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were expelled from the Methodist Church. They then joined the Protestant Episcopal organization, where Enmegahbowh continued a faithful Christian worker until his death in 1902, which occurred at White Earth agency, in Northern Minnesota. He lived about 92 years, sixty-five of which were spent in the noble effort of trying to better his people-almost the exact time Peter Akers was engaged in the Christian ministry.

Rev. Samuel Spates maintained that Enmegahbowh was unjustly treated, and that the Methodist Church should have exonerated him from all blame and given him credit for promptness, bravery and right action. There is no doubt but that the Methodists in Minnesota, by that act of expurgation, lost a man of power. Rev. Samuel Spates was engaged for nearly twenty years in the mission service. He then resigned and devoted the remainder of his days to general Christian duties. He died April 19, 1887, aged 72 years, respected and loved by all. I particularly wish to express my esteem for the work of Samuel Spates and Enmegahbowh in Minnesota. Spates was one of the most conscientious men I ever knew. He had the highest ideals of life, which he endeavored to live up to. He lived all of his years in grateful remembrance of his school days at Ebenezer. Enmegahbowh, on account of his Indian blood, was able to exert a great influence among his people in the interest of law and order. In that awful summer of 1862, when the people of Minnesota were sacrificing so much in the Civil War, for the perpetuation of the Union and the abolition of slavery; that summer, when “Father Abraham" had twice called for 300,000 more; when the women and children of the broad prairies of the Minnesota frontier were assisting to harvest the crops, in the absence of sons and brothers, who had joined the army, there came upon them, without a moment's notice, Monday, the 18th day of August, 1862, the “Sioux Uprising." These Indians had for years been laboring under actual or fancied wrongs, which were then intensified by the fear of cold and hunger, in the coming winter. Feeling, too, that the military resources of the State were employed south of the Mason and Dixon's line, they hoped to be able to secure a return to them of their old hunting grounds, on account of unpaid annuities, which the government, during the Civil War, had not been able to keep up. The Sioux warriors who commenced the attack were well armed and were the most expert and daring skirmishers in the world. They carried on war, like the ancient Romans, for destruction and extermination. Few can realize the terrible peril that the entire State of Minnesota was then in. The panic which reigned was the result of the Indian attacks on New Ulm, Fort Ridgley and other points; the battle of Birch Coolie and numberless homes devastated; the wholesale slaughter of the settlers; the hundreds of men and the best women in the State were held as prisoners and in constant danger of terrible death. The consternation of the people is shown from the fact that the inhabitants of the outskirts of the cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis became so alarmed that many hurried to Fort Snelling and other places of safety.

Bad, however, as it was, it came near being much worse; for Little Crow, the Sioux leader, had arranged with Hole-in-the-Day, a Chippewa chief, for a combination of forces. This combination would have been effected but for the untiring and diplomatic services of that wonderful man from the Ebenezer School, the missionary, Enmegahbouh, the man who stood before the people, and we may well add, one who stood before his God. As a result of his loyalty and Christian efforts the people of Minnesota may well unite in their praise. Rev. Spates and my father, George H. Akers, at that time were neighbors. They knew Enmegahbowh intimately, and Rev. Spates had a thorough knowledge of the Chippewa people, through long years of labor among them. I have heard him express his approval of the exceptional Christian character and efforts of Enmegahbowh in that direful issue, when he hazarded his life, day and night for a week, in his efforts to quiet the Chippewa in their determination to follow Hole-in-the-Day with Little Crow in an attack upon the settlements. Enmegahbowh accomplished his purpose by preventing that fatal combination, so that hundreds of men, women and children were saved from slaughter and untold cruelties.

This view of the services of our hero was held by Bishop Whipple and Rev. Pope, both of whom were leaders of men in the Protestant Episcopal Church in Minnesota. Also by Governor Marshall, who was a participant in the Sioux war; Governor Ramsey, General Sanborn, J. S. Brower, and Judge Flandrau, all prominent men in Minnesota history at that time. I have heard them so express themselves.

Such men as Rev. Spates and Enmegah bowh illumine the theatre of life. They were the rays of God's intelligence and the images of His goodness. The Ebenezer School equipped them to help the unfortunate and the ignorant.

These men were true to their education and their high instincts of righteous living. They redeemed the pledges their teachers and the people of Ebenezer held of them.



Reminiscences of Mrs. Elizabeth J. Osborne, a former

pupil. In company with my brothers, William and Cornelius Deweese, and my sister Mary (Mrs. John T. Alexander), I attended the Ebenezer Manual Labor School. The school was a mile and a half from my father's home (Nimrod Deweese). This distance we usually walked, but in bad weather my sister and I rode on horseback behind my brothers-I usually with William and Mary with Cornelius.

The school building consisted of two large rooms, was a frame building, used also for church purposes. Back of this building was a frame house, built for the students. I remember this building very well, as it was papered with newspapers, which we used to sometimes go in and read.

Peter Akers was our teacher, and oft times when he was called away on some missionary work Mrs. Akers would take his place, usually bringing in her baby, which played on the floor while she heard us recite our lessons. We were always delighted when we knew Mrs. Akers would be the teacher, as we stood in awe of Peter Akers. Following Peter Akers as teachers were John Piper, W. D. R. Trotter, John Hedenberg, and Emanuel Metcalf. Among the scholars who attended the school were William and Greenbury McElfresh and Aquilla, their sister. Greenbury McElfresh was a born preacher, as at recess or oft times before school he would build us a play house around a stump; then he would mount the stump and preach; would give out the songs, line them off, and we would all sing. Among the pupils were: Mary McElfresh (Mrs. Bennett), Mary Akers (Mrs. William Clampit), Polly Tucker (Mrs. Beggs). These scholars are all gone, save Julia Tucker (Mrs. John Mather), who still lives in Jacksonville.

The three Indians, being educated for missionaries, attended the school at the same time, namely: John Johnson, Peter Marksman, and George Copway. When we learned that we were to go to school with Indians we were at first somewhat alarmed, but afterwards found them to be very kind and studious. I can see them now in my mind's eye, very clearly-seated up in the trees, studying their lessons.

John Johnson told me one day if I would bring him a basket of strawberries (which grew wild in the pastures), he would give me a present. I gathered the basket of strawberries on my way to school, and received as a present from the Indian boy a little pair of scissors, which I kept for many years afterwards.

It was Peter Akers' plan to make of this Ebenezer Manual Training School a college, and he asked my father, Nimrod Deweese, to head the list of contributors toward that end. My father offered to give him five hundred dollars toward it (which was a good sum of money at that time), but this offer Peter Akers declined, thinking the sum not large enough.

I oft times ride out to old Ebenezer, and walk over the old school ground and around the cemetery. There are but few of us left now to recall these old school days, but the memories are dear of those splendid men and women who laid the foundation for education in the pioneer days of Illinois.

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