little or no foundation. The Germans emy could face those batteries or venture on that in the army have taken and turned over many compact line of bayonets. They turned and prisoners, and the General has not before heard fled. Again the Union line was advanced with murder charged against them; on the contrary, a partial change of front, when an order to they have seemed peculiarly anxious to exhibit