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wholesale buyers. Instead of allowing the usual six months' credit on purchases, the time was reduced to thirty days, a change which has proved of great benefit both to buyer and seller, bringing all transactions so much nearer to a cash basis, large sums having been previously lost by too extended credits.

Their example in this respect has been generally followed by the school-book publishers.

When Mr. Ivison visited London, in the year 1866, soon after the close of the civil war, he called upon Messrs. Trubner & Co., from whom his firm had purchased large quantities of paper, and owing to the great scarcity of rags in America, saved thereby from ten to fifteen per cent. On giving a large order for further supplies, Mr. Trubner said:

"What on the face of the earth do you do with all the paper you buy of us?"

"We make it into school-books," answered Mr. Ivison. Said Mr. Trubner: "I should think that you had schoolbooks enough to furnish the whole world."

Messrs. Trubner & Co. themselves were publishers of a series of school-books in use largely throughout Great Britain, and Mr. Trubner told Mr. Ivison that their firm published more school-books than any one else in London or elsewhere.

Mr. Ivison told him in return, that of Saunders' Pictorial Primer, they never put on the press at one time less than 100,000. Saunders' readers have had a phenomenal sale; perhaps the largest of any series ever published.

The present firm of Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co. publish more than three hundred different school-books, among them Webster's School Dictionary, Dana's Geology, Gray's Botany, Robinson's Mathematics, Fasquelle's French Course, Wells' Scientific Series, and the famous Spencerian copy-books, and last but not least, Swinton's scries of School Readers, the sales of which have reached a magni

tude that would astonish my readers, were I permitted to give them.

Mr. Swinton is the author of several interesting volumes on the late Civil War, which have been received with marked favor in military circles. He was military editor and army correspondent of the N. Y. Times, and was present at many of the battles which he vividly describes.

Successful school-book publishing represents immense capital, sagacity and enterprise. Mr. Ivison attributes the success of his firm, under the blessing of Providence, to steady industry, economy, strict adherence to the one line of publication undertaken, without turning to the right hand or to the left, to the avoidance of all speculations, liberal and judicious advertising, well-organized agency plans and thoughtful treatment of their patrons.

Mr. Ivison being no longer in active business life, resides part of his time at his elegant residence in New York, and during the summer at his charming home at Stockbridge, Mass. In closing this sketch of one I have known so well for more than half a century, I will add what is fittingly said of him in the language of another:

"Among the characteristics of Mr. Ivison's business life, the finest qualities of head and heart were ever conspicuous. To his partners and employees he was like the head of a family, and his sunny influence pervaded every department of the concern. It is said that he never had a harsh word with a partner; that he never sued or was sued in his life; and that no piece of his business paper ever passed maturity. Those who succeed him will still have the benefit of his counsel and experience. Mr. Ivison will carry with him into his retirement the cordial wishes for many years of health and happiness of the trade and of hosts of people who have received instruction from some one or more of the text-books which have borne his name."

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II.

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

Early recollections of Mr. Seward-He meets General Lafayette and Washington Irving-Elected Governor of New York-Fails to be nominated President-Seward, Weed and Greely-Receives John Quincy Adams -General Taylor advised-Solomon Northrup kidnapped-Murder of the Van Nest family-Eloquent defense of William Freeman-Gladstone's compliment-Irrepressible conflict and higher law-Anecdotes -J. G. Whittier's poetical tribute-Author appointed U. S. dispatch agent-Attempted assassination of Mr. Seward-Dr. Verdi's thrilling account—Interesting anecdotes-Wonderful journey around the world— Mr. Seward's Death-His Monument in Madison Square.

SHOULD I dwell longer on this record of my recollections of William H. Seward, than, perhaps, that of any other person of whom I may write, it is because I knew him so well in my boyhood days, my early manhood and later years. He was my life-long friend and patron, and I do not hesitate to say that I owe more to his kindness and friendship than to any other man I ever knew.

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In the year in which I was apprenticed to Mr. Ivison, Mr. Seward had formed a partnership in law with Nelson I well rememBeardsley, under the firm name of Seward & Beardsley. years age. At that time I was but fifteen ber the little white building, with green blinds, on South Street, where they had their law office. It was only one story in height, without any attempt at ornament or dis

play. Wood stoves were used to heat the building, as in those days the use of coal and steam for heating purposes was unknown in that locality.

Mr. Beardsley retired from the practice of law many years since, in order to devote himself to his large financial interests, and his duties at the Cayuga County National Bank, of which he has been president for more than forty

Mr. Beardsley was at one time a special partner of mine in connection with Dr. Sylvester Willard of the same city. They are still living at Auburn, two of the wealthiest and most respected of its citizens. They have been my steadfast friends for more than half a century.

Mr. Seward, although a young man, had just served a term as State Senator at Albany, and returned to Auburn, where he resumed his practice. It was about this time that he delivered an eloquent eulogy on General Lafayette, whom he had met the year previous in Paris.

In his autobiography Mr. Seward speaks of his last interview with Lafayette, which occurred in 1833, as follows:

"I took my leave of the General and his family that night at ten o'clock, preparatory to a departure at six the next morning. I was surprised while taking my coffee before daylight, by a summons to his bedroom, where I found him in a white flannel underdress, engaged with his correspondence, of which he showed me a letter which he had just received from Madame Malibran. I said to him, 'We constantly cherish a hope that you will come back to the United States.'

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"My dear Sir,' said Lafayette, it would make me very sad to think I should never see America again, but know how it is. I am confined to France for two or three years by my office as a member of the House of Deputies; and in that time what may happen only God. knows! With these words he threw his arms around me, and kissing me affectionately, bade me good-bye. He died during the next year."

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Auburn about this time was but a village of some 5,000 inhabitants and the book store was generally the resort of cultivated men of the stamp of Mr. Seward. As a clerk there I often waited upon him, especially when any new or important book was received and appeared for sale.

Cooper's novels, especially the "Last of the Mohicans" and "The Spy," the Waverly novels and the new volumes by Washington Irving, were the books most sought after Mr. Seward's among the current literature of the day. purchases, however, were of books of the more solid kindthe classics, history and law books. The young men who were interested in politics gathered around him with much devotion as their leader. In those days parties were classified as Whigs and Loco-Focos. Mr. Seward had received the nomination for Governor in the year 1834; he was defeated, however, by William L. Marcy. He was nominated again for the same office in 1838, and elected over Governor Marcy by a majority of over 10,000. The election was a very exciting one, and as we had no railroads or telegraphs, it was some days before the result could be positively ascertained.

Although not of age, and consequently not a voter myself, I was nevertheless very much interested in the success of the Whigs. On the Friday night succeeding the three days' election which began on Tuesday, myself with other of Mr. Seward's neighbors and friends, was with him in the office of the Auburn Journal, the Whig organ of the county. All were waiting with much anxiety for the returns from the counties in western New York, or, as the phrase went, "the returns from over Cayuga bridge." They were at last received by special messenger, assuring Mr. Seward's election as Governor beyond all doubt. I can well recall the expression Mr. Seward used as he read the mes"God bless Thurlow Weed! I owe this result to

sage,
him."

The Whig paper issued an extra headed: "Go ring the bells and fire the guns and fling the starry banner out,

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