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Sthe latitude and longitude of its mouth and of sum was to be in full satisfaction of such Sits source. Duplicates of this declaration and claims. [France has been paid her Sixty of the statements of their accounts, and of the

journal of their proceedings, shall be deliver- Millions of francs, and has long since paid us ed by them to the agent of His Majesty, and Twenty-five Millions for spoliations committo the agent of the United States, who may ted by her since that time; but our plundered) be respectively appointed and authorized to merchants, whom we agreed with her to (manage the business on behalf of the respect

(ive Governments. And both parties agree to compensate, remain unpaid to this day, while Sconsider such decision as final and conclu- many of them have died beggars since our? sive, so as that the same shall never thereaf-Government assumed the obligation to pay Ster be called into question, or made the subSject of dispute or difference between them. them.] The material clauses of the Louisiana Treaty are as follow:

Louisiana Treaty (with France)—– ART. 1. Whereas, by article the third of 1803. the Treaty concluded at St. Ildefonso, the 9th Louisiana, originally discovered and colo- Vendemiaire, an 9, (1st October, 1800,) benized by France, was by her ceded in 1763 tween the First Consul of the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty, it was agreed to Spain, under whose dominion it remained as follows: "His Catholic Majesty promises down to 1800. The People of our rapidly and engages on his part, to retrocede to the settling Western States and Territories, be- French Republic, six months after the full and entire execution of the conditions and Zing denied by Spain the right of navigating stipulations herein relative to his Royal Highthe Mississippi and of depositing and trans-ness the Duke of Parma, the colony or proshipping their produce at New-Orleans, were vince of Louisiana, with the same extent that it now has in the hands of Spain, and that it naturally excited and indignant thereat, and had when France possessed it; and such as were often ready to descend their great rivers it should be after the Treaties subsequently Sin hostile array, and open by the sword a free entered into between Spain and other States: passage for their commerce to the ocean. In And whereas, in pursuance of the Treaty, and 1800, Louisiana was secretly ceded by Spain Republic has an incontestible title to the doparticularly of the third article, the French to France, the two nations being then united main and to the possession of the said territo(in the closest bonds of alliance. In 1803, ry: The First Consul of the French RepubFrance being on the eve of a fresh War with lic, desiring to give to the United States a strong proof of his friendship, doth hereby Great Britain, whose great Naval superiority cede to the said United States, in the name of rendered the early conquest of this vast but the French Republic, forever and in full sovnearly defenceless territory morally certain, ereignty, the said territory, with all its rights and appurtenances, as fully and in the same the First Consul (Bonaparte) resolved to sell manner as they have been acquired by the it to this country, which was naturally pre- French Republic; in virtue of the above(sumed desirous of so convenient and mentioned Treaty concluded with His Cathotemptlic Majesty. Sing an acquisition. The proposition having been made to our Government, was eagerly Treaty of Ghent-1814. (responded to by President Jefferson, by War having been declared by the United whose authority a Treaty was negotiated at States against Great Britain in June, 1812, and (Paris, April 30th, 1803, whereby France thence prosecuted by each party with various ceded the entire territory of Louisiana, with success until 1814, the commissioners of the all its appurtenances, to the United States in two nations met at Ghent, in the Netherlands, Sperpetuity. That Treaty was accompanied late in that year, and proceeded to settle the by another, whereby the United States agreed articles of a Treaty of Peace, which was signSto pay France Sixty Millions of francs, ($11-ed, Dec. 24th, 1814, by Lord Gambier, Henry 250,000.) The United States stipulated to pay Goulburn and William Adams on the part of an additional sum not exceeding Twenty Great Britain, and by John Quincy Adams, Millions of francs to our own citizens who James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan) had claims against France for spoliations of Russell and Albert Gallatin on behalf of the jour commerce committed prior to 1800, which United States, and ratified by our Senate on

the two nations are as follow:

