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ities would be recommenced. Santa Anna sionally returning the fire. When within a replied, retorting the charge of breaking the few yards of the work, a gallant fellow, with armistice upon our army, but declining to the standard of his regiment in his hand, meet Scott's requirements. rushed forward to the very walls, followed by After the capture of their forts at Contreras a few determined men with ladders, which and Churubusco the Mexicans intrenched they placed against the walls, and our men themselves strongly at Chapultepec, at the rushed over with a shout; the Mexicans fled, head of the aqueducts, near the southern side rushing out where they best could, over the of the capital, erecting works apparently im- walls and down the precipices. Our men, in pregnable, at least to so small a force as ours. the heat of the moment, shot every one before On the 8th a portion of our force, about 3,000 them, and the scene was indescribable; the in number, encountered from 12,000 to 15.000 works and buildings were a mass of ruins, Mexicans at Molino el Rey, very near Tacu- covered with the dead and dying. The ef baya, and a short but desperate action en- fects of so short a battering speak volumes sued, which resulted in a complete defeat of for our ordnance and artillery. Our own the Mexicans, who lost nearly 3,000 men in siege-train of 24-pounders, and a large mortar killed, wounded and prisoners. Gen. Balde- managed by Huger and Haguer, and a por ras, Gen. Leon and other distinguished oftion of the siege-train taken from the Mexificers were killed. Gen. Worth's division cans, managed by Capt. Drum of the artilwas engaged on our side, and against such lery, performed wonders-every shot told; heavy odds the loss was unavoidably large--every part of the building, which is a very many of the bravest officers of the army met large one, was entirely riddled. It was octhe fate they had so often dared, among whom cupied as a military school; and the library, were Col. Martin Scott, and Col. Graham. which was a well-selected and valuable one, The total loss of our brave army in this daring was in perfect confusion, and the books, achievement is estimated at about 700 in drawing-tables, furniture, &c. were a mass killed, wounded and missing. The foundry of ruins. A great number of prisoners were at Molino el Rey for casting cannon was dis-taken, among them Gen. Bravo (who com covered to be entirely destroyed, and after manded) and all the pupils.

an examination Gen. Scott decided to aban- While these operations were going on, on don the place altogether, and retired with his the west, Gen. Quitman was ordered to at troops. tack on the south and east, where the Mexi

Gen. Scott now erected batteries in the vi- cans were in great numbers along the aque cinity of Molino, and also on the Tacubaya duct, with defences thrown across the road; road, for the purpose of battering Chapulte- these works were carried in handsome style, pec, and on the 12th, at daybreak these bat- and at about the same time. teries were opened. The fire was returned The General did not halt long at Chapul from the castle with great earnestness, and tepec-just long enough to give some direc continued from both sides throughout the tions-and leaving a small garrison, followed day. The next morning the fire was re-in pursuit of the Mexicans; Gen. Quitman's sumed with the same spirit on our part, but division by the Tacubaya road, and Worth's not so on the part of the Mexicans-only oc- (Pillow was wounded in the assault) by the casionally returning the fire. One of their San Cosme. The Mexicans resisted at every largest guns had been removed during the step, having defences thrown across the roads; night. It had been determined previously to and, as our approach could only be by those assault the work this morning, and Gen. Pilroads, or straight causeways, the ground be low's division, supported by Worth's, were ing wet and marshy on either side, the fire ordered to the attack; they moved at an early from their batteries was very destructive. hour from Molino. Chapultepec is situated But they were not permitted to hold any one on a high, isolated hill, precipitous on the position long, and at nightfall they were north, very steep and rocky on the east and driven within the walls, and we had pos south; to the west the slope is more easy, session of the two gates of the city. When but covered with rocks. On this side the Gen. Quitman's division reached the Tacuhill is covered with a dense wood within baya gate it encountered the citadel-a a short distance of the top. It was through strongly fortified place, with heavy guns, the this wood, where a large force of the Mexi-showers of grape and canister from which cans was posted, that the attack was made. were truly awful; but the General found Our boys being at home in the woods, soon cover for his men and maintained his position. drove them from it. It was a thrilling sight, At midnight, commissioners, with a flag, came as the storming party emerged from the wood. out to the General-in-Chief, and stated that right in the face of the guns of the work, and Santa Anna was marching out with his army, the ramparts lined with musketry. They and that they came to surrender the city to found some shelter behind the rocks, and ap- him; and accordingly the next morning this proached gradually and cautiously, and occa- little but gallant army-certainly not exceed

