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The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the organizations of the armies North and South, their officers, and the number and condition of the troops; the important measures of the Federal and Confederate Congresses ; the acts and resolutions of State Legislatures and State political organizations; the votes of the citizens at the elections; the messages of the Presidents of the United and seceded States; the orders and instructions of cabinet officers and of commanding generals; the commercial regulations relating to trade with ports of the Southern States; the loans, taxes, and currency measures and debts of the Federal and Confederate Gover ments; their intercourse with foreign nations, and the difficult questions that occurred; the enforcement of martial law, and the exchange of prisoners; thus comprising all important occurrences in the history of the nation.
The interesting events relating to foreign nations, as above stated, are presented with such fulness as to enable the reader to comprehend their causes, their influence upon the welfare of the people, and their probable results.
The progress of mechanical industry is shown in the active construction of iron-clad vessels ; in the display at the British Industrial Exhibition ; in the many interesting inventions presented at the Patent Office; in the repairs of the steamer Great Eastern, and some other achievements.
The developments in natural science have not been overlooked. In some branches these have been fully brought up, and notice has been taken of various questions raised among scientific men, and the views presented in their discussions.
The continued prosperity of the commerce of the country, and its kindred pursuits, since the previous year, and the surprising resources of the people, as shown in the vast financial operations of the Government, forming a portion of current history of more than usual interest, are explained with ample details.
The geographical explorations were active in all quarters, and those of archæology produced some surprising results. The record of literature was hardly less important than in former years, although the number of works issued was somewhat reduced.
The present condition of the principal religious denominations of the United States is so presented as to show their branches, membership, numbers, views on civil affairs, and the spread of their distinctive opinions among the nations of the earth.
The mortality of the year was unusually large, and the number of distinguished men who closed their career was far greater than usual. Their services have been fully recognized.
AFRICA, one of the six grand divisions of Zambezi to the Victoria Falls, and exploring & the earth's surface, comprises the southwest- portion of the course of the Shire and the Rovenn portion of the eastern continent. Its po- uma as well as the lakes Nyassa and Nyanja. litical divisions are, on the north, the Empire of East of Mozambique, and separated from it by Morocco; the French province of Algeria; the the Mozambique channel, is the great and poppashaliks of Tunis, Tripoli, and Barca, and the ulous island of Madagascar. oasis.of Fezzan, dependencies of the Turkish South Africa is composed of several states, empire; Egypt, a viceroyalty of the Turkish part of them British colonies, and part in some empire, though in a state of quasi-independ- sense dependencies of these. The Cape Colony ency. On the east, Nubia and Kordofan, de- is the oldest of these, and occupies the southern pendencies of Egypt; Abyssinia, a collection of portion of the continent; above it, on the S. E., petty states under savage chieftains, a consid- are Caffraria, Natal, and the Zulu country; and erable number of which have recently become lying west of these and separated from them subject to the sway of the bold and capable by the Kalamba mountains, the Orange river, Theodore, the chief of Amhara, who has taken and Transvaal Republics, composed mostly of the title of “King of the Kings of Ethiopia;" the Dutch settlers and their Hottentot or Bechucountries bordering on the gulf of Aden and ana dependents. On the west coast, north of the Indian Ocean, and stretching south westward the Orange river, and extending about 300 for more than a thousand miles; these are in- miles into the interior, is the Hottentot counhabited by tribes of savages known by the try, and lying between this and the Transvaal names of Somauli, Wakuafi, Wanika, Galla, &c. Republics, the land of the Bechuanas. &c. The names of the principal countries are: North of the Hottentot country, stretching Adel, Ajan, Berbera, Žanguebar (which is & northward for more than 1,500 miles, is the collection of several states), and Mozambique, region long known as Lower Guinea, but really the coast of which is held by the Portuguese. composed of numerous chieftaincies and some At different points of this long stretch of coast Portuguese colonies. These chieftaincies, bethe Arabs have established themselves, and ginning with the most southern, are Cimbebas have reduced the native tribes to subjection, and the country of the Damaras, Benguela, Anthough others, as the Gallas, defy their author- gola a Portuguese colony, Congo, Loango, the ity and maintain an ascendency over the tribes region of the Gabün, country of the Calbongas, of the interior. Of these