the 17th of February following. The articles aforesaid boundaries, which said islands are Sof this Treaty which affect the boundaries of claimed as belonging to His Britannic Majesty, as having been at the time of, and previous to, the aforesaid Treaty of one thousand ART. 1. There shall be a firm and univer- seven hundred and eighty-three, within the sal peace between His Britannic Majesty and limits of the Province of Nova Scotia; in or(the United States, and between their respect- der, therefore, finally to decide upon these Sive countries, territories, cities, towns and claims, it is agreed that they shall be referred people of every degree, without exception of to two commissioners to be appointed in the Splaces or persons. All hostilities, both by sea following manner, viz: one commissioner and land, shall cease as soon as this Treaty shall be appointed by His Britannic Majesty, shall have been ratified by both parties, as and one by the President of the United States, hereinafter mentioned. All territory, places by and with the advice and consent of the and possessions whatsoever, taken by either Senate thereof, and the said two commissionSparty from the other, during the war, or ers so appointed shall be sworn impartially which may be taken after the signing of this to examine and decide upon the said claims, Treaty, excepting only the islands hereinafter according to such evidence as shall be laid Smentioned, shall be restored without delay, before them on the part of His Britannic Sand without causing any destruction, or car- Majesty and of the United States, respectSrying away any of the artillery or other pub-ively. The said commissioners shall meet at Slic property, originally captured in the said St. Andrews, in the Province of New-Brunsforts or places, and which shall remain there- wick, and shall have power to adjourn to in upon the exchange of the ratifications of such other place or places as they shall this Treaty, or any slaves or other private think fit. The said commissioners shall, by property. And all archives, records, deeds a declaration or report, under their hands and (and papers, either of a public nature or be-seals, decide to which of the two contracting (longing to private persons, which in the parties the several islands aforesaid do recourse of the war may have fallen into the spectively belong, in conformity with the Shands of the officers of either party, shall be, true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of as far as may be practicable, forthwith restor- one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.) ed and delivered to the proper authorities And if the said commissioners shall agree in and persons to whom they respectively be their decision, both parties shall consider such long. Such of the islands in the Bay of Pas- decision as final and conclusive. It is farther samaquoddy as are claimed by both parties. agreed, that in the event of the two commisshall remain in the possession of the party in sioners differing upon all or any of the matwhose occupation they may be at the time of ters so referred to them, or in the event of the exchange of the ratifications of this Trea- both or either of said commissioners refusing ty, until the decision respecting the title to or declining, or wifully omitting to act as the said islands shall have been made in con- such, they shall make, jointly or separately, a Sformity with the fourth article of this Treaty. report or reports, as well to the Government) No disposition made by this Treaty as to such of His Britannic Majesty as to that of the possession of the islands and territories claim- United States, stating in detail the points on ed by both parties, shall, in any manner what- which they differ, and the grounds upon ever, be construed to affect the right of either. which their respective opinions have been ART. 4. Whereas, it was stipulated by the formed, or the grounds upon which they, or second article in the Treaty of Peace of one either of them, have so refused, declined or (thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, be- omitted to act. And His Britannic Majesty tween His Britannic Majesty and the United and the Government of the United States States of America, that the boundary of the hereby agree to refer the report or reports of United States should comprehend all islands the said commissioners to some friendly soverwithin twenty leagues of any part of the eign or State, to be then named for that shores of the United States, and lying between purpose, and who shall be requested to delines to be drawn due east from the points cide upon the differences which may be where the aforesaid boundaries, between No-stated in the said report or reports, or upon va Scotia on the one part and East Florida the report of one commissioner, together with on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay the grounds upon which the other commis of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting sioner shall have refused, declined or omitted such islands as now are, or heretofore have to act, as the case may be: And if the com(been, within the limits of Nova Scotia; and missioner so refusing, declining cr omitting to whereas, the several Islands in the Bay of act, shall also wilfully omit to state the grounds Passamaquoddy, which is part of the Bay of upon which he has so done, in such manner Fundy, and the island of Menan, in the said that the said statement may be referred to) Bay of Fundy, are claimed by the United such friendly sovereign or State, together) States, as being comprehended within their with the report of such other commissioner

then such sovereign or State shall decide, ex latter part of the fourth article is contained, parté, upon the said report alone. And His and in as full a manner as if the same was) Britannic Majesty and the Government of the herein repeated.