ing 6,000 effective men-marched into the nearly 2,000 insurgents and Capt. Morris's great Capital of the Mexican Republic-by command, in which the latter were commetonomy, The Halls of the Montezumas"-pletely successful, with small loss. The town and hoisted the Stars and Stripes over the of Mora was destroyed by our troops. Constitutional Palace. On the 24th January, at La Canada, thirty Our loss in the taking of Chapultepec and miles from Santa Fé, an engagement took the entrance to the capital was nearly 1,000 place between about 300 Americans, under men in killed, wounded and missing: that of Col. Price, and a body of 2,000 Mexicans the Mexicans not ascertained, but very large. and Indians. As Col. Price approached the Our whole loss from the end of the armistice village, he found the Mexicans posted on to the 14th September was 1,673. the hills in every direction, in advantageous

For the first day or two in the city our positions The artillery was soon brought to army was assailed from the windows and bear upon them, and the fight lasted about housetops, by musketry and all sorts of hand an hour, when they fled over the hills, where missiles, nor could there be a stop put to it was impossible to pursue them. Col. Price this destruction until Gen. Scott sent out a lost not a single man. The Mexicans acsacking party, with orders to break open knowedged nearly 90 killed and wounded. every house whence molestation might come. On the 29th there was a severe fight at El This, with some stringent proclamations and Embudo, between a large Mexican force a little imperative dealing with the priests, and a handfull of our men under Col. Burg. restored quiet and opened to our officers all win. To dislodge the Mexicans, our men the public places in the capital. had to climb a steep mountain, supporting

After the occupation of the city, Santa An- themselves by the bushes. The Mexicans na devolved the supreme power on Peña y were routed with a loss of 20 killed and 60 Peña, and retired with 3,000 or 4.000 men wounded: the Americans lost but two-one toward Puebla. Paredes and other leading killed and one wounded. Mexicans went each his way; Peña y Peña On the 3d February there was an engageretired to Queretaro, where he attempted to ment at Puebla de Taos, which lasted from 2 assemble the National Congress, but failed, P. M. till dark and all the next day. Distance as a quorum could not be got together. prevented any serious loss, and the next Beside the main features of the war, there morning the Mexicans sued for peace and the were continual skirmishes, assassinations, am- place was delivered up.

buscades, attacks on trains, maila, &c.-the After the murder of Gov. Bent, Col. Price, inseparable incidents of the occupancy of so as senior military officer, took executive comlarge a territory, and especially a country peo-mand in New-Mexico; and, beside the usual pled with men so expert in guerrilla warfare. turbulence of a newly-subjected people, there

The operations of our fleet in the Gulf were of very little moment after the capture of Vera Cruz. About the 1st of May Com. Perry captured Tuspan after a smart skirmish; and, as a matter of course, all the smaller ports on the Gulf are in our possession.

has transpired nothing worthy of special note.

During the operations on the Rio Grande, and until after the fall of Monterey, important events were transpiring in the Californias. Several considerable battles had been fought, which placed our army in full possession of the Provinces of New-Mexico, New-Leon and the Californias-a territory larger in extent than the original thirteen States, inhabited by A brief review of the operations of our a considerable population, and more than 1,000 forces in New-Mexico and the Californias miles from the points at which the Americans will continue our War Chronicle for 1847. commenced their movements. After the reThe loose and often questionable shape of duction of New-Mexico, Gen. Kearney, with news from this far-off region, precludes the 300 dragoons, started for California. to join possibility of positive correctness in dates and Col. Fremont; but less than 200 miles west trifling details, so that general facts only are of Santa Fé he was met by an express from worthy of record. . . . . On the 17th Janu- Col. Fremont, announcing the capture of Cal ary, 1847, there was a serious insurrection of ifornia by the forces under the latter officer Mexicans at Taos, some distance east of Santa in conjunction with a small force from Com Fé, and formerly the frontier town of New-Sloat's fleet. Kearney sent back two-thirds Mexico. Some 25 Americans, including Gov. of his force, and with the remainder pushed Bent, Sheriff Lee, &c., were massacred, and on to join Fremont. Col. Fremont, who had their families despoiled. The insurgents were arrived in California in the Summer of 1846, quickly overcome, some punished with death, on a surveying expedition, with a force of Some were whipped, others imprisoned, and only 62 men, was threatened with exterminathe outbreak was speedily subdued; not, tion if he did not immediately leave the counhowever, without a severe battle in the Val- try; yet, in spite of a vast disparity of force, ley of the Mora, near Santa Fé, between he determined to defend himself, and took