interior tribes or and Biafra. Between this and the eastern their country little is known, the many attempts coast described above, lies a vast tract, varying made by missionaries and explorers to pene- in width from ten to twenty-eight degrees of trate to any considerable distance from the longitude, and extending from nearly ten decoast, having been, in most instances, repulsed grees above to sixteen degrees below the equaby the savages, often with the loss of the lives tor, almost wholly unexplored by Europeans. of the explorers. On the Mozambique coast Along the eastern portion of it Dr. Livingstone the Portuguese have maintained for many years has made some discoveries, but much of this an extended commerce, mainly in ivory and has only been penetrated by him and his adslaves. Dr. Livingstone has penetrated into the venturous coadjutors. interior through this country, ascending the From the gulf of Biafra the continent turns
sharply westward, and the coast line of Upper tinue a garrison till the fulfilment of the Guinea faces the south. This region, long known treaty, and made preparations for its permaas the slave coast, is occupied by several native nent occupation. Unwilling to relinquish this states, the largest being the Kingdom of Da- important post, Sidi Mohammed sent his brother homey, the king of which has attained an evil Muley-el-Abbas, to treat with the Spanish notoriety by the vast number of human sacri. Government for more favorable terms. He fices immolated on his altars. North of this, succeeded in negotiating a new treaty, in and stretching in a belt of variable width across which the payment of three million douros the continent to the confines of Nubia and within 5 months is guaranteed, and the payKordofan, is that region known formerly as ment of the remainder of the indemnity made Soudan and Nigritia, composed of numerous a lien on the customs receipts, for the prompt and constantly changing states, part of them payment of which the Queen of Spain is auMohammedan and part pagan. The most im- thorized to appoint an agent to receive a porportant of these, beginning in the east, are Dar- tion of the duties at each of the five ports of fur, Waday, Bergoo, Kanem, Bornou, Adamawa, the empire. The Spaniards are to evacuate Houssa, Timbuctoo, Yoruba, and Bambarra. Tetuan when the first instalment of the indem
Where the western coast of Africa begins nity is paid, the territory ceded by the former again to turn-northward, is the little Republic treaty being placed under their control prior to of Liberia, and northwest of it the British the evacuation. The Spanish missionaries are to colony of Sierra Leone, both settled in great be allowed to found a Mission House at Tetuan, part by free negroes, either from the United and to be protected in their persons, their asyStates or Great Britain, or recaptured Africans lums, and the exercise of their worship throughtaken from slave ships, or, as in the case of a out the empire. In January, 1862, a convenportion of the inhabitants of Liberia, native tion was concluded between the Sultan of tribes who have become civilized. Lying be- Morocco and the British Government, by tween this and the Great Desert is the country virtue of which the sultan obtained a loan of of Senegambia named from its two great rivers, about half a million pounds sterling, at 5 per inhabited by several tribes of negroes and cent., at a discount of 17 per cent., reimbursable mixed races. France has a colony, St. Louis, from the half of the revenue of the ports, at the at the mouth of the Senegal, and England a set- rate of £38,000 per annum, to be collected by tlement, Bathurst, at the mouth of the Gambia English officers resident at those ports. The Between this country and the Empire of Mo- amount of this loan was to be paid over to rocco, and extending eastward to the confines Spain as indemnity. This gives the British of Egypt and Nubia, with but here and there Government an influence in Morocco, which, a fertile oasis and grove of palms amid its vast with her possession of Gibraltar, enables her to wastes of sand, stretches the Great Desert of hold the keys of the Mediterranean. Sahara. Its oases are inhabited by tribes of In Egypt, Mohammed Said Pasha, viceroy Arab or half Arab origin, the Tuaregs, the since 1854, and the wisest and most judicious Tibboos, &c., and its deserts are traversed by ruler of Egypt in modern times, died in Jancaravans and companies of Arab Bedouins, the uary, 1863. He had released the fellahs or exact counterparts of their brethren of Arabia. cultivators of the soil, from the condition of
In another place (see GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLO- serfs in which he found them, abolished the RATIONS) will be found the results obtained, system of monopolies by which the government during 1862, by the numerous exploring parties was the sole purchaser and vender of Egyptian who have penetrated into the unknown interior products, and allowed the farmer to sell his of this vast continent-peninsula. In the present crops in any market he chose ; substituted a article it is proposed to notice briefly a few of tax of 8 per cent. of the income, payable in the important political events of the past year money, for the old tax of one tenth, payable in in the countries best known to the civilized kind, abrogated all internal excises, bestowed world.
