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gar, dried fruit, spices, &c. &c. would government ought to establish schools not this employ a mighty number of in Ireland, to teach what the leading manufacturers, tradlesinen, mechanics, principles of religion and morals? &c. who cannot now exist in Ireland ? No! To teach children between seven Why cannot this peasantry do this and thirteen “ the elementary princiin an equal tlegree with the peasantry ples which show how wages are deof Britain ? Look for an answer to termined, or on what the condition of the per centage agents and middlemen the poor must depend !” Now, let -or in other words to absenteeism. Parliament look at the Combinations
It is said that the depravity and tur- , in Britain and Ireland, and it will disbulence of the Irish peasantry prevent cover that in both countries the laBritish capital from establishing ma- bouring classes are perfectly familiar nufactures, &c. in some of the most with these principles already. The distressed parts of Ireland. This de- weavers of England, the colliers of pravity and turbulence must be as- Scotland, and the gas-men of Ireland, cribed in a great degree to the per -the most uncultivated “operatives, centage agents and middlemen. The know perfectly, that if there be too latter divest the cultivators of capital, many of them in their calling, it the land must then of necessity be makes wages bad and work scarce. divided into the smallest portions, Several of the Combinations have made and the cultivators must be poor, ig- and enforced laws expressly to keep norant, idle, and without control. apprentices and others out of their Look at an English estate. The con- callingsmor, in other words, to preduet of the farmers is constantly under vent labour from becoming superthe eye and control of the landlord, abundant in these callings. The teachor the agent who acts under his di- ing of such principles to the labouring, rections, the farmers are men of pro- population can have no other practical perty and respectability, and the con- effect than Combination. What effect duet of the remainder of the inhabi- have the doctrines touching capital tants is under their eye and control. and labour had among the labouring What is the consequence ? Our vil- classes ? They have caused labour to lage population is kept in the very make war upon capital. Every labest order without a single salaried bouring man,
we believe, always knows peace-officer-without a single indi. that, if his wages be bad, or if he vidual's being regularly employed in cannot procure employment, there are preserving the peace. Look at the Irish too many labourers in his vocation"; estate of the Duke of Devonshire, but whether he knows this or not, it which appears to be managed to a is a matter of no consequence to him great extent after the English fashion. unless the knowledge lead him to, Upon it turbulence and outrage are Combination. If he do not resort to said to be unknown. On this point, this, he can apply no remedy to the and with regard to the employment of evil so far as it affects his own occupaso great a number of troops, absen- tion. We really think there is no teeism is still the great cause. We necessity whatever for Parliament to grant the tremendous authority of the establish schools to teach the working Catholic Priests, but nevertheless, a elasses to form themselves into Comlandlord can let his land to whom he binations. pleases ; he can let it wholly to Fro- With regard to teaching children testants, or to such Catholics only as at school, that if they marry too soon, will be peaceable and orderly. they will do themselves great injury
We will here offer no comment on -this we think is equally unneces Mr M‘Culloch's opinions touching the sary. Almost all our young people Poor Laws. We promised a Paper on throughout our labouring population these Laws some time since, and our have this continually rung in their promise is yet unperformed, solely be
ears, from their infancy to the time of cause we think such topics possess the their marriage, by parents and every greatest interest when Parliament is one else and they profit from it very assembled; it will not long remain little. People are impelled to marry unperformed.
at too early an age, by a passion which We have only space to touch very Political Économy can neither extina briefly on two other parts of the Phi- guish nor regulate--by a passion losopher's evidence. He states that which laughs to scorn reason, instruc
tion, and even Mr M'Culloch himself. credit is due to Nir M'Culloch? If The perfect heartlessness, and the towns were not filled during the night gross ignorance of the influence of with watchmen and police officers, and the more powerful and ennobling feel- if property were not male as secure as ings of the human heart, which Mr bolts and bars can make it, what would M°Culloch manifests throughout his then be town honesty? As matters evidence, are alike surprising and re- are, weigh the knavery of towns pulsive. He places the Noble on a against that of the country, and the level with the Agent; he ascribes the latter will kick the beam. effects of nature to the want, of in- So much for honesty ; and now for struction; and he speaks as though bu- the intercourse between the sexes. Do man conduct could never be influenced our villages contain common prostiby any other principle than that of tutes ? Do the uumarried men, and pecuniary profit and loss. If philosopart of the married ones, of these vil. phy consist in stoicism he is no doubt Tages, constantly cohabit with such a philosopher; and yet his stoicism prostitutes, like those of towns ? Cerhas nothing stern, daring, and mag- tainly not. In our villages there is nificent about it, to save it from being very little intercourse between the despicable.