United States engage to consider the decision ART. 6. Whereas, by the former Treaty of of such friendly sovereign or State to be final Peace, that portion of the boundary of the and conclusive on all the matters so referred. United States from the point where the fortyART. 5. Whereas, neither that point of the fifth degree of north latitude strikes the River highlands lying due north from the source of Iroquois or Cataraguy to the lake Superior, the river St. Croix, and designated in the was declared to be "along the middle of said former Treaty of Peace between the two river into Lake Ontario, through the middle Powers, as the north-west angle of Nova- of said lake until it strikes the communicaScotia, nor the north-westernmost head of tion by water between that lake and Lake Connecticut river, has yet been ascertained; Erie, thence along the middle of said comand whereas that part of the boundary line munication into Lake Erie, through the midbetween the dominions of the two Powers, dle of said lake until it arrives at the water which extends from the source of the River communication into the lake Huron, thence St. Croix directly north to the above-men- through the middle of said lake to the water tioned north-west angle of Nova Scotia, thence communication between that lake and Lake along the said highlands which divide those Superior." And whereas doubts have arisen rivers that empty themselves into the River what was the middle of said river, lakes and St. Lawrence from those which fall into the water communications, and whether certain Atlantic Ocean, to the north-westernmost islands lying in the same were within the doShead of Connecticut river; thence down minions of His Britannic Majesty or of the Salong the middle of that river to the forty-fifth United States: in order, therefore, finally to degree of north latitude; thence by a line decide these doubts, they shall be referred to due west on the said latitude until it strikes two commissioners, to be appointed, sworn the river Iroquois or Cataraguy, has yet been and authorized to act exactly in the manner surveyed; it is agreed that for those several directed with respect to those mentioned in purposes two commissioners shall be appoint-the next preceding article, unless otherwise ed, sworn and authorized to act exactly in specified in this present article. The said the manner directed with respect to those commissioners shall meet, in the first instance, mentioned in the next preceding article, un- at Albany, in the State of New-York, and less otherwise specified in the present article. shall have power to adjourn to such other) The said commissioners shall meet at St. An- place or places as they shall think fit; the drews, in the Province of New-Brunswick, said commissioners shall, by a report or declaand shall have power to adjourn to such other ration, under their hands and seals, designate place or places as they shall think fit. The the boundary through the said river, lakes and said commissioners shall have power to ascer-water communications, and decide to which tain and determine the points above-men- of the two contracting parties the several tioned, in conformity with the provisions of islands lying within the said river, lakes and the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven water communications, do respectively behundred and eighty-three, and shall cause the long, in conformity with the true intent of thes boundary aforesaid, from the source of the said Treaty of one thousand seven hundred) Sriver St. Croix to the river Iroquois or Cata- and eighty-three. And both parties agree to raguy, to be surveyed and marked according consider such designation and decision final to the said provisions. The said commission- and conclusive. And, in the event of the ers shall make a map of the said boundary, said two commissioners differing, or both or and annex to it a declaration, under their either of them refusing, declining or wilfully hands and seals, certifying it to be the true omitting to act, such reports, declarations, or of the said boundary, and particular-statements shall be made by them, or either izing the latitude and longitude of the north- of them, and such reference to a friendly west angle of Nova Scotia, of the north-west-sovereign or State shall be made, in all resernmost head of Connecticut river, and of pects, as in the latter part of the fourth article such other points of the said boundary as they is contained, and in as full a manner as if the may deem proper. And both parties agree same was herein repeated.


