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of slavery, and involuntary ser. vitude.
of the rights of conscience.
religion & know. ledge.
of the writ of habeas corpus.
Sec. 6. There shall be no slavery in this State; nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime.
Sec. 7. All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience. No person shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or maintain any form of worship, against his consent; and no preference shall be given, by law, to any religious society; nor shall any interference with the rights of conscience be permitted. No religious test shall be required, as a qualification for office, nor shall any person be incompetent to be a witness on account of his religious
belief; but nothing herein shall be construed to dispense with The necessity of oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality, and knowledge,
however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass suitable laws, to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship, and to encourage schools and the means of instruction.
Sec. 8. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety require it.
Sec. 9. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties,
except for capital offences where the proof is evident, or the or bail, fine and presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required; nor
excessive fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Sec. 10. Except in cases of impeachment, and cases arising in the army and navy, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger, and in cases of petit larceny and other inferior offences, no person shall be held to
answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on or the trial of presentment or indictment of a grand jury. In any trial, in and their rights, any court, the party accused shall be allowed to appear and
defend in person and with counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy there. of; to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to procure the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district, in which the offence is alleged to have been committed; nor shall any person be compelled, in any crimi.
of speech and of
&c. for crimes.
nal case, to be a witness against himself, or be twice put in jeopardy for the same offence.
Sec. 11. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and pub- of the freedom lish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the the press. abuse of the right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech, or of the press. In all criminal or libels. prosecutions for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury, and if it shall appear to the jury, that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was publishedwith good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted.
Sec. 12. No person shall be transported out of the State, Transportation, for any offence committed within the same; and no conviction shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture of estate.
Sec. 13. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in of quartering any house, without the consent of the owner; nor, in time of war, except in the manner prescribed by law.
Sec. 14. The right of the people to be secure in their per- Search warrants sons, houses, papers, and possessions, against unreasonable and general warsearches and seizures shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue, but on probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person and things to be seized.
Sec. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any No imprisoncivil action, on mesne or final process, unless in cases of fraud.
Sec. 16. All courts shall be open, and every person, for of redress in an injury done him in his land, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law; and justice administered without denial or delay.
Sec. 17. No hereditary emoluments, honors, or privileges, Hereditary privshall ever be granted or conferred by this State.
Sec. 18. No power of suspending laws shall ever be ex. Suspension of ercised, except by the General Assembly.
Sec. 19. Private property shall ever be held inviolate, but of the inviolasubservient to the public welfare. When taken in time of property. war or other public exigency, imperatively requiring its im mediate seizure or for the purpose of making or repairing roads, which shall be open to the public, without charge, a compensation shall be made to the owner, in money, and in all other cases, where private property shall be taken for pub
ment for debt.
bility of private
lic use, a compensation therefor shall first be made in money, or first secured by a deposit of money; and such compensation shall be assessed by a jury, without deduction for benefits to any property of the owner.
Sec. 20. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers, not herein delegated, remain with the people.
Powers reserved to the people.
In whom legis. lative power is vested.
Section 1. The Legislative power of this State shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate, and House of Representatives.
Sec. 2. Senators and Representatives shall be elected biennially, by the electors in the respective counties or districts, on the second Tuesday of October; their term of office shall commence on the first day of January next thereafter, and continue two years.
Sec. 3. Senators and Representatives shall have resided in their respective counties, or districts, one year next preceding their election, unless they shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State.
Sec. 4. No person holding office under the authority of the United States, or any lucrative office under the authority of this State, shall be eligible to, or have a seat in, the General Assembly; but this provision shall not extend to township officers, justices of the peace, notaries public, or officers of the inilitia.
Sec. 5. No person hereafter convicted of an embezzlement of the public funds, shall hold any office in this State; nor shall any person, holding public money for disbursement, or otherwise, have a seat in the General Assembly, until he shall have accounted for, and paid such money into the treasury.
Sec. 6. Each House shall be judge of the election, returns, and qualifications of its own members; a majority of all the members elected to each House, shall be a quorum to do busi. ness; but, a less number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as shall be prescribed by law.
Who shall not bold office.
Powers of each
Sec. 7. The mode of organizing the House of Represen- Organization of tatives, at the commencement of each regular session, shall be sentatives. prescribed by law.
Sec. 8. Each House, except as otherwise provided in this Rules and right constitution, shall choose its own officers, may determine its and expulsion. own rules of proceeding, punish its members for disorderly conduct; and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member, but not the second time for the same cause; and, shall have all other powers, necessary to provide for its safety, and the undisturbed transaction of business.
Sec. 9. Each House shall keep a correct journal of its Journal and yeas proceedings, which shall be published. At the desire of any two members, the yeas and nays shall be entered upon the journal; and, on the passage of every bill, in either House, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journal; and no law shall be passed, in either House, without the concurrence of a majority of all the members elected thereto.
Sec. 10. Any member of either House shall have the right Right of memto protest against any act, or resolution thereof; and such protest, and the reasons therefor, shall, without alteration, commitment, or delay, be entered upon the journal.
Sec. 11. All vacancies which may happen in either House Vacancies in eishall, for the unexpired term, be filled by election, as shall be filled. directed by law.
Sec. 12. Senators and Representatives, during the session Privilege of of the General Assembly, and in going to, and returning from arrest, and of the same, shall be privileged from arrest, in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace; and for any speech, or debate, in either House, they shall not be questioned elsewhere.
Sec. 13. The proceedings of both Houses shall be public, When session to except in cases which, in the opinion of two-thirds of those present, require secrecy. Sec. 14. Neither House shall, without the consent of the Power of ad
. other, adjourn for more than two days, Sundays excluded; nor to any other place than that, in which the two Houses shall be in session.
Sec. 15. Bills may originate in either House; but may be Where bills shal altered, amended, or rejected in the other.
Bills to be read three times.
more than subject.
Acts revived or amended.
Style of latvs.
Sec. 16. Every bill shall be fully and distinctly read, on three different days, unless, in case of urgency, three-fourths
of the House, in which it shall be pending, shall dispense with Not to contain this rule. No bill shall contain more than one subject, which
shall be clearly expressed in its title; and no law shall be re-
or sections, so amended, shall be repealed.
publicly in the presence of the House over which he presides,
Sec. 18. The style of the laws of this state shall be, “Be
Sec. 19. No Senator or Representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, or for one year thereafter, be appointed to any civil office under this State, which shall be created or the emoluments of which, shall have been increased, during the term, for which he shall have been elected.
Sec. 20. The General Assembly, in cases not provided for tion of officers in this constitution, shall fix the term of office and the com
pensation of all officers; but no change therein shall affect
Sec. 21. The General Assembly shall determine, by law,
tested elections shall be conducted. Appropriations.
Sec. 22. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, except in pursuance of a specific appropriation, made by law; and no appropriation shall be made for a longer period than
Exclusion from office.
Term of office, and
in certain cases.
Contested elec. tions.
Impeachment, how instituted
Sec. 23. The House of Representatives shall have the sole and conducted. power of impeachment, but a majority of the members elec
ted must concur therein. Impeachments shall be tried by the