position on a mountain about thirty miles from of small moment, have, as a matter of course, Monterey, the capital of California, where he marked our occupation. In fact, so little em intrenched himself and raised the flag of the ployment had the sword in enforcing subor United States. On the 14th June, a dozen men dination, that our officers have found sufficient of Fremont's party captured an officer, 14 men time for jealousies and quarrels among themand 200 horses en route for Castro's camp. selves-as yet undeveloped in their causesOn the 15th, at daybreak, the strong pass resulting in the formal arrest of Fremont by of Sanoma was surprised and taken with 9 Kearney, and the arrival of both at Washingcannon. 250 muskets and several officers and ton-Fremont to be tried by a Court-Martial, nen. Leaving a small garrison at Sanoma, (now in session,) and Kearney as principal Fremont advanced 80 miles, to the Sacra- accuser. mento, where he had scarce arrived when an express overtook him, saying that Castro was Our present position in Mexico is, briefly, preparing to attack Sanoma. He immedi- this: All her Gulf and Ocean ports, except ately returned, with a reinforcement of 90 those on the Pacific south of San Blas, (mouth riflemen raised among the American settlers of the Tolototlan.) are in our possession: in the valley of the Sacramento. A party of the Provinces of Tamaulipas, Coahuila, New20 men was sent out to reconnoitre, who fell Leon, Zacatecas, Durango, Chihuahua, Newin with 70 of Castro's dragoons-all who Mexico, Alta California, Old California, part had crossed San Francisco Bay-and totally of Sonora, most of Vera Cruz, part of Puebla defeated them, killing and wounding five and part of Mexico have been overrun by without harm to themselves. Castro now retreated to Santa Clara, an intrenched post on the south side of San Francisco Bay: he had 400 men and two pieces of artillery.

our troops, and may be considered effectually occupied: her chief ports of entry (except Ac apulco) are in our hands, and all commerce is through American channels: Gen. Taylor has a small force still at Walnut Springs-sevThe country north of the Bay was now eral parties of his division being busily em clear of hostile Mexicans, and Fremont, on ployed in keeping the roads to Camargo and the 6th July, led his command to the attack the Brazos clear of guerrillas of Urrea's com of Castro. In three days he reached the Amer- mand: (Gen. T. about to visit the United States ican settlements on the Rio de los Ameri- on furlough: Gen. Scott in complete posses canos, and learned that Castro was retreating sion of the City of Mexico, awaiting heavy resouth, toward Ciudad de los Angelos, (City inforcements now on the march to join himof the Angels,) 400 miles distant. Fremont and at the same time awaiting the decision resolved to pursue him, and at the moment of our Government as to the course to be purof starting, heard for the first time of positive sued: our fleet inactive in the Gulf, there bewar between the United States and Mexico-ing nothing to do except transport our troops that Monterey (in California) had been taken and ammunition: Santa Anna retired from the by Com. Sloat, and the Stars and Stripes Presidency, and, with the remnant of an army. raised there on the 7th July, and that the fleet growing small by degrees and beautifully would cooperate in the pursuit of Castro. less," still vowing vengeance and destruction Shortly after the occupation of Monterey, to the invaders: Peña y Peña, nominal PresiCom. Stockton took command of the Pacific dent, neither able nor willing to end the war: squadron, and Com. Sloat sailed for the United all our lines of communication hedged in States. The pursuit of Castro was unremit with intangible guerrilla parties, who omit no ting, and the flight of that chief equally so; opportunity to kill and plunder anything and and on the 12th of August Stockton and Fre- everything American: all over Mexico the mont entered the City of the Angels with- people of all classes hating us more religiousout resistance-Pico the Mexican Governor ly than ever-more ready than ever to resist and all other authorities having fled. Stock- our overtures and defy our power: and, finalton took possession of the whole country, and ly, Peace, in any probable form, distant al appointed Fremont governor. most beyond the hope of overtaking-there Thenceforward the Californias have re- being no reliable Government in Mexico to mained passably tranquil: here and there a make a treaty with, should one never so acfeeble attempt at revolt, and a few skirmishes ceptable be proposed.

September 22, 1780.

Permit Mr. John Anderson to pass the Guard to the White Plains or below, if he chooses, he being on Public Business, by my Direction.