to consider such map and declaration as fi- ART. 7. It is farther agreed that the said nally and conclusively fixing the said bound-two last-mentioned commissioners, after they? ary. And in the event of the said two com- shall have executed the duties assigned to missioners differing, or both or either of them them in the preceding article, shall be, and refusing, or declining, or wilfully omitting to they are hereby authorized, upon their oaths, act, such reports, declarations or statements impartially to fix and determine, according to shall be made by them, or either of them, and the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of such reference to a friendly sovereign or one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, State shall be made, in all respects, as in the that part of the boundary between the do

minions of the two Powers, which extends) of the said United States shall have, forever, (from the water communication between Lake in common with the subjects of His BritanHuron and Lake Superior, to the most north-nic Majesty, the liberty to take fish of every Swestern point of the Lake of the Woods, to kind on that part of the southern coast of Sdecide to which of the two parties the several Newfoundland which extends from Cape Ray Sislands lying in the lakes, water communica- to the Rameau Islands, on the western and tions and rivers forming the said boundary, do northern coast of Newfoundland, from the respectively belong, in conformity with the said Cape Ray to the Quirpon Islands, on the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of one shores of the Magdalen Islands, and also on thousand seven hundred and eighty-three; the coasts, bays, harbors and creeks from and to cause such parts of the said boundary Mount Joly, on the southern coast of Labraas require it, to be surveyed and marked. dor, to and through the Straits of Bellisle, and The said commissioners shall, by a report or thence northwardly indefinitely along the declaration, under their hands and seals, de- coast, without prejudice, however, to any of signate the boundary aforesaid, state their de- the exclusive rights of the Hudson Bay ComScision on the points referred to them, and par- pany: And that the American fishermen shall ticularize the latitude and longitude of the also have liberty, forever, to dry and cure fish most north-western point of the Lake of in any of the unsettled bays, harbors and the Woods, and of such other parts of the creeks of the southern part of the coast of said boundary as they may deem proper. Newfoundland, here-above described, and of And both parties agree to consider such de- the coast of Labrador; but so soon as the signation and decision as final and conclu- same, or any portion thereof, shall be setsive. And in the event of the said two com-tled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermissioners differing, or both or either of ermen to dry or cure fish at such portion so Sthem refusing, declining or wilfully omit-settled, without previous agreement for such Sting to act, such reports, declarations or state-purpose, with the inhabitants, proprietors or ments shall be made by them, or either of possessors of the ground. And the United them, and such reference to a friendly sove- States hereby renounce, forever, any liberty reign or State shall be made, in all respects. heretofore enjoyed or claimed by the inhabitas in the latter part of the fourth article is ants thereof, to take, dry or cure fish, on or contained, and in as full a manner as if the within three marine miles of any of the coasts, same was herein repeated.

bays, creeks or harbors of His Britannic Majesty's dominions in America, not included) Convention of London—1818. within the above-mentioned limits: Provided,, Difficulties having arisen with regard to admitted to enter such bays or harbors for the however, that the American fishermen shall be the Fishing Privileges of the United States purpose of shelter and repairing of damages Son the Banks of Newfoundland and coasts therein, of purchasing wood and of obtaining adjacent, secured to us by the Treaty of In-water, and for no other purpose whatever. But they shall be under such restrictions as Sdependence, 1783, but which Great Britain may be necessary to prevent their taking, expressly refused to renew or recognize by drying or curing fish therein, or in any other Sthe Treaty of Ghent, 1814, considering them manner whatever abusing the privileges hereby reserved to them. invalidated by the War and this refusal, ART. 2. It is agreed that a line drawn from Swhile our Commissioners maintained that the most north-western point of the Lake of these provisions, from their nature, revived the Woods, along the forty-ninth parallel of of course on the restoration of Peace, a Sup- in the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, north latitude, or if the said point shall not be plementary Treaty was negotiated in Lon- then that a line drawn from the said point (don, by Albert Gallatin and Richard Rush due north or south, as the case may be, until the said line shall intersect the said parallel Sfor the United States, and by Frederick John of north latitude, and from the point of such Robinson and Henry Goulburn on behalf of intersection due west along and with the said) (Great Britain, and signed on the 20th of Oc-parallel shall be the line of demarcation betober, 1818. Its material provisions are these: tween the territories of the United States and those of His Britannic Majesty, and that the

