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thing in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members Official oaths. of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution ; but no religious test Religious

tests. shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

Art. VII. The ratification of the conventions of nine States, shall be Ratification. sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.

Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States prosent, the

seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.

GEORGE WASHINGTON, PRESIDENT, and Deputy from Virginia.

New Hampshire. - John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman.
Massachusetts. - Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King.
Connecticut. — William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman.
New York. Alexander Hamilton.

New Jersey. - William Livingston, David Brearley, William Paterson,
Jonathan Dayton.

Pennsylvania. -- Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris.

Delaware. — George Read, Gunning Bedford, Jun., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom.

Maryland. - James M'Henry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Daniel

Virginia. — John Blair, James Madison, Jun.
North Carolina. - William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh

South Carolina. John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney,
Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler.
Georgia. — William Few, Abraham Baldwin.
Attest :




Religion. Art. I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of Freedom of speech. Right

religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freeof petition. dom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to

assemble, and petition the government for a redress of grievances. Right to keep Art.-II. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a and bear arms.

free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be in

fringed. Quartering of ART. III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any soldiers.

house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a

manner to be prescribed by law. Searches and Art. IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, seizures.

papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not Warrants. be violated ; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, sup

ported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be

searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Criminal Art. V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise

infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or

limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be witness against Personal rights. himself ; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process

Rights of of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just property. compensation.

Defendants' Art. VI. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right rights.

to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor ;

and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence. Civil trials. ART. VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy

shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court

of the United States than according to the rules of the common law. Bail, fines, &c. ART. VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines

imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Retained Art. IX. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, shall rights. not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Reserved Art. X. - The powers not delegated to the United States by the Conpowers.

stitution nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States re

spectively or to the people. Limitation of Art. XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be conthe judicial strued to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted power.

against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

The first ten of these amendments were proposed by Congress (with others which were not ratified by three fourths of the legislatures of the several States), by resolution of 1789, 1 Stat. pp. 97, 98, and were ratified before 1791. The eleventh amendment was proposed by Congress by resolution of the year 1794, 1 Stat. p. 402, and was ratified before 1796. The twelfth article was proposed by Congress by resolution of October, 1803, vol. 2, p. 306, and was ratified before September, 1804.

Art. XII. $ 1.* The electors shall meet in their respective States, Election of and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at President and

Vice-President. least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves ; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately by ballot the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March Dext following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

§ 2. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President: a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.

$ 3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

ART. XIII. $ 1.f Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

§ 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[No. 48.) Joint Resolution proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Stat. at Large,

Vol. XIV. p. 358. Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, (two thirds of both Houses con- Proposed curring) That the following article be proposed to the legislatures of amendment to the several States as an amendment to the Constitution of the United of the United States, which, when ratified by three fourths of said legislatures, shall be States. valid as part of the Constitution, namely:

Art. XIV. § 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, Article XIV.. and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States

zens of the Unitand of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce ed States and any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the of the States ; United States ; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or and immunities. property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Who are citi

This amendment was proposed in October, 1803, and ratified before September, 1804. † Proposed February 1, 1865, and ratified within the same year.

Apportionment $ 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States of representatives.

according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and VicePresident of the United States, representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty

one years of age in such State. Certain persons § 3. No person shall be a senator, or representative in Congress, or disqualified from holding office.

elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United

States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, How disability or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a may be removed. vote of two thirds of each House remove such disability,

The validity of $ 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized the public delt by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for tioned.

services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. Certain debts But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt and obligations

or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United sumed or paid. States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but all

such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. This article $ 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislamay be enforced by legislation. tion, the provisions of this article.

SCHUYLER COLFAX, Speaker of the House of Representatives.


President of the Senate pro tempore.

Edw. McPherson,
Clerk of the House of Representatives.


Secretary of the Senate. Received at Department of State, June 16, 1866.

not to be


not to be as










No. 1. - AUGUST 7, 1789.

Stat. at Large, CHAP. IX. - An Act for the Establishment and Support of Lighthouses, Beacons, Buoys, and Public Piers.

Vol. I. p. 53.

Act of July Sec. 1. Be it enacted, &c. That all expenses which shall accrue from 22, 1790, ch. 32. and after the fifteenth day of August, one thousand seven hundred and Expenses of eighty-nine, in the necessary support, maintenance, and repairs of all light- support and rehouses, beacons, buoys and public piers erected, placed, or sunk before the Aug. 1789, to be passing of this act, at the entrance of, or within any bay, inlet, harbor, or port defrayed out of of the United States, for rendering the navigation thereof easy and safe, the U. States. shall be defrayed out of the treasury of the United States: Provided, never- Provided a cestheless, That none of the said expenses shall continue to be so defrayed by within one year. the United States, after the expiration of one year from the day aforesaid, unless such lighthouses, beacons, buoys, and public piers, shall in the mean time be ceded to and vested in the United States, by the State or States respectively in which the same may be, together with the lands and tenements thereunto belonging, and together with the jurisdiction of the same. Sec. 3. That it shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury to pro- the Treasury to

of vide by contracts, which shall be approved by the President of the Unit- contract for ed States, for building a lighthouse near the entrance of Chesapeake Bay, building, re

pairing, &c. and for rebuilding when necessary, and keeping in good repair, the light

when necessary houses, beacons, buoys, and public piers in the several States, and for furnishing the same with all necessary supplies; and also to agree for the salaries, wages, or hire of the person or persons appointed by the President, for the superintendence and care of the same.

Sec. 4. That all pilots in the bays, inlets, rivers, harbors, and ports of the Pilots to be United States, shall continue to be regulated in conformity with the ex- existing laws of isting laws of the States respectively wherein such pilots may be, or with the respective

States. such laws as the States may respectively hereafter enact for the purpose, until further legislative provision shall be made by Congress.

No. 2. — SEPTEMBER 2, 1789.
CHAP. XII. An Act to establish the Treasury Department.

Stat. at Large,

Vol. I. p. 65. Sec. 1. Be it enacted, &c. That there shall be a Department of Treasury,

Department in which shall be the following officers, namely: a Secretary of the Trea- designated. sury, to be deemed head of the department; a Comptroller, an Auditor, a Officers: SecTreasurer, a Register, and an Assistant to the Secretary of the Treas- retary, Comp

troller, Auditor ury, ...

Treasurer, RegSec. 2. That it shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury to di- ister, Assistant

to Secretary.

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