The Commander of our Naval forces in the Gulf is hereby directed not to obstruct the pass age of Santa Anna and Suite to Mexico, should he desire to return thither.

May 15, 1846.

JAMES K. POLK, President.



I AM somewhat at a loss to know Mexico like an equal, and do honor to ouron what plan of operations gentlemen having selves. But what is it you ask? You have charge of this war intend to proceed. We hear taken from Mexico one fourth of her terrritomuch said of the terror of your arms. The af- ry, and you now propose to run a line comfrighted Mexican, it is said, when you shall prehending about another third, and for what? have drenched his country in blood, will sue ask. Mr. President, for what? What has for peace, and thus you will indeed "con- Mexico got from you, for parting with twoquer peace." This is the heroic and savage thirds of her domain? She has given you tone in which we have heretofore been lec- ample redress for every injury of which you tured by our friends on the other side of the have complained. She has submitted to the Chamber, especially by the Senator from award of your Commissioners and up to the Michigan, (Gen. CASS.) But suddenly the time of the rupture with Texas faithfully paid Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Re-it. And for all that she has lost, (not through lations comes to us with the smooth phrase or by you, but which loss has been your of diplomacy, made potent by the gentle gain,) what requital do we, her strong, rich. suasion of gold. The Chairman of the Com- robust neighbor, make? Do we send our mismittee on Military Affairs calls for thirty sionaries there to " point the way to Heaven?" millions of money and ten thousand regular Or do we send the schoolmasters to pour daytroops; these we are assured shall "conquer light into her dark places, to aid her infant peace," if the obstinate Celt refuses to treat strength to conquer freedom, and reap the till we shall whip him in another field of fruit of the independence herself alone had blood. What a delightful scene in the Nine- won? No, no, none of this do we. But we teenth Century of the Christian era! What send regiments, storm towns, and our Coloan interesting sight to see these two repre- nels prate of liberty in the midst of the soli sentatives of war and peace moving in grand tudes their ravages have made. They proprocession through the Halls of the Monte-claim the empty forms of social compact to a zumas! The Senator from Michigan, (Gen. people bleeding and maimed with wounds CASS,) red with the blood of recent slaugh received in defending their hearth-stones ter, the gory spear of Achilles in his hand. against the invasion of these very men who and the hoarse clarion of war in his mouth, shoot them down, and then exhort them to blowing a blast "so loud and deep" that the be free. Your Chaplains of the Navy throw sleeping echoes of the lofty Cordilleras start aside the New Testament and seize a Bill of from their caverns and return the sound, til Rights. The Rev. Don Walter Colton I see, every ear from Panama to Santa Fé is deaf abandons the sermon on the mount, and be ened with the roar. By his side, with "mod-takes himself to Blackstone and Kent, and is est mien and downcast look," comes the Sen-elected a Justice of the Peace! He takes ator from Arkansas, (Mr. SEVIER,) covered military possession of some town in Califorfrom head to foot with a gorgeous robe, glit-nia, and instead of teaching the plan of the tering and embossed with three millions of atonement and the way of salvation to the poor, shining gold, putting to shame "the wealth ignorant Celt, he presents Colt's pistol to his of Ormus or of Ind." The olive of Minerva ear, and calls on him to take "trial by jury graces his brow, in his right hand is the and habeas corpus," or nine bullets in his delicate rebeck, from which are breathed in head. Oh! Mr. President, are you not the Lydian measure, notes "that tell of nought lights of the earth, if not its salt? You, you but love and peace." I fear very much, you are indeed opening the eyes of the blind in will scarcely be able to explain to the sim Mexico, with a most emphatic and exoteric ple, savage mind of the half-civilized Mexi- power. Sir, if all this were not a sad. mourncans, the puzzling dualism of this scene, at ful truth, it would be the very "ne plus ultra once gorgeous and grotesque. Sir, I scarcely of the ridiculous.

understand the meaning of all this myself. But sir, let us see what, as the Chairman If we are to vindicate our rights by battles of the Committee of Foreign Relations ex-in bloody fields of war-let us do it. If plains it, we are to get by the combined prothat is not the plan, why then let us call back cesses of conquest and treaty.