sexes, save that which is lawful ; in If schools be established at all, let each, there are perhaps a couple of them be established to implant in the married women of light character; breasts of the children, not avaricious these are constrained to be very cirselfishness, but the kindness and be- cumspect in their conduct, and as to nevolence of the New Testament their acting like common women, it is the distinctions between moral right out of the question. What the conduct and wrong—the fear of the vengeanceof is in towns of the greater part of the Heaven for misconduct-the convic. single men, of no small part of the tion that they must at last be account. married ones, of a large portion of the able for the deeds of their whole lives, wives of the lower orders, and of far not to a human priest, but to an om- too large a portion of the female ser. niscient and unerring Deity.
vants, touching this point, we need Mr M'Culloch asserts that the mo- not say. It must be already known to rality of towns is to the full as good as those who need information on the the morality of the country, meaning matter—to wit, our legislators. by the term morals—honesty, and the We are aware that what has been intercourse between the sexes. What said by parishes, with regard to illethe case may be in Scotland, we know gitimate children, has caused certain not, but so far as this regards England, . ignorant people to maintain that our it is totally at variance with truth, and village females are generally unchaste. a gross libel upon the village popula- The fact is, that in almost every case tion.
in which an illegitimate child is born In our villages, the doors of the sta- in a village, the mother is the victim ble, cow-house, and hog-sty, are rarely of seduction. In some cases, perhaps, locked during the night, the poultry the seducer has no great difficulty in is left at large, the barn is very slen- triumphing, but we believe that in all derly secured, quantities of valuable he is compelled to give a solemn proproperty are scattered about the farm- mise of marriage. He prevails by prostead, wholly unprotected, the dwell- fessing honourable love. Virtue is ings of the cottagers are protected in never sold for money. The girl has the slightest manner, there is no "intercourse with none but the seducer, watchman, or police officer of any de- and after the child is born she goes scription, the whole of the villagers go again to service, and is generally very to bed about the same hour, and are virtuous in her conduct afterwards. buried in the deepest sleep during the We defend not such women, but they night, and yet a serious theft is sel- are not to be confounded with those dom heard of. If horse-stealing have of towns, who, for the sake of money, now reached a great height, be it re- or from sheer depravity, are common membered that it is chiefly carried on strumpets. by the inhabitants of towns, or those In speaking of morals, drunkenwho have been taught their villainy in ness must not be forgotten. Do our towns. When this is contrasted with husbandry labourers spend nearly the state of things in towns, what every evening, and the chief part of
two whole days in the week in addi- per centage agent, or middleman, to be tion, at the public-house, like the stripped of their little property, fed on chief part of the labouring classes of potatoes, clothed with rags, and plun. towns? No, they do not expend in ged into the lowest abyss of penury, public-houses, one-tenth of the time and barbarism - that landlord is món and money which are expended in such rally guilty of a crime against his speplaces by the town working classes. cies and his country, which cannot be
The Philosopher asserts, that the surpassed in enormity. Compared inhabitants of towns are far more ins with him, what evils does the common telligent than those of the country. robber, who dies on the gallows, inWhat has been the conduct of such fict on individuals and society? He of the inhabitants of towns as are of who defends this landlord, and prethe same rank with the inhabitants of vents him from changing his conduct, villages for many of the past years? is his accomplice in the crime. The What was this conduct in the days of feeling which now pervades the counRadicalism in the days of Luddism try, touching the conduct of the absenwhile the Queen's frenzy raged--and tee landlords, will not, we trust, be what has it been during the days of stifled by the nonsense of Mr M‘CulCombination? The answer will suf- loch. We hope it will increase, until fice for the refutation of Mr M‘Cul- it force every one of them to take his loch. He is a perfect stranger to our
estate under his own management. towns, or a perfect stranger to our vil. Many of them are now anxious to do lages, or he made assertions to the their duty; if the remainder shelter committee which he knew to be themselves under the Philosopher, groundless.
and persevere in their present course, Want of space here compels us, we trust that at any rate they will not against our wishes, to close our re- go unpunished. If the laws cannot marks on his evidence. We, perhaps, reach men who consign their fellowshould not have noticed it at all, had creatures, by hundreds and thousands, it not been for its tendency to prevent to extortion, oppression, want, and mi. the absentee landlords of Ireland from
the press and public opinion can doing their duty. That landlord who reach them, and we hope that these gives up the cultivators of his estate will not be sparing in imprinting the who perhaps cannot leave it without brand, and inflicting the torture. actual starvation into the hands of a
THE BLOODY BUSINESS.
From Mansie Wauch's Autobiography.
