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and they are surer to exert in turn a none of him." That's the coxcomb who
sinister influence on all around them. jested on my age.
Thus, in the first place, it shocks all

(They laugh at GASTON behind) credibility that Lopez, the servant of “ Neither will I wed with a fellow whose Don Pedro, should be left “ to feed soul lies in the fineness of his hose, or upon shadows” in the palace of the in the sitting of a coat lap; for he would Duke of Barcelona, where his master

wear me, or cast me off, according to the is actually an admitted suitor to the fashion, like one of the feathers in his heiress of a Duchy; and this, too, in hat.”

That's the Prince of Bearne-he

wears feathers in his hat. “ But if the the midst of splendid festivities. And in the next place, the repeated assu

true man would have his deserts, let him rances of ill-usage which this hungry before the banquet ; and have a priest at

serenade me in the garden this evening, being gives us, at almost every ten mi

hand.' Don Pedro, thou art the true nutes of the play, and in language of

man--and thou shalt liave thy deserts ! most formidable amplification on this

I'll haste to Father Sebastian. But, for pathetic theme, actually produces at last a suspicion that his master is the cantation. Yet, l’il try; my vocalities

the serenade--verily I am no hand at a stingiest of mankind, and that the may be improved. (Tries to sing.) What Duke and his daughter are most un- is the reason that I sing not as well as poetically and unfeelingly careless of another? I have a mouth, and a throat, the comforts of their household. The and a stomach, like other men, yet sing effect is, for so much, a weakening of I cannot. Ah! I remember--my villains, the interest of the piece in its most im- Lopez, singeth the do-re-mi, and he shall portant point. The incongruity must execute the serenade. (Looking at the be gross indeed, which could excite letter.) No presumptuous, self-doating these reflections ; yet such is the effect fools—nor fellows whose souls lie in the of a sacrifice to Farce in its worst ex- fineness of their hose." But if the true travagance, of Comedy, where Comedy might have stood secure without such (Goes off reading. The others come humiliation.

forward laughing and the curtain Of Don Pedro we have said little falls.) or nothing in our account of the plot, But notwithstanding these blemishfor the reason just mentioned, that in es, the Play is highly creditable to Mr fact he has no concern in it.' A plot Hyde, and we sincerely hope that we is, however, made for him ; and part shall soon have occasion to notice anof it is, that he shall receive a forged other dramatic effort from him, in letter, as if from the Princess, from

which he shall consult his own taste, which be is to collect, that she is over and rely more upon his own resources. head and ears in love with him. We From the total absence of anything would not willingly mar the merit of that could degradle the dignity of pure what we have already quoted ; but Comedy, in those portions of the play criticism is useless when it is not im- now under notice, which are not be partial, and we must cite the follow- set with the absurdities of Don Pedro ing passage, if it were but to warn the or the importunities of his servant, we author against again descending to a cannot but conclude, that he knows species of composition, in which it is well the lines which separate the highno little praise to say, that he is utter

er from the lower walks of the Drama. ly unfit for succeeding.

The author of Alphonzus, and the

writer-be he author or adapter of FLORETTA takes PEDRO aside and gives

“Love's Victory," is a man of taste him the letter. D. Flor. There, read that, and take

as well as of genius. It would be dif

ficult to say which is most requisite in care that you comply with its contents. You know not how soon you may be the

dramatic productions ; but of late

years, (with perhaps a single excephappy man.

tion,) we have had so little of either, (She motions to the rest to retire and observe him.)

that we hail with a pleasure mixed D. Ped. (Alone in the front of the slage.)

with expectation, the appearance of -The happy man ? eir-apparent to the one, who can bring both these rare dukedom!

gifts in aid of what we cannot yet deem (Opens the letter and reads.) a hopeless task, -that of lifting from “To marry a presumptuous, self-doating

a mire of follies and extravagancies fool were to undergo the necessity of the goodly person of Britisil Co. ringing. Cuckoo' in his ears ; therefore,

II I'll none of viin." Ay, “therefore I'll

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There are many most unaccounta- Committee. In proof, we may refer ble things done in these days, and the to what he says respecting suhsetting, examining of Mr M'Culloch by the emigration on a large scale, the assoParliamentary Committee for inqui- ciating of the landlords, &c. ring into the state of Ireland was one tainly is exceedingly odd, that any of them. Mr M‘Culloch has no per- Economist, after what we have said sonal knowledge of Ireland ; he was of the tribe, should come after us to not called to state facts respecting it; do anything but contradict us. We he merely appeared as a Political Eco- say not this from vanity, for the same nomist to edify the Committee with opinions, for anything that we know general doctrines. He is a public lec- to the contrary, may have been pubturer on Political Economy, and the lished ten thousand times before we rage for this fashionable science being, published them. We wrote from our as we suspect, strong upon the saga- own observations, but it by no means cious legislators, they resolved to ob- follows that we wrote what was new. tain a lecture at an economical rate, We mention the matter, because in under the name of evidence on the some quarters we see it asserted that state of Ireland. If our conjecture be government is preparing a bill which just, they displayed in this far more is to embody Mr M'Culloch's princicunning than generosity; but, however, ples, touching sub-letting; we see his certain money-market disclosures show views touching emigration puffed most that thrift is now the order of the day extravagantly as exclusively his own ; even among gentlemen and nobles. we see it very broadly insinuated that It

