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Fort LaMotte, on LaMotte creek above Vincennes, was built in the first year of the war (1812), and also forts near the mouth of the Little Wabash.

Camp Russell was established at Edwardsville.

A block house on the Illinois river twenty miles from its mouth (Monterey).

A military station on the Mississippi river opposite the mouth of the Missouri river.

A station on Silver creek near Troy.
A block house fort at Carlyle.
A block house fort at Aviston (Journey's fort).

Two block house forts east of Shoal creek (Hill's and Jones' forts).

A block house fort southeast of Lebanon (Fort Chambers).

Two block house forts on the Kaskaskia river at Middleton and Goings.'

A block house fort (Nat Hill's) on Doza creek, near its mouth.

This was all done in the spring of 1812.

These were the white man's defenses in the second war of independence which terminated at New Orleans in 1815.

During the period of this war and among the many incidents which occurred was the Wood River Massacre of 1814 in commemoration of which this monument is being unveiled.

Reynolds in his Pioneer History, p. 343, says: “In 1814, Mrs. Reagan and six children were killed, in the forks of Wood river, a few miles east of the present city of Alton. A party of whites followed them, commanded by Capt. Samuel Whiteside. One Indian was killed in a tree top by Pruitt, and the rest escaped.”

Reynolds in his “My Own Times," p. 154, says: “During the summer of 1814 many murders were committed by Indians. Mrs. Reagan and six children were killed in the forks of Wood river, Madison county. The husband was the first one to discover the murder, by stepping into the blood of his slaughtered wife and children at night. The Indians were pursued by Samuel Whiteside and company, and one Indian killed in a tree top by Pruitt, near Sangamon river, and the rest of the Indians escaped.”

Moses, in his “İlinois,' p. 257, in a note while speaking of the casualties of the war says: “1814-Mrs. Reagan and six children on Wood river, Madison county;" and thus this incident passes into history.


In the last number of the Journal, October, 1910, was given an account of the celebration of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Ebenezer Church of Morgan County, Illinois. In this number we publish a brief account of some of the Indian pupils who were students in the school which was founded in connection with the church. This account is written by a grandson of the founder of the school, Peter Akers.

Following Mr. Akers' account of these Indian pupils we give some reminiscences of the school and the Indian pupils by Mrs. Elizabeth J. Osborne of Jacksonville, who was a pupil in the school when the Indians were there. Mrs. Osborne was born in Morgan County, January 26, 1830, and is the daughter of Nimrod Deweese, a pioneer settler of Morgan County.

She has been all her life a resident of the county, and is in the enjoyment of all her faculties and excellent health. She has a store of reminiscences which she relates in a most interesting manner.

On of the brothers, Cornelius Deweese, and the sister of whom she speaks, and both older than herself, are still living in Jacksonville. THE EBENEZER MANUAL LABOR SCHOOL AND ITS INDIAN

By Charles N. Akers, of St. Paul, Minn.

(A Grandson of Peter Akers.) I wish to express a profound appreciation of the work done by the Ebenezer Manual Labor School, which was opened by Peter Akers under the sanction of the annual conference of his church in the summer of 1837.

In 1832 Peter Akers moved from Kentucky, where he had lived for about fifteen years, to Morgan County, Illinois, so that he might rear his family outside the influence of a slave holding community. His settlement in Illinois was at the time of the Black Hawk war, so that his sympathies were at once enlisted for the Indian, which caused him quickly to endorse the movement of his conference for organizing missions among the Indians. The pathetic side of the slaughter of July 21, 1832, in that war, when the Indians, men, women and children, were attempting to cross the Mississippi River to the land which the government had assigned to them, always appealed to him. The wanton attack by our soldiers on that occasion was, of course, only a retaliation for the then recent treacherous and savage treatment of the settlers.

Dr. Akers' devotion to the brotherhood of man led him to see in that war a much needed charity for the Indians.

At the Methodist annual conference of Illinois in 1836 the subject of Indian missions was taken up, which resulted in two projects, one the establishment of a mission school for the Sioux on the Mississippi River, eight miles below Fort Snelling at Kaposia. The location was soon changed to Red Rock, where the Methodist camp ground now is, near St. Paul. Rev. Alfred Brunson, a Methodist clergyman, was made superintendent at Kaposia. The other was a school for the education of men for work in Indian missions, and was located at Ebenezer, Morgan County, Illinois, where, through the efforts of Rev. Mr. Brunson, three Ojibbeway Indians-John Johnson, whose Indian name was En-me-gah-bowh, meaning Onewho-stands-before-his-people; George Copway, and Peter Marksman-were sent for education.

The Ojibbeway and Chippewa were of common blood, being of the Algonquin stock, family or group. They had occupied the basin of Lake Superior, both north and south, for many years. The Chippewa, so-called in Minnesota, and the Sioux were traditional enemies, so that these young men could not safely attend the school at Kaposia. Elder Brunson became acquainted with them a year or two before; in fact, they helped him build the mission house at Kaposia and were with him as interpreters when Governor Dodge of Wisconsin made an effort at Fort Snelling, Minn., in the summer of 1837, to bring about a treaty between the Sioux and Chippewas. When these young Indians entered the Ebenezer School in the fall of 1837, three white men were enrolled with them for a like education. They were: Allen Huddleston, Samuel Spates and one Weatherford. They all remained for two years, at which time the annual conference in 1839 at Bloomington assigned them to mission fields in Minnesota, among the Chippewa Indians. Weatherford refused to accept an assignment, but Spates, Enmegahbowh, Marksman and Huddleston proceeded at once. Copway did not join them until the summer of 1840. Allen Huddleston died at Elk River, Minnesota, his post of duty, Christmas, 1840. Hole-in-the-day, a Chippewa chief present at the time, had his warriors pole stones as a monument, on his grave, in memory, as he declared, of a good man, which monument, it is said, remains to this day.

Marksman continued without interruption in the mission service of the Methodist Church until his death, 1892.

Copway spent but a few years in the calling he was educated for, but became a prominent writer and lecturer.

Enmegahbowh married a niece of the old chief, Holein-the-day, in 1843. She proved to be a woman of strong character and a firm Christian helper. In 1849 she was seriously insulted by a white man. Enmegahbowh promptly took the law in his own hands, and held the man while his wife chastised him, which she did with marked effect. For this both Enmegahbowh and wife

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