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used as a stool and so constructed that the can may be adjusted to any height to suit the convenience of the milker. When the can is full all the milker has to do is to remove the funnel, screw a cap into the opening, and place the can in the storage tank. The funnel is simply washed and boiled and set away in a tin receptacle kept specially for the purpose. It is all the apparatus the dairyman has to clean if the cans are properly sterilized by the dealer. When we compare this simple apparatus with the ordinary open milk pail and wire-gauze strainer, wooden milk stool, a milk cooler (which as ordinarily kept
FIG. 64. The Maynard combination milk pail, can, strainer, and stool. This simple device makes it possible to produce clean milk in almost any stable.
inoculates the milk with countless bacteria), and a 10-gallon can, we find the handling of milk much simplified.
We do not wish to give the impression that the cooling and aerating of milk as ordinarily practiced is not important, since it is well known that the keeping quality of such milk is much improved by running it promptly over a tubular cooler, provided the cooler and surrounding air are clean. Where the Maynard pail is used, however, cooling and aerating by means of a tubular cooler are not neces
sary, for the reason that there are but few germs to multiply and no cow-stable odors to be removed; hence cooling in the shipping can answers all requirements and is much simpler and quicker.
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS.
The following publications, containing further information on various phases of sanitary milk production, may be obtained free of charge, so long as they are available, on application to the Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.:
Farmers' Bulletin 42.
Facts About Milk.
The Dairy Herd-Its Formation and Management.
Bacteria in Milk.
The Tuberculin Test of Cattle for Tuberculosis. Bureau of Animal Industry Circular 103. Records of Dairy Cows: Their Value and Importance in Economic Milk Production.
Bureau of Animal Industry Circular 114.
Bureau of Animal Industry Circular 142.
Sanitary Milk Production.
THE 1908 OUTBREAK OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE IN
THE UNITED STATES.
By A. D. MELVIN, D. V. S.,
Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry.
Again the United States has been visited by an outbreak of footand-mouth disease, and again the malady has been stamped out by prompt and vigorous work by the Federal and State authorities in cooperation.
Foot-and-mouth disease, or aphthous fever, is an acute, highly infectious disease principally affecting cattle, although hogs, sheep, goats, and other animals are also susceptible, and it is sometimes communicated to man. It is characterized by fever, accompanied by the eruption of vesicles or blisters on the mucous membrane of the mouth and on the skin between the toes and above the hoofs. It spreads easily and rapidly among susceptible animals."
While this disease has been quite prevalent for many years in Europe and has caused great losses there, it has reached the United States on only five occasions and each time has been promptly eradicated without being allowed to spread sufficiently to gain a foothold. The disease appeared in this country in 1870, 1880, and 1884, but none of these early outbreaks assumed serious proportions. The last and most extensive outbreak, previous to that of 1908, occurred in 1902-3 in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Rhode Island.'
DISCOVERY OF THE RECENT OUTBREAK.
The disease was first observed early in November, 1908, near Danville, Pa., among cattle belonging to Jacob M. Shultz. Mr. Shultz had in his possession a publication of the Bureau of Animal Industry describing foot-and-mouth disease, and by comparing the symptoms in his cattle with this description he suspected that the animals might have that disease. He called in a local veterinary practitioner, Dr. J. O. Reed, who also regarded the affection as suspicious and reported the cases to Dr. Leonard Pearson, State veterinarian of Pennsylvania.
a Circular 141 of the Bureau of Animal Industry describes the nature and symptoms of the disease, as well as its diagnosis and methods of prevention. A history of the 1902-3 outbreak appears in the Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry (for 1902), p. 391.
The first news received by the United States Department of Agriculture was on November 10, from Doctor Pearson, who had examined cases near Danville and Watsontown and who gave a positive diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease. The writer at once went to Danville, accompanied by Dr. John R. Mohler, chief of the Pathological Division, and Dr. R. P. Steddom, chief of the Inspection Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry, and after examination of some of the cases they confirmed the diagnosis.
TERRITORY AFFECTED AND MEASURES FOR SUPPRESSION.
A quarantine was declared by the Secretary of Agriculture on November 12 (effective November 13) against the interstate movement of animals from the counties of Columbia, Montour, Northumberland, and Union, in the State of Pennsylvania, these being the only counties in which the disease was reported up to that time. Within a few days, however, cases were also found in several other counties in Pennsylvania and in the vicinity of Akron, N. Y., and on November 19 the quarantine was extended to include the entire territory of those two States. This quarantine prohibited the interstate movement or the exportation of cattle, sheep, and other ruminants and swine from either of the States named. Shipments were permitted by rail through those States provided the cars were sealed by the Bureau of Animal Industry before they entered the quarantined territory. Such shipments were allowed to be unloaded in transit only in pens designated by the Chief of the Bureau and which had been cleaned and disinfected. The shipment of dressed carcasses from the States named was permitted only when the hides and hoofs had been removed, and the shipment of hides, skins, hoofs, hay, straw, etc., was forbidden unless such material had been disinfected under the supervision of the Bureau."
On endeavoring to trace the origin of the disease it was found that it was carried into Pennsylvania by two lots of cattle which came through the stock yards at Buffalo, N. Y. It was at first suspected that the contagion might have come from Canada, but on further investigation the cattle in the two shipments were found to have come from points in Michigan, New York, and Ohio, as well as in Canada. A few days later a suspicious disease was reported in several herds near Detroit, Mich., and inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry were sent to investigate. The Secretary of Agriculture and the writer went to Buffalo to give personal attention to the situation, and from there went to Detroit. On their arrival at Detroit the reports from the inspectors were of such a positive nature that a quarantine of the State of Michigan was declared by the Secretary on November 25.
"The full text of the quarantine regulations (B. A. I. Orders 155 and 156 and amendments) appears in the appendix to this volume, pp. 472-479.