on the fellah the liberty of changing his resiIn Morocco the treaty of peace with Spain, dence at will, and allowed the judges of the of April 26, 1860 (sce New AMERICAN CYCLO- provinces and districts to be elected by the peoPÆDIA, vol. xi, art. Morocco), by which the ple, as a measure of judicial reform. He had Emperor Sidi Mohammed agreed to pay to also made great reforms in the conscription, Spain an indemnity of 20,000,000 piastres organization, and discipline of the army. The (about $4,000,000, and to cede a district of ter- finances, which, on his accession to the viceritory around Melilla, valued at $37,500,000, royalty, were in a deplorable state, are now in a had remained unfulfilled up to the summer of better condition than those of any other oriental 1861. The indemnity had not been paid, and country. The debt is only 32 millions of dolthe Kabyles, or inhabitants of Rif, refused to lars, the annual receipts about 8 millions of obey the mandate of the emperor, and sur- dollars beyond the ordinary expenditure, and the render their lands; and throughout Morocco, bonds of the government at par, with 8 per there were indications of insurrection, which cent. interest, while the ordinary and legal inthe emperor lacked the power to suppress. terest of the country is 10 per cent. Spain meantime held the important city of There is undoubtedly a dark side to this picTetuan in which she was authorized to con- ture. Bribery, corruption, and peculation, which seem inseparable from all oriental gov- three days. Theodore is now, without disernments, existed here also; and contractors pute, master of the whole of Abyssinia, and were continually robbing the government. The seems disposed to cultivate friendly relations worst feature in the administration of Said and to introduce civilization and educaPasha was his neglect and partial suppression tion into his domains. of the schools of the viceroyalty, established Proceeding down the eastern coast of Africa, with so much labor by his grandfather Mehemet we find the next point of interest in the island of Ali. His successor, Ismail Pasha, who is a Madagascar. Ranavalona, Queen of the Hovas, warm advocate of education, will unquestion- the most considerable native tribe of the island, ably remedy this great defect of his adminis- and a most bitter and ferocious persecutor of tration. In 1862 Said Pasha was obliged to the Christian missionaries and native converts resort to another loan of 8 millions of dollars, among the Hovas, died on the 16th of August, which was negotiated at 82 per cent. for 7 per 1861, at her capital, Tananarive. Her only cent. thirty years' bonds. The present debt of son, on her decease, ascended the throne, with the viceroyalty is $33,250,000, of which about the title of Radama II, king of Madagascar. $17,000,000 is for bonds issued to the Company He had been, during his mother's lifetime, of the Canal of Suez. The imports of the friendly to the missionaries and the native country for 1861 were $13,396,308, and its ex- Christians, and was regarded as himself a conports $17,155,491, from the port of Alexandria vert. On his accession to the throne he asalone, to which is to be added a small sam sured the delegations of the English and French from other ports. In October, 1861, Egypt was Governments of his determination to maintain visited by a terrible flood; the Nile breaking religious liberty, and the extension of comthrough the levees or dikes, which confined it merce, agriculture, and the arts and sciences in Upper Egypt, laid almost the whole of Lower among his people. He caused the productions Egypt under water, destroying the crops of of Madagascar to be represented in the Intermaize and millet, and greatly injuring the cot- national Exhibition of 1862 in London, and has ton and sugar crops. The railroads and tele- adopted as his intimate friend and counsellor graph lines were also undermined and torn up, M. Lambert, a French gentleman, with whom and a vast number of dwellings and animals he had been on terms of friendship before his destroyed. To the great joy of the people the accession to the throne. Great jealousy is maniflood subsided rapidly, and despite its destruc- fested by the French and English Governments tiveness of property, greatly enhanced the yield of the influence exerted by one or the other and value of the crop of 1862.
