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the map location of the line now denoted, inasmuch as the Convention between Great Britain and Russia of the 28th February, 1825, which defines the line, making its location dependent on alternative circumstances, the occurrence, or the non-occurrence, of mountains, and, as is well known to all concerned, the country has never been topographically surveyed.
“Her Majesty's Government, therefore, feel that they are bound distinctly to disavow the recognition of the correctness of the line shown on the edition of the Map in question, forwarded herewith, as the boundary-line between the Province of British Columbia and Alaska."
The positions of the United States and Great Britain upon this subject are therefore identical. In view of this fact, it becomes unnecessary to make any extended statement in reference to the appearance of this conjectural line on the various maps reproduced in the Atlas and on other maps which may be brought forward.
With a view to showing the diversity of the conventional and unauthorized lines drawn upon maps by the various cartographers, attention is drawn to the following:
A map of Alaska and adjoining regions was compiled by Ivan Petroff, Special Agent of the United States, tenth census 1880, published in United States' Census Report. This map shows a waving line not following the parallel of latitude, entering the mouth of Observatory Inlet, and crossing up into Portland Canal, running from the head of Portland Canal about 30 miles from the general line of the coast up to Lynn Canal, and then running a similar distance around the head of Lynn Canal. This line in some places treats the inlets as not forming part of the coast, and it measures the approximate 30 miles from the mouth of the inlets until it reaches Taku Inlet and Lynn Canal, when it adopts a different principle and appears to treat Lynn Canal as part of the Ocean.
Another map, printed in volume viii, 10th Census, United 104 States, 1880, compiled by the same Ivan Petroff, Special Agent,
has a line indicating the boundary which follows the same general principle as that immediately preceding, except that it assumes some point in Lynn Canal as the point where the coast stops, and shows the boundary-line apparently crossing the head of Lynn Canal, leaving a portion of it on the British side of the boundary-line.
In the library of the United States' Congress at Washington there exist maps opposed to the United States' contention. The following may be mentioned:
A map published by A. Bertrand of Paris in 1826, giving a delineation of the west coast of America, shows Alaska as a peninsula only. Again, Sharp's Student's Atlas (Chapman and Hall of London), 1850, shows the coast strip about 10 marine leagues wide from Mount St. Elias to latitude 56° 15', thence south-west to Burrough's Bay. Revillagigedo is coloured as being British territory.
Another map showing the world on Mercator's projection in the same Atlas shows Russian America as confined to the mainland west of the 141st meridian.
A comprehensive Atlas, published by W. G. Tichnor of Boston, 1835, shows the boundary between the Russian and British possessions by a dash line, on the 141st meridian Arctic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, marked "boundary settled in 1825." Upon this map a coloured line is drawn, apparently by hand, showing the boundary from the 141st meridian north of St. Elias, running along approximately parallel to the general line of coast to the head of Portland Canal. Another copy of the same Atlas, apparently older, shows the same dash line; but the coloured line added by hand runs into Lynn Canal on the west side near the head, and emerges near Endicott Arm, and from this point to latitude 56°, where it ends, leaves a very narrow strip between line and shore. From 56 to 54° 40' the mainland is all shown as British territory.
In another Atlas published by Chapman and Hall, of London, 1844, described as an Atlas published by the Society for the dis
cussion of useful knowledge, is a map of British North 105 America, which shows the boundary-line approximately 10
leagues from the shore to Burrough's Bay. These maps are cited for the purpose of showing that the boundary-line shown upon the maps were all hypothetical, and differed greatly as between themselves.
Finally, on this subject, reference is made to the Convention which was concluded between Great Britain and the United States on thə 22nd July, 1892. This Convention has been already referred to, and is set out in the Appendix. It must be remembered that it was concluded after the diplomatic correspondence and communications which had taken place from 1825 to 1892, and followed not long after the letters of Secretary Bayard and the Earl of Iddesleigh, cited above. It provided for a determination of the boundary to follow the ascertainment of facts and data by joint survey, but made no reference to previous cartography.
In regard to the remarks offered upon the question of maps, they are made with a reservation of the right to deal with the subject fully in the British Counter-Case. It is obviously impossible at this stage to know what view will be presented by the United States, and the foregoing observations are made at this stage for the purpose of putting the Tribunal in possession at the outset of the general view taken by Great Britain upon the subject.