may be very proper for great people the opinions contained in the only 'to be immoderately fond of great bar- sound part of his evidence were utgains, but we think it is not very pro- terly unknown until he condescended per for them to use Parliament as their to lay them before Parliament. This instrument. We do not like to see will not do; if we set up no claim to Parliamentary Committees using their originality ourselves, we certainly must privileges to enable them to “ slake not permit any such claim to be set their glorious thirst for knowledge and up by Mr M‘Culloch. science, and especially for “


sage Economist, however, difmical science” at a cheap rate, to the fers very widely from us in mary grievous loss of poor Mr M‘Culloch. things, and, where he does this, we

We may be mistaken. Perhaps the naturally imagine that he blunders philosopher was brought forward by excessively. His opinions on some the absentee landlords to throw dust points are, we are pretty sure, perfecte in the eyes of the nation, when the ly original; but, unhappily for him, misery and depravity of their tenants these are not the opinions which are were coming before it. Perhaps these so hugely lauded by people in general

. individuals found a storm gathering When he has ventured to think for around them, which could only be himself, he has produced in the public quelled by the hewildering dogmas of a vast portion of laughter, and very Political Economy. But whatever was little belief. Some of his opinions, the cause, Mr M°Culloch, who is not which are peculiarly his own, or at a man of business-who is neither an any rate, which are not ours, we shall Irish landlord, nor an Irish farmer, now examine. We are led to do this nor an Irishman of any kind, who ac- by the great importance of the general tually never saw Ireland, appeared question, and a wish to protect our before the Committee to dilate on the former papers on Ireland from misapcondition of the sister kingdom. prehension. We will begin with his

In looking over Mr M'Culloch's doctrines touching absenteeism. Someevidence, one thing causes us prodi- thing may still be added to the refugious amazement; this is-on some of tation which these have already receithe most important points, he repeats ved from various quarters. precisely the same opinions, which we The following we extract from his had, on more occasions than one, pub- evidence : lished in this Magazine, touching Ire- “ Supposing the absentee landlords of land, before he appeared before the Ireland were to return and reside upon


their estates, is it your opinion that that their inhabitants ; but when landlord would be productive of any decided ad- goes abroad, the expenditure of his invantage to the lower orders of the peo- come, though not probably productive of ple? No, I am not aware that it would advantage to that particular parish, or be productive of any decided advantage that particular part of the country where to them, in the way of increasing the ge- his estate lies, will certainly be proporneral and average rate of wages all over tionally advantageous to some other part the country.

of the country, inasmuch as the income “Would not the expenditure of their must all be laid out, in the first instance, incomes amongst them, be productive of on Irish commodities. a great deal of good ? — The income of a “ The employment of the people is a landlord, when he is an absentee, is real- great object; would not the residence of ly as much expended in Ireland, as if he the gentry contribute to the employment were living in it.

of the people ?—If you lay out your ré“Will you have the goodness to ex- venue in Jabour, you cannot lay it out on plain that a little further?-When a land- commodities; if you get L. 10,000, and lord becomes an absentee, his rent must lay out L.5000 in labour, you can of be remitted to him one way or another; course lay out L.5000 in commodities. it must be remitted to him either in mo- “ Would it not be much better for the ney or in commodities. I suppose it will peasantry of Ireland, that a large proporbe conceded, that it cannot continue to tion of revenue should be laid out in embé remitted to him from Ireland in mo. ploying them, than in the purchase of ney, there being no money to make the commodities in the city of Dublin, many remittance, for if the rents of two or three of which, perhaps, may have been of foestates were remitted in money, it would reign produce ?- If it is laid out on commake a scarcity of money and raise its modities, it will give employment to the value, so that its remittance would ine- persons engaged in the production of vitably cease : it is clear, then, that the them. rents of absentees can only be remitted “ Would not the population of the in commodities. And this, I think, would country be benefited by the expenditure be the nature of the operation; when a among them of a certain portion of the landlord has an estate in Ireland, and rent which has been remitted ?— No; I goes to live in London or Paris, his agent 'do not see how it could be benefited in gets his rent, and goes and buys a bill of the least. If you have a certain value exchange with it; now this bill of ex- laid out against fresh commodities in the change is a draft drawn against equiva- one case, you will have a certain value lent commodities that are to be exported laid out against them in the other. The from Ireland ; it is nothing more than an cattle are either exported to England, or order to receive an equivalent amount in they stay at home; if they are exported, commodities which must be sent from the landlord will obtain an equivalent for Ireland. The merchants who get 10,0001. them in English commodities; if they or any other sum, from the agent of an are not, he will receive an equivalent for absentee landlord, go into the Irish mar- them in Irish commodities; so that in ket, and buy exactly the same amount of both cases the landlord lives on the catcommodities as the landlord would have tle, or on the value of the cattle; and bought, had he been at home; the only whether he lives in Ireland or England, difference being, that the landlord would there is obviously just the very same aeat them and wear them in London or mount of commodities for the people of Paris, and not in Dublin, or in his house Ireland to subsist upon; for by the supin Ireland.