over the young king, partly from the effect The ship canal, intended to unite the Medi- which the preponderating sway of one or the terranean and the Red Sea, by cutting through other might have on the colonies which each the Isthmus of Suez from Port Said to Suez, government possesses in the Indian Ocean, and projected by M. Ferdinand Lesseps, and carried partly from the fact that the one is the champion forward by the French, Egyptian, and Turkish of Protestantism and the other of Catholicism Governments, is approaching completion. At in the East. At the latest accounts the French the annual meeting of the canal company in seemed to be gaining the advantage. Radama May, 1862, M. Lesseps stated that it would un- II was crowned in August, 1862. doubtedly be opened to canal-boat navigation South of Mozambique, in the northern part by May, 1863, and to ships by the spring of of the Zulu country and extending in the in1866. The work has been one of great dif- terior toward the Zambezi river, a series of ficulty; it was found necessary to construct a German missionary colonies have been planted fresh-water canal to connect with the Nile, as by the exertions of Pastor Harms of Hermannswell as the ship canal, and to build piers, jet- burg in Hanover. The work was commenced ties, and breakwaters to protect shipping enter. in 1854. About 200 colonists have gone out, ing the canal from either sea; and in order to and they have ten or twelve stations, and have secure the opening of one of the ancient canals, collected very considerable bodies of natives, the company were under the necessity of pur- who have become partially civilized. The chasing the entire estate of Waday, the property movement is one of great promise. of El-Hamy Pasha, at a cost of about $400,000. Passing around the Cape of Good Hope and The total expenditure to May, 1862, had been skirting the coast of Lower Guinea, where about $42,000,000, and nearly $30,000,000 there have been no occurrences of political would probably be required to complete it. or social interest to call for notice, the Bight Twenty-six thousand men were employed on of Benin is worthy of attention, where, in the work, and M. Lesseps hoped to have 35,000 August, 1861, the English Government took to 40,000 employed during the next year. possession of the kingdom of Lagos, and in
In Abyssinia, Theodore, “ King of the Kings 1862 established themselves at Whydah, the of Ethiopia" (see New American OYOLOPÆDIA, two most important centres of the slave trade. vol. xv, art. THEODORUS), has completely sub- This occupation not only promises to accomdned Tigré, the most important of the Abys- plish more than any previous measure for the sinian States opposed to him, and having cut off overthrow of the slave trade, but opens a ready the right hand and right foot of Négoussrèh, its route of communication with Abbeokuta and king, that chiet survived the mutilation but the Yoruba country in the interior, a region admirably adapted for the culture of cotton area was planted than the previous year, taking and the production of palm and cocoa oils. the whole country together, and in some of the
The Republic of Liberia has made material largest wheat growing States the excess of area progress within the past two years. The rec- planted was much more than this; thus, Wisognition of the republic by the United States consin had 67 per cent. more area than in 1861, Government and the appointment of a commis- Michigan 35 per cent., Ohio 18.7 per cent., sioner to represent it there, have been attended while Illinois had only 14 per cent. The yield with beneficial results. The Republic has en- of winter wheat was 26 per cent. above that tered with great zeal upon the culture of cot- of 1861. Of spring wheat the increased area ton, coffee, sugar, and rice, and the quality of sown was about 23
per cent., but the crop was its productions, which are already exported in about 10 per cent. below the average, and perconsiderable quantities to England and the haps a little more than that below the crop of United States, is very superior. Within the 1861. Including both kinds of wheat the yield past year a college fairly endowed, and with a was probably about equal to that of 1861, and course of instruction equal to that in most of fully 10 per cent. above the average of the past the colleges in the United States, has been five years. The crop of Indian corn was about opened in Monrovia. Its president and pro- equal to that of 1861, and 22 per cent. above the fessors are all men of color, and possess suit- average of the past five years. The area plantable qualifications for their several chairs. ed was no greater than in 1861. Oats were an
