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largest establishments, with only a short lighter voyage, has installed refrigerating machinery in its lighters, which keeps the temperature the same as that of the freezing rooms in the plant. This is in addition to insulating the lighters thoroughly to prevent radiation of heat. Generally insulation alone is depended upon to prevent thawing of the meat, no special refrigeration on the lighters being thought necessary.

The impression a North American gets is that there is very little utilization of by-products in the Argentine abattoirs. Each plant, of course, has its rendering tanks, but by-products are usually sold in the unfinished state to local factories.

The inspection system seems to be thorough and efficient.


FIG. 53.-A "gaucho" dismounted to show peculiar type of saddle.


South America, and especially Argentina, has been discussed for years as a promising outlet for the purebred live-stock trade of the United States, but few important efforts have been made to obtain an entrance into that field. An Indiana stockman has for some time been making annual shipments of cattle, hogs, and poultry to Buenos Aires, and the venture has been a profitable one on the whole. The shipment of Thoroughbred horses in the summer of 1908 attracted much attention in both countries, and the horses sold fairly well in Buenos Aires. There is also a New York firm which has sent quite a number of dairy cattle to Brazil, and the trade of the Vermont Merino sheep breeders with Uruguay is still carried on in a limited

way. In nearly all cases, however, the Argentine breeder seems to feel that if he wants something better than he can breed himself, he must go to England or France for it.

The Argentine breeder recognizes the value of North American importations for just about what they are worth. If good animals, they are welcome; if inferior, they meet with no more ready sale than at home. In the writer's opinion the following are necessary and very important steps to take to bring us our share in the South American trade:

1. Let breeders in both countries become acquainted personally. This could not be done better than by having South American breeders attend our leading live-stock shows and assist in the judging. Invitations of this kind would doubtless be cordially received, and would open the way to an exchange of such courtesies as could not fail to be mutually profitable. Nothing strikes one more forcibly in Argentina, Chile, and other South American countries than the sentiment which exists toward the United States, to which Arthur Ruhl has already called attention in The Other Americans. The dominant note is the expression of a desire to become better acquainted. The South Americans are eager to know the North Americans, but they naturally feel that they should be met halfway. 2. A campaign of enlightenment. In addition to having Argentine breeders visit the United States, there should be a determined effort to exhibit North American animals in Argentina. Prizes at the shows, as a rule, are open only to native-bred animals, but that would not prevent the exhibition of animals for advertising purposes and for sale.

If North American breeders should form a company and buy a small estancia where cattle could be kept prior to sale, they could combine this advertising feature with the lowest possible cost of handling the animals.

In this connection it may be remarked that a permanent exhibit of breeding animals in the United States could be of great benefit, not only in developing trade with South America, but with other countries as well.

In developing the trade with Argentina, four points should be especially borne in mind:

1. Only good animals should be sent. Argentine breeders are just as good judges as those in other countries.

2. The best demand exists for beef cattle in the following order: Shorthorns, Herefords, Aberdeen-Angus; for horses, Thoroughbreds and Hackneys; for sheep, Lincolns are by far the most in demand; for hogs, Berkshires and Poland-Chinas, but the hog trade, as already pointed out, is limited.

3. The representative in charge should have a thorough knowledge of Spanish. It is a waste of money to send a business agent to South America who must speak a foreign language or through an interpreter. Even though an Argentine can speak English fluently, he naturally prefers to use Spanish at home. If the North American can speak Spanish, few better introductions are needed.

4. The cost of selling animals in Buenos Aires through the auction. stables is considerable. These stables are well fitted up, sanitary, well ventilated and well lighted, and managed by gentlemen with whom it is a pleasure to have dealings; however, they are necessarily expensive, and unless cattle are quickly sold the expenses cut into the profits seriously. If for any reason the prices quoted are not satisfactory, there should be some place where the animals can be kept at a minimum cost until they can be sold to advantage. As before mentioned, a small estancia would be best for this purpose, and could be made a profitable investment in other respects as well.




By Roy A. CAVE,

Herdbook Assistant, Bureau of Animal Industry.

Within the past few years eleven different States have passed laws requiring that all owners of stallions or jacks, before standing them for public service, shall obtain a license for each animal from the State board created for that purpose. This board examines all pedigree certificates and veterinarians' certificates of soundness submitted, and enrolls and issues license certificates for all stallions and jacks entitled to such enrollment in accordance with the law. Such legislation has been enacted in Iowa, Minnesota, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Utah, Wisconsin, Montana, Oregon, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Colorado."


The Wisconsin law, which went into effect January 1, 1906, was the first to be passed, and reads as follows:

The people of the State of Wisconsin, represented in senate and assembly, do enact as follows:

SECTION 1. Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, of chapter 116 of the laws of 1905, are amended and made nine sections of the statutes of 1898, to read:

Section 1494-31. Every person, firm, or company using any stallion or jack for public service in this State shall cause the name, description, and pedigree of such stallion or jack to be enrolled by the department of horse breeding of the college of agriculture, University of Wisconsin, and procure a certificate of such enrollment from said department, which shall thereupon be presented to and recorded by the register of deeds of the county in which said stallion or jack is used for public service.

Section 1494-32. 1. In order to obtain the license certificate herein provided for, the owner of each stallion or jack shall make oath before a notary public or any officer duly authorized to administer oaths, that such stallion or jack is, to the best of his knowledge, free from hereditary, contagious, or transmissible unsoundness or disease, or, in lieu thereof, may file a certificate of soundness, signed by a duly qualified veterinarian, who shall be a regular graduate of a recognized veterinary college, or by a registered veterinarian who shows proof that he was in practice in this State for a period of five years prior to the year 1887, and shall make oath to said certificate before a notary public, or any officer duly authorized to administer oaths, and shall forward this affidavit or veterinarian's certificate, together with the stud book certificate of registry of the pedigree of the said stallion or jack, and other necessary

a Since this article was written stallion license laws have been passed in Kansas and Illinois.

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