position which is made, the raising of “ Therefore, in proportion to the a- cattle is the most advantageous mode in mount of rent remitted, will be the cor- which the farmers can pay their rents. respondent export of Irish commodities? “ Would it result from the principles -Precisely; if the remittances to absen- laid down by you, that confining the tee landlords amount to three millions a. question to those considerations which year, were the absentee landlords to return have been adverted to, it would be the home to Ireland, the foreign trade of Ire- same thing, in point of fact, to Ireland, land would be diminished to that amount. whether the whole gentry of the country

“ Would not there be a local effect were absentees or not, as far as those created by the residence of Irish gentry considerations go ?-I think very nearly now absent, that would be very benefi- the same thing. If I may be allowed to cial ?- If the question be confined to par. explain, I will state one point in which I ticular spots, the expenditure of consi- think there would be a small difference. derable sums of money in them may per- I think, so far as regards the purchase of laps be productive of some advantage to all sorts of labour, except that of a mere

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menial servants, absentee expenditure is form this opinion, arisen a good deal from never injurious to a country. The only the state of society which has resulted in injury, as it appears to me, that a coun- a great measure from the absence of the try can ever sustain with reference to higher class of proprietors? I should wealth from absentee expenditure, is, certainly think that the chances were, that there may be a few menial servants that if the large proprietors had lived at thrown out of employment when land- home, and not let their estates on interlords leave the country, unless they take minable leases for small quit rents, that their servants along with them : but to the country would have been improved whatever extent menials may be out of by their residence ; but I found this opis employment, if they have the effect to nion on political grounds, and not on reduce the rate of wages, they will in- those about wealth. crease the rate of profit. In a country, “ Have not the circumstances to which however, where absenteeism has been so you have alluded, as marking the characlong prevalent as in Ireland, I should say ter of society, which induces you to think that this circumstance cannot have any that the residence of an Irish gentleman perceptible effcet.

amongst his tenantry is not likely to be “ When an agent wishes to remit, sup- attended by any good moral effect, in a pose. L. 1000 of Irish rent to & landlord great degree resulted from the state of not resident in the country, and buys a society which has been formed in consebill of exchange in Dublin, has not that quence of the absence of the real probill of exchange been actually sold, and prietors of the soil ? It may have in some does it not actually represent at the time small degree resulted from that, but the a previous exportation of Irish produce ? actual state of society in Ireland has, I

It may not represent a previous exporta- think resulted much more from other tion of Irish produce; but it will either represent a previous or a subsequent ex- " What are those other causes ? I portation.

should think it had resulted more from “ Then in every instance, in which a political causes than anything else. The demand arises for a bill of exchange to great proprietors of the soil of Ireland remit rents, it is, in point of fact, a de- have been Protestants, and have been mand for exportatiou of Irish produce, embued with all the prejudices of the that would not otherwise have existed ? Protestant sect against the great majority Undoubtedly.

of the people who live upon their estates, 6 A value being remitted equivalent and in fact against the great majority of to the rent, will not that value find its the people of the country, and having way through the various operations of those prejudices, I think Ireland has not, occasioning production by the employ upon the whole, lost a great deal by their ment of the poor, to the extent that the non-residence. landlord himself could employ them if he 66 What class of proprietors do you beremained at home? I think so.

lieve has in general usurped or occupied " Will you have the kindness to state the places of those who would have been what your view of absenteeism is, as a the natural chiefs of society? I think great moral and political question, as ap- Lord Clare states in his speech on the plicable to Ireland ? From all the infor- Union, (I forget the precise words,) that mation I have been able to obtain from a very large proportion of Ireland, about reading books on the state of Ireland, five-sixths of the country, had been conand couversing with such Irish gentle. fiscated in the course of the century endmen as I have met with, I should think ing with the reign of William the Third, that in a moral point of view, Ireland did and, of course, if that confiscation had not lose very much by the want of the not taken place, the great bulk of the absentee landlords.