ART. 1. Whereas differences have arisen said line shall form the northern boundary of respecting the liberty claimed by the United the said territories of the United States, and States, for the inhabitants thereof, to take, dry the southern boundary of the territories of His and cure fish on certain coasts, bays, harbors Britannic Majesty, from the Lake of the and creeks of His Britannic Majesty's domin- Woods to the Stony Mountains. ions in America, it is agreed between the ART. 3. It is agreed that any country that (high contracting parties that the inhabitants may be claimed by either party on the north

west coast of America, westward of the Stony of the River St. John, and thence up the midMountains, shall, together with its harbors, dle of that River to the mouth of the St. Franbays and creeks, and the navigation of all

rivers within the same, be free and open for cis, thence up that River to the extreme the term of ten years from the date of the source of its South-Westernmost branch, signature of the present Convention to the thence due West to its intersection with the vessels, citizens and subjects of the two Pow-line claimed by the United States. He also Sers; it being well understood that this agreeSment is not to be construed to the prejudice decided that the utmost source of the NorthSof any claim which either of the two high con- Westernmost stream emptying into the tracting parties may have to any part of the Northernmost of the three lakes, the last of said country, nor shall it be taken to affect the

claims of any other Power or State to any which bears the name of Connecticut Lake, part of the said country: the only object of the must be considered the North-Westernmost high contracting parties, in that respect, be-head of the Connecticut River specified in Sing to prevent disputes and differences the Treaty of Ghent. Also, that a new line

Samongst themselves.

[In 1817, Thomas Barclay and John Holmes, should be run thence to the River St. LawCommissioners on the part of Great Britain rence, in such manner as at all events to and the United States respectively, under the concede Rouse's Point [near Lake Cham4th article of the Treaty of Ghent, sworn to plain] to the United States. This award was decide impartially, met in New-York, Nov. rejected both by the United States and Great Britain. 24th, and decided that Moose Island, Frederick Island and Dudley Island in the Bay of Passamaquoddy, belong to the United States, Sand all other islands in said Bay belong to Great Britain-which award was accepted (by the Government of each Nation.

By a farther Convention, concluded at London, Aug. 6th, 1827, between Albert Gallatin on the part of the United States, and Charles Grant and Henry U. Addington on behalf of Great Britain, it was agreed that the arrange

On the 18th of June, 1822, Peter B. Porter ment made in 1818, allowing each nation and Anthony Barclay, sworn Commissioners freedom to trade to or settle in the Oregon Son behalf of the United States and Great Bri- Territory, should be extended for an unlimtain, met in Utica, and apportioned all the ited period, terminable on twelve months noIslands in the St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario, tice by either party. This arrangement is not to impair or in any wise affect the claims Niagara, Lake Erie, Detroit river, Lake St. of either nation to the territory West of the Clair and Lake Huron, between the two countries respectively, according to their Rocky Mountains, or any part of it.] proximity to the States or of the Canadas, or Florida Treaty (with Spain)-1819. as they were found to lie on our side or theirs The United States and Spain having vaof the main current of the several rivers. rious claims against each other for the redress The Commissioners of the two Nations of injuries done and received-the United having been unable to agree respecting the States mainly for spoliations upon our comNorth-Eastern Boundary of the United States, merce under the Spanish flag, and Spain for a Convention was framed at London in 1827, the overrunning of Florida by U. States forces (Sept. 29th) between Albert Gallatin on the under Gen. Jackson and various losses and part of the United States, and Charles Grant indignities consequent thereon-a “Treaty of (and Henry U. Addington on behalf of Great Amity, Settlement and Limits' was negociaBritain, whereby the whole matter in dispute ted between them at Washington, 1819, and was referred to the King of the Netherlands. signed on the 22d of February by John QuinOn the 10th of January, 1831, King Wil-cy Adams for the United States and Don Luis liam made his award, recapitulating the de Onis for Spain. This Treaty conceded grounds of controversy, and recommending so much to the U. States, and was deemed so that a line drawn from the head of the River disadvantageous to Spain, that her GovernSt. Croix due North till it strikes the middlelment refrained from ratifying it till Oct. 24th,

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