The culture of cotton has received a remark- average crop; a larger area having been sown, able impulse throughout Africa. Egypt ex- but the yield to the acre being about one tenth ported in 1862 a much larger quantity than in less. The hay crop was slightly above the any previous year; Liberia and Sierra Leone average, but the great demand for the army sent some very excellent long stapled cotton kept the price high, $30 per ton being the into market; the Yorubas and the tribes dwell- average price paid by Government in the wining on the banks of the Quorra contributed a ter of 1862–3. Potatoes were slightly above considerable quantity; some thousands of bales the average. Fruits of all kinds were remarkwere sent from Kaffraria and the Cape Colony, ably abundant, the apple crop being fully donand Dr. Livingstone, in his ascent of the Shue ble that of ordinary years, and the peach crop and Rovuma, found its cultivation already large nearly quadruple. Beans were largely above and rapidly increasing. In the future, Africa the average in their yield, as were also hops, promises to be a powerful rival to the United tobacco, and clover seed. Sorghum was plantStates for the cotton trade of the world. ed in much larger quantities than ever before,
AGRICULTURE. A condition of war is not and the production of the syrup and sugar usually considered favorable to agricultural nearly doubled. But for the tendency of the progress; but except in those States which have seed to deteriorate by admixture with ordiformed the actual battle ground of the past nary broom corn, &c., the yield would have year, the agricultural products of 1862 have been still greater.* been unusnally large and profitable. In the The autumn of 1862 developed the fact that Southern States the area devoted to the culture there was again a great deficiency in the cereal of cotton has been greatly diminished; corn crops of Western Europe, and that the export and other cereals having taken its place in ex- demand for American grains and flour would be tensive districts, while many of the best cot. nearly equal to that of the preceding year. The ton lands have been trampled by contending following table shows the exports of cereals armies.
from two of the principal ports in 1861 and In the Northern States the crops of all de- 1862, as well as the receipts at Chicago, the scriptions have been abundant. The great ex- largest of the lake ports, and at Boston. A port demand for the cereals in 1861, together large amount of grain was sent to Europe by with the demand for army consumption, led to way of the Welland canal and the St. Lawrence the planting of a much greater breadth than river; but the amount, as compared with that usual; in winter wheat about 18 per cent. more of the previous year, is not yet ascertainable.
FLOUR AND GRAINS.
Exported, 1861. Exported, 1862. Exported, 1861. Exported, 1862. Received, 1861. Received, 1862. Received, 1861.
Flour, bbls.. 8,110,846 2.961.518 862,552 464,291 1,483,999 1,365,338 903,885 1,097,086 Wheat, bash. 28,898,314 25,564,755 2,054,988 1,946,673 29,388 68,015 17,539,909 18,187,588 Corn,
12,889,850 12,020.848 893,285+ 778,5251 1,988,000 1,889,021 26,548.288 31,145,721 1,000,405 1,104,849
83,156 89,978 479,005 976,759 Barley,
417,129 800,476 Oats, 160,825 210,669
1,047,345 1,168,991 The exports of grain and flour, it will be equal to those of 1861, but since the 1st of seen by the above table, in 1862 were not quite Jan. 1863, they have been much larger than in
the same period of 1862, so that the total exThese crop statistics have been compiled from the “Crop port of the crop of 1862. will probably fully Reports” of the “ American Agriculturist," to which our equal that of 1861; the high rate of exchange acknowledgments are tendered.
has contributed materially to this result. The + Besides 81,672 barrels corn meal. Besides 50,149 barrels corn meal
prices of breadstuffs at the beginning of the