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specified in the law, shall be mailed to the secretary of the stallion registration board at least ten days before the animal is imported. It also provides that no stallion or jack which is neither purebred nor grade according to the meaning of the law shall be imported into the State for breeding purposes. Any railroad company, transportation company, or common carrier is liable to a penalty if it transports a stallion or jack into the State of Montana unaccompanied by a State or Federal veterinary certificate.

Like the stallion law of Utah, provision is made whereby all persons in the State complying with the law shall have a lien upon the mare and the offspring for the amount of the service fee.


The stallion license law of Oregon is modeled very closely after the Wisconsin law, but with one important exception. No stallion owner is required to procure a license certificate for each stallion or jack which he stands for public service unless he so desires. This is readily seen in the following quotations taken from the law:

Every person, firm, or company standing or traveling any stallion for profit or gain in this State may at his discretion cause the name, description, and pedigree of such stallion or jack to be enrolled by the department of horse breeding of the Oregon Agricultural College, and procure a certificate of such enrollment from said department. * The owner of each stallion or

* * *

jack may make oath before a notary public that such stallion or jack is to the best of his knowledge free from hereditary, contagious, or transmissible unsoundness or disease. The owner of any stallion or jack standing for service in this State may, at his discretion, post or keep affixed during the entire breeding season copies of the license certificate of such stallion or jack.


The Idaho law, which became effective March 15, 1909, has some of the features of several stallion laws of other States. Any person, firm, or company offering a stallion or jack for sale must procure a license certificate in the same manner as if the animal were to be used for public service.

The veterinary examination is made by the State veterinarian or one of his assistants, and his report is sent to the live-stock sanitary board. This report shall contain a full description of the animal examined, and shall be made in triplicate, one copy being sent to the State live-stock sanitary board, one furnished to the owner, and the other retained in the book.

It is necessary that a fee of $10 be paid the veterinary surgeon before he makes the examination, but all stallions and jacks owned in the State at the time of the approval of the act shall be examined. for a fee of $5, provided that they be assembled at a point designated by the State veterinary surgeon.

The list of disqualifying unsoundnesses and diseases, which differs somewhat from those in the other States, is as follows: Hemiplegia (roaring or whistling), chorea (stringhalt), bone spavin, bog spavin, ringbones, thorough pin, enlarged side bones, urethral gleet, ophthalmia, cribbing, and curb, when accompanied by curby hock. Any marked, faulty, or weak conformation which is liable to be transmitted is also a disqualification.

Should a stallion which is granted a license certificate have unsoundnesses which do not disqualify him, they are enumerated in the certificate.

Copies of the license certificate shall be posted in a conspicuous place on the main door leading into any stable or public building where the stallion or jack is kept, whether he is for public service or for sale.

All persons complying with the law are given a lien upon the mare served and the offspring, the same as in the Utah, Montana, and North Dakota laws.

In the case of the death of any jack or stallion licensed the owner is required to forward the license certificate of said animal to the secretary of the live-stock sanitary board.

This board is empowered to make a veterinary examination of an animal at any time without charge, and if he is found to have any of the diseases or unsoundnesses designated in the act his license may be revoked.

The penalty for a violation of the provisions of the act is divided into two parts: Anyone using a stallion or jack for public service without first procuring a license is guilty of a misdemeanor and liable to a fine of not less than $25 nor more than $100, or imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not less than fifteen days nor more than thirty days for each offense. Any person selling or disposing of a stallion or jack in violation of the act is guilty of a felony and is liable to a fine not to exceed $600 or imprisonment in the county jail not to exceed one year, or both such fine and imprisonment.

It is made the duty of the county attorney of the county in which a violation occurs to conduct all proceedings against the violators of the act.


The stallion license laws of Colorado and Nebraska are practically the same as the Iowa law. The Nebraska law, however, provides for the enrollment of the stallions by the professor of animal husbandry of the University of Nebraska, and in Colorado the stallions are enrolled by the secretary of state. In Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, and New Jersey a specific list of

infectious, contagious, or transmissible diseases or unsoundnesses is included in the law. The list in the New Jersey law is identical with that of Wisconsin, but periodic ophthalmia (moon blindness), pulmonary emphysema (heaves or broken wind), bog spavin, and navicular disease are not included in the laws of Minnesota, North Dakota, or Montana.

