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ever yet been held. No human being could walk through any one of its classes without coming away much cleverer than he went there, simply because the organization and the arrangement were so wonderful that you could pick up knowledge and information without knowing it. Just, for instance, as in your United States government building you will show your postal service with all its appliances (and I have no doubt they will be very good), they had a postal department where you saw not only what they were doing in Russia to bring their postal system to perfection, but in every country in the world. For instance, there was a long avenue of postmen, of course dummies, each one arrayed in the costume of his respective country; there was an album containing the postage stamps of every country, a library composed of books containing forms for every purpose connected with postal administration, and a long line of carriages used for carrying out the postal arrangements—everything from the rude sledge of the wild Kamtschatka to the formal yellow painted van of the German States, where they like yellow better than anything else. There was also every form of telegraphic apparatus. Then there was the post-office itself with clerks in attendance, and telegraph office, so that you could write or telegraph to any part of the worla.
Then in the medical department there was a hospital such as is used in their large cities, furnished with every appliance which might be required for accidents at any moment; in the dispensing department all proper pharmaceutical arrangements, and outside a garden in which every medicinal herb was growing that could be used in this department.
In their States Department corresponding to your United States Department, their navy was illustrated by a man-of-war put up in sections on land. There was every kind of fitting for the saloon cabins and for the men, every kind of appliance for shipboard life; the rigging was shown, the sections taken, showing the masts standing and the other parts left out; the sails were flapping in the wind, and you saw how they were made. The flax was brought in, spun into yarns, and woven into sails, the ammunition was made upon the spot, and the very cannon were bored while your were looking on. It was, in short, a polytechnic display the most perfect the world has ever seen.
I mentioned to you that the Copenhagen exhibition which was held the same year as the Moscow one, was not a large one ; it was
chiefly for the display of Scandinavian products. The exhibits of porcelain were exceedingly fine, and they pointed out to me what an immense influence the other exhibitions had in stimulating this beautiful art, and bringing it to such perfection as I there found it. It had broken down the Royal monopoly of making porcelain in Copenhagen, showing that it did not meet the wants of the people, and that private enterprise had brought up manufacturers who were surpassing the Royal Works. The following year the Royal Works broke down completely, not a bad result of the exhibition.
The Vienna Exhibition, in 1873, was so much wider in its aims that it deserves especial mention. Its development of the national idea was much in excess of all the demands, and the stimulus given to the various nationalities of the Empire to do something, although too poor to do much, caused so great a strain that the exhibition cannot be considered a very great success. Still I am convinced that seeds were sown upon that occasion which will produce good fruit for Austria. I know personally that at this time many trades which were in a dilapidated condition when the exhibition opened, are thriving now. This is a small result for the immense exhibition of Vienna, but it is only owing to peculiar circumstances that no better results followed. I am firmly convinced, however, that the time will come when the seeds then sown will produce great results. It has given them the feeling that they can hold their own with the rest of the world in a variety of ways. They have opened their country to the outside world in a larger measure than was thought of before, and this has given an international feeling and has been productive of growth; they have let in intercourse with the world, which has brought in many wholesome influences, and must conduce to their benefit.
It was hoped that the annual international exhibitions in London would be permanent. It was thought that breaking up these exhibitions into annual sections, representing only a certain class of articles each year, was better than to put forth the entire efforts every ten years. The idea was a good one, but the administration was bad, and they of course failed. It could not be carried out without great and constant energy, and that could not be sustained year after year. Besides, we in England have people who like to get a good job. You have some in America, but you haven't them all. The international exhibitions became comfortable berths to a great many people, who preferred them to the ex
hibitions. Of course the exhibitions failed. The principle was good, but was badly carried out. The idea was not an original one, bụt was copied from the French triennial exhibitions held during the First Empire, and again copied in France in the small exhibitions held every four years in Paris, known as the Concourse Centrale. These are admirable in every way, and are the most useful and beautiful that have ever been held. They are regulated with great care, not by an official bureau, but by the manufacturers and producers themselves, who form a committee among themselves of various tastes and sound judgment. A man must be well known and a sound man to get on this committee. Nothing gets in without running the gauntlet of the whole committee, and very little that is indifferent obtains admission. The people in France thus have an opportunity of seeing in a moderate exhibition the best efforts of art and manufacture in their country.
It is a great aesthetic lesson for the people themselves. They learn what art can produce, they desire to have it, and every person connectedwith it is benefited.
The next great effort was by the proposal to hold an exhibition here. You know quite well that it was not at first very warmly received in Europe. I told you before that every exhibition since the first has always been met with the greatest difficulties. People always prophesy failure. The busy man says: “Oh, bother, here is another exhibition," and the poor hate them, fearing that they will be at a disadvantage with the rich. But the difficulties always give way. They have done so at least hitherto. We have just begun exhibitions, and shall go on with them to the end of time. No sooner was the mind of Great Britain convinced that you were serious in your intention of holding a great exhibition, than they came forward in my country with a thorough earnestness of purpose and a determination to do their best, and the strong conviction that you were doing the right thing too in taking your share of the great benefit which we are sure do arise from these exhibitions. We have come forward in this matter—and I speak now not as an Englishman, but as an European—with a determination to aid in carrying this out to a complete success. If it does not teach you valuable lessonsbut I am sure it will, for you have the same feelings - your efforts will be sadly wasted. We, on our side, shall carry back to the Old World many lessons you have taught us which we shall never forget.
We have seen that wonderful adaptability to meet the difficulties of nature in your vast country which we do not know in our little home. You have shown how you can adapt yourselves to the altered circumstances, and it is impossible not to notice how you have grappled with these, without respecting the talents which have enabled you to do it. You show us by what you have done that there is much for us to take into consideration; a knowledge of the soil, the temperature, and
many other things of which at a distance we know nothing, and which must have a powerful effect upon the dispositions of those who are in contact with them. You have taught us that, under the most adverse circumstances, you have made the best of them; but more than that, we are taught that here we meet with our own kith and kin, that our own blood is in your veins, and it is our own fault if you are in opposition to us. We come here, and we find not the typical Yankee, the counterpart of Cook's tourist, but men with