property would have been in the hands Will you state what has led you to of the descendants of those whose estates form that opinion? The statements that were confiscated. Had the majority of I have seen in Mr Wakefield's work, and the landlords been Catholics, I should in other works on Ireland ; and the va. think they would have treated their ter rious conversations I have bad.

ants and the lower people better than “ The Committee are now speaking, Protestant landlords could be supposed not of the state of Ireland as it is, but

to do. what it would be if the persons of pro- 46 In looking to the causes of the property had in that country been resident sperity of countries, in what degree has, for generations, as in more fortunate what is generally called the landed intecountries has been the case ; have not rest, contributed to it? It would be very those circumstances which lead you to difficult to answer that question with preVOL. XIX.


cision; I think, however, that almost all I believe that throughout Scotland, a great improvements in every country, farm belonging to an absentee landlord, have originated among merchants and of the same goodness as one belonging manufacturers.

to a resident landlord, would let for ra" In respect to capital, and the influ. ther a higher rent. ence of capital in extending industry and “ What reason is there for its bearing employing the people, and making that a higher rent than if the landlord was profit which leads to the general wealth resident? No tenant likes to live under of a country, what would you say has that system of surveillance and overbeen the usual process by which countries looking which is generally exercised by a have changed from a state of poverty to landlord. · When a landlord goes abroad, a state of wealth and civilization ? I or lives in England, his affairs are manashould say that the history of Europe ged by his factor or agent, who is geneproves that the progress of countries in rally a very intelligent person, and much wealth and civilization, has been more more conversant with country affairs than promoted by the accumulation of capital the landlords are; so that the tenants made by manufacturers and merchants, prefer dealing with him to dealing with and by their skill and enterprize, than by the landlord. the same qualities on the part of the “ That depends on the character of the landlords.

factor, and would not apply to a country Adverting to what you stated some where the tenant preferred dealing with time ago, supposing that capital was to the landlord ? If the landlord were to be drawn from England and advantage- employ a very bad man as his factor, of ously employed in Ireland manufac- course the tenant would prefer a resident tures, would it not result from the an- landlord to deal with, if he were a better swer you have just given, that it would man; but in Scotland I believe I am war. contribute greatly to the improvement of ranted in saying, that, generally speaking, Ireland ? If it can be advantageously they uniformly prefer absentee landlords. employed in Ireland, it will go there “ Do you conceive England sustains without any legislative measures being any injury from the number of absentees necessary to force it; and if not, it had in France ? No, I do not; England better remain out of it.

would have them to feed and clothe were “ Is not absenteeism the cause of the they in England; and whether she feeds middlemen system ? I do not think it is or clothes them in England or France, is absenteeism that is the cause of it ; I a matter of perfect indifference to Engthink it originated in the difficulty of land. finding tenants possessed of capital suffi. “Do you think, that if seven-eighths cient for the working of large tracts of of the landed proprietors of England lands, and the disinclination which every were to go abroad, leaving their estates gentleman must have, to go and super- in the hands of agents to manage them, vise the proceedings of a parcel of small the general concerns of this country occupiers. I have no idea you would would go on as well as they do now? I diminish the number of middlemen ma- think, if there were courts established in terially, though you had no absentees. England like the sheriff courts of Scot

“ Would it be possible for an absentee land, and if the agents, or persons seto deal, directly or individually, with his lected to manage the estates of absentees, tenantry, if he had not the means afforded were men of as good character, and as him of letting large tracts to one person, intelligent as those who manage the esthat was responsible to him? He might tates of Scotch absentees, England would deal with them through the intervention rather gain by the absence of the great

of an agent. If he does not choose to proportion of the landed proprietors. employ a middleman, he can employ an Have you turned your attention to agent; and it is only because he finds the public expenditure of Ireland, and can that middlemen are more advantageous you state whether the revenue collected than agents, that he resorts to them in in Ireland is sufficient to defray the expreference.

pense of governing that country? I un“ Are there complaints in Scotland derstand the revenue collected in Ireland about absentee landlords ? No; I never is nearly three millions short of defraying heard of any such complaints.

the expense of governing that country, “ Are there many absentee landlords and paying the interést on that portion from Scotland ? A great many..

of the national debt of the empire which “ Do those farms, where there are properly belongs to Ireland.” absentees, bring a lower or a higher rent, Our readers will have observed, in than where the landlords are resident? the first place, that in Mr M‘Culloch's

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