The stallion laws in all the States mentioned require the submission of certificates of registration in studbooks certified by the United States Department of Agriculture as evidence of the purity of breeding of stallions licensed as purebred, except that, in addition, the Minnesota and North Dakota laws provide that stallions shall be accepted as purebred which are registered in studbooks of any American studbook or registry association which recognizes and records stallions having five pure top crosses.


That the State stallion laws mark a distinct step in advance in our horse-breeding industry is hardly to be questioned. One of the first results of the operation of these laws was to provide data which show the actual facts with regard to the stallions being used for breeding purposes. The situation in Wisconsin as revealed by the data collected under the stallion law of that State is very ably discussed by Dr. A. S. Alexander in Bulletins 141, 155, 158, and 169 of the agricultural experiment station of that State, and the Minnesota stallion law is very thoroughly explained by Prof. Andrew Boss in Bulletin 1 of the Minnesota stallion registration board.

The Wisconsin stallion law has been in operation three years, and the data collected afford a very good opportunity for judging as to the beneficial effects of such legislation. Bulletin 169 of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station states that 1,561 grade stallions were licensed in 1906, and in 1908, when their certificates should have been renewed, it was found that 553, or 35.2 per cent, had been retired from public service. In addition to the retiring of these grade animals it was shown that the use of a number of unsound and unsuitable purebred sires for public service had been discontinued.

A very important indirect result of the licensing of stallions is shown in the following extract from Bulletin 141 of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station:

As the law required owners of purebred stallions to submit the certificates of registry of their horses for inspection before license certificates could be granted, it has led to more care being taken in all matters pertaining to the recording of pedigrees, the character of pedigree registry studbook societies, associations, and companies; the correctness of pedigree certificates, and the proof of identity in case of aged horses that have changed hands many times. Then, too, it has caused discussion in every blacksmith shop, livery stable, farm barn, and country assembling place relative to the importance of pedigree, the power and

prepotency of pure blood, the foolishness of breeding to horses of mixed breeding or of no known breeding; the fallacy of using horses of poor individual quality and character, and the importance of knowing exactly what is the true breeding of each stallion standing for public service throughout the State.


Following is the total number of grade and purebred stallions enrolled up to January 1, 1909, in each State where a stallion license law has been in force long enough to furnish any considerable amount of data:

Number and percentage of purebred and grade stallions for public service in certain States, January 1, 1909.

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a Only purebred stallions are licensed in Iowa; they are estimated from county assessment returns to be over 50 per cent of the total.

b Number licensed during 1908 only.



Assistant Animal Husbandman, Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station.a


The increasing interest which is being manifested in live-stock exhibitions, especially those of national importance, indicates that their position as a factor in promoting interest in agriculture and agricultural education is becoming more firmly established each succeeding year. The national shows bring together the stockmen from all parts of the country and demonstrate to them in a practical way the improvement that may be accomplished in live-stock husbandry. From the educational standpoint these exhibitions are of great value, as they illustrate science applied and theory put into practice, and thus they have become essential as a practical supplement to the college class room.

In Great Britain the breeding shows are not combined with the fat-stock shows, and the same was formerly the case in this country. The American shows now unite these two features, because when combined they more fully illustrate the possibilities in the production and improvement of live stock. The former represent the stock-breeding interests, the latter the stock-feeding interests, including the finished fat stock both before and after slaughter. The breed classes represent the essential characteristics of good type and blood, while the fat stock illustrate what may be attained with good type and blood.

Live-stock exhibitions have developed with the growth of the livestock industry as necessary object lessons for the stockman, and chiefly for this reason have taken root at the centers of greatest livestock activity. The International holds the same position among stock shows that Chicago holds among live-stock markets, and the American Royal, at Kansas City, represents in the same degree the growing live-stock industry of the Southwest, while still another show of national importance, for which the prospects foreshadow a successful future, has made its appearance at Denver to represent the developing industry of the Northwest. The territory represented by the stock exhibited and competing at these three shows a Formerly Assistant Animal Husbandman in the Bureau of Animal Industry.

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