Nay, never shake thy gory locks at me;
Thou can'st not say I did it!--Macbeth. It was on a fine summer morning for some time ill, with an income in somewhere about four o'clock, when I her leg, which threatened to make a waukened from my night's rest, and laniter of her in her old age; the twa was about thinking to bestir mysell, doctors there, no speaking of the blackthat I heard the sound of voices in the smith, and sundry skeely old women, kail-yard, stretching south frae our being able to mak naething of the back windows. Í listened and I lis business; so nane happened to be wi'. tened-and I better listened and still me in the room, saving wee Benjie, the sound of the argle-bargleing be- who was lying asleep at the back of came more distinct, now in a fleech. the bed, with his little Kilmarnock on ing way, and now in harsh angry his head, as sound as a top. Nevertones, as if some quarrelsome disagree theless, I lookit for my claes; and, ment had ta'en place. I had na the opening one half of the window shutcomfort of my wife's company in this ter, I saw four young birkies, well dilemmy; she being away, three days dressed, indeed three of them cusbefore, on the top of Tammy Trundle tomers of my ain, all belanging to the the carrier's cart, to Lauder, on a vi- toun; twa of them young doctors ; ane sit to her folks there; her mother, of them a writer's clerk; and the ither (my gudemother like,) having been a grocer; the haill looking very fierce
and fearsome, like turkey.cocks ; swag, mercifully, on this side of hanging, gering about with their hands and by a verdict of manslaughter." arms as if they had been the king's Od, I fund mysell immediately in a dragoons; and priming a pair of pis- scrape ; but how to get out of it baftols, which ane of the surgeonts, a fled my gumption. It set me all a speerity, out-spoken lad, Maister Blis- shivering ; yet I thought that, come ter, was hadding in his grip.
the warst when it wad, they surely I jaloused at ance what they were wad not hang the faither of a helpless after, being now a wee up to fire- sma family, that had naething but his arms; so I saw that skaith was to needle for their support, if I made a come o't; and that I wad be wanting proper affidavy, about having tried to in my duty on four heads,-first, as a make peace between the youths. So, Christian, second, as a man, third, as conscience being a brave supporter, I a subject, and fourth, as a father, if I abode in silence, though not without withheld mysell frae the scene; nor many queer and qualmish thochts, lifted up my voice, however fruitlessly, and a pit-patting of the heart, no unco against such crying iniquity, as the pleasant in the tholing. wanton letting out of human blood; “ Blood and wounds !” bawled sae furth I hastened, half dressed, with Maister Thomas Blister, “ it would my grey stockings rolled up my thighs, be a disgrace for ever on the honourover my corduroys, and my auld hat able profession of physic,” egging on aboon my cowl, to the kail-yard of puir Maister Willy Magnecsy, whose contention.
face was as white as double-bleached I was just in the nick of time, and linen, “ to make any apology for such my presence checked the effusion of an insult. You not fit to doctor a blood for a little-but wait a wee. So cat,- you not fit to bleed a calf,-you high and furious were at least three of not fit to poultice a pig,--after three the party, that I saw it was catching years' apprenticeship,” said he," and water in a sieve to waste words on a winter with Doctor Monro? By the them, knowing, as clearly as the sun cupping glasses of Pocrates," said he, serves the world, that interceding “and by the pistol of Gallon, but I would be of no avail. Howsomever, would have caned him on the spot, if I made a feint, and threatened to bowl he had just let out half as much to away for a magistreet, if they wadna Look ye, man,” said he, “ look desist, and stop from their barbarous ye, man, he is all shaking;" (this was and bluidy purpose ; but, i'fegs, I had a god's truth,) “ he'll turn tail. At better have keepit my counsel till it him like fire, Willy." was asked for.
Magneesy, though sadly frightened, “ Tailor Mansie," quoth Maister looked a thocht brighter; and made a Thomas Blister, with a furious cock of kind o’ half stap forrit. “Say that ye'll his eye; he was a queer Eirish birkie, ask my pardon once more, -and if no,” come owre for his yedication ; “ since said the puir lad, with a voice broken ye have ventured to thrust your nose,” and trembling, “ then we must just said he, “where nobody invited ye, shoot one another.” you must just stay,” said he, “and “ Devil a bit," answered the other, abide by the consequences. This is "devil a bit. No, sir ; you must an affair of honour,“ quoth he ; " and down on your bare knees, and beg ten if ye venture to stir one foot from the thousand pardons for calling me out spot, och then,” said he," by the po- here, in a raw morning; or I'll have ker of St Patrick, but whisk through a shot at you, whether you will or ye goes one of these leaden playthings, no." as sure as ye ever spoiled a coat, or “ Will you stand that?" said Bliscabbaged broad-cloth. Ye have now ter, with eyes like burning coals.“ By come out, ye observe, hark ye,” said the living jingo, and the holy poker, be, “and are art and part in the busi- Magneesy, if you stand that if you ness ;-and, if one, or both, of the stand that, I say, I stand no longer principals be killed, poor devils," said your second, but leave you to dishe, “ We are all alike liable to take our grace, and a caning. If he likes to trial before the Justiciary Court, hark shoot you like a dog, and not as a ye; and, by the powers," said he, “I gentleman, then his will be done.” doubt not but, on proper considera “No, sir," replied Magneesy, with tion, that they will allow us to get off a quivering voice, which he tried in
vain, puir fellow, to render warlike, the pistols like lightning; and, as soou (he had never been in the volunteers as I got my hands ta’en from my een, like me.)