our armies into our own territory, and pro- What is the territory, Mr. President, which pose a treaty with Mexico, based upon the you propose to wrest from Mexico? It is proposition that money is better for her and consecrated to the heart of the Mexican by land is better for us. Thus we can treat many a well-fought battle with his old Cas

tillian master. His Bunker Hills and Sarato-thief, arraigned for stealing a horse, plead gas and Yorktowns are there! The Mexican that it was the best horse that he could find can say, "There I bled for liberty! and in the country! We want California. What shall I surrender that consecrated home of for? Why, says the Senator from Michigan, my affections to the Anglo-Saxon invaders? we will have it; and the Senator from South What do they want with it? They have Carolina, with a very mistaken view, I think. Texas already. They have possessed them- of policy, says, you can't keep our people selves of the territory between the Nueces from going there. I don't desire to prevent and the Rio Grande. What else do they them. Let them go and seek their happiness want? To what shall I point my children as in whatever country or clime it pleases them memorials of that independence, which I be- All I ask of them is, not to require this Govqueath to them, when those battle-fields shall ernment to protect them with that banner have passed from my possession?" consecrated to war waged for principlesSir, had one come and demanded Bunker-eternal, enduring truth. Sir, it is not meet Hill of the people of Massachusetts, had Eng- that our old flag should throw its protecting land's Lion ever showed himself there, is folds over expeditions for lucre or for land.there a man over 13 and under 90 who would But you still say you want room for your peonot have been ready to meet him-is there a ple. This has been the plea of every robber river on this Continent that would not have chief from Nimrod to the present hour. I run red with blood-is there a field but would dare say when Tamerlane descended from have been piled high with the unburied bones his throne built of seventy thousand human of slaughtered Americans before these conse- skulls, and marched his ferocious battalions crated battle-fields of liberty should have been to farther slaughter, I dare say he said, “1 wrested from us? But this same American want room.' Bajazet was another gentleman goes into a sister Republic, and says to poor, of kindred tastes and wants with us Angloweak Mexico, "Give up your territory-you Saxons-he "wanted room." Alexander, too. are unworthy to possess it-I have got one- the mighty "Macedonian madman," when he half already-all I ask of you is to give up wandered with his Greeks to the plains of In the other!" England might as well, in the dia, and fought a bloody battle on the very circumstances I have described, have come ground where recently England and the Sikhs and demanded of us, "Give up the Atlantic engaged in strife for "room," was no doubt in slope-give up this trifling territory from Al- quest of some California there. Many a Monlegany Mountains to the Sea; it is only terey had he to storm, to get "room.'" "Sir, he from Maine to St. Mary's-only about one- made quite as much of that sort of history as third of your Republic, and the least interest you ever will. Mr. President, do you remem ing portion of it." What would be the re-ber the last chapter in that history? It is soon sponse? They would say, we must give this read. Oh, I wish we could but understand up to John Bull. Why? "He wants room." its moral. Ammon's son, (so was Alexander The Senator from Michigan says he must named,) after all his victories, died drunk in have this. Why, my worthy Christian broth- Babylon! The vast empire he conquered to er, on what principle of justice? "I want" get room," became the prey of the Gener room!" als he had trained; it was disparted, torn to

Sir, look at this pretence of want of room. pieces, and so ended. Sir, there is a very sig With twenty millions of people you have about nificant appendix; it is this: The descendone thousand millions of acres of land, in- ants of the Greeks, of Alexander's Greeks|| viting settlement by every conceivable argu-are now governed by a descendant of Atilla! ment-bringing them down to a quarter of Mr. President, while we are fighting for a dollar an acre, and allowing every man to room, let us ponder deeply this appendix. 1 squat where he pleases. But the Senator was somewhat amazed the other day, to hear from Michigan says we will be two hundred the Senator from Michigan declare that Eu millions in a few years, and we want room. rope had quite forgotten us, till these battles] If I were a Mexican I would tell you, "Have waked them up. I suppose the Senator feels you not room in your own country to bury grateful to the President for "waking up' your dead men? If you come into mine we Europe. Does the President, who is, I hope, will greet you with bloody hands, and wel-read in civic as well as military lore, remem come you to hospitable graves." ber the saying of one who had pondered up

Why, says the Chairman of this Committee on history long-long, too, upon Man, his na of Foreign Relations, it is the most reasona- ture and true destiny? Montesquieu did not ble thing in the world! We ought to have think highly of this way of" waking up.”— the Bay of San Francisco. Why? Because" Happy," says he, "is that nation whose an it is the best Harbor on the Pacific! It has nals are tiresome."

been my fortune, Mr. President, to have prac- The Senator from Michigan has a different ticed a good deal in criminal courts in the view of this. He thinks that a nation is not course of my life, but I never yet heard a distinguished until it is distinguished in war.

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