“ Hand us the pistols and looked about, wae's me, I saw then ; and let us do or die!”. Magneesy clap his hand to his brow,
Spoken like a hero, and brother wheel round like a pierie, or a sheep of the lancet: as little afraid at the seized wi the sturdie, and then play sight of your own blood, as at that of flap down on his braidside, breaking other people ; said Blister, “ Hand the necks of half a dozen cabbageover the pistols.'
stocks, three of which were afterwards It was an awfu' business. Gude clean lost, as we couldna pit them all save us, such goings on in a christian into the pat at ae time. The haill o' land ! While Mr Bloatsheet, the us ran forrit, but foremost was Bloate. young writer, was in the act of doing sheet, who, seizing Magneesy by the what he was bid, I again, but to no hand, said, wi' a mournful face, “I purpose, endeavoured to slip in a word hope you forgive me ? only say this as edgeways. Magneesy was in an awfu' long as you have breath ; for I am off case ; if he had been already shot, he to Leith harbour in half a minute." could not have looked mair clay and The bluid was rinning over puir corpse-like; so I took a kind of whis- Magneesy's een, and drib, dribbling. pering, while the stramash was draw. frae the neb o' his nose, so he was ing to a bloody conclusion, with Mais: truly in a pitiful state ; but he said: ter Harry Molasses, the fourth in the with more strength than I thocht he. spree, who was standing behind Bloat- could have mustered," Yes, yes, sheet, with a large mahogany box fly for your life. I am dying without under his arm, something in shape much pain—ily for your life, for I am like that of a licensed packman, gang
a gone man!” ing about frae house to house, through Bloatsheet bounced through the bit the country-side, selling toys and trin- kail-yard like a maukin, clamb ower kets ; or niffering plaited ear-rings and the bit wa, and aff like mad ; while sic like, wi' young lasses, for auld sile Blister was feeling Magneesy's pulse ver coins, or eracked tea-spoons. with ane hand, and looking at his doc
“Oh !" answered he very compo- tor's watch, which he had in the ither. sedly, as if it had been a cannister fu' “ Do ye think that the puir lad will of black-rappee, or blackguard, that live, doctor?” said J till him. he had just lifted down from his tap
his head a wise shake, and shelf, " it's just Doctor Blister's saws, only observed, “ Į dare'say, it will be whittles, and big knives, in case ony a hanging business amang us. In of their legs or arms be blawn away, what direction do you think, Mansie, that he may cut them off.” Little we should all take flight ?" wad have prevented me sinking down But I answered bravely, “ Flee through the ground, had I not rem them that will, I'se flee nane. If I membered, at the preceese moment, am ta'en prisoner, the town-officers that I myself was a soldier, and liable, maun take me frae my ain house; but, when the hour of danger threatened, nevertheless, I trust the visibility of to be called out, in marching-order, my innocence will be as plain as a to the field of battle. But by this time pikestaff to the een of the fifteen!" the pistols were handed to the two in. " What then, Mansie, will we do fatuated young men, Mr Bloatsheet, with poor Magneesy? Give us your as fierce as a hussar dragoon, and Mag- advice in need." neesy as supple in the knees as if he “Let us carry him down to my ain was all on oiled hinges; so the next bed," answered I;“ I wad not desert consideration was to get weel out of a fellow-creature in his dying hour! the way, the lookers-on running near. Help me down wi' him, and then flee ly as great a chance of being shot as the country as fast as you are able !" the principals, they no being accus- We immediately proceeded, and tomed, like me, for instance, to the lifted the poor lad, whae had now use of arms; on which account, I dwammed away, upon our wife's handscouged mysell behind a big pear- .barrow--Blister taking the feet, and tree; baith being to fire when Blister me the oxters, whereby I got my gied the word “ Off!”.
waistcoat a' japanned with bluid; I had hardly jouged into my hidy- when we got him laid right, we prohole, when crackcrack" played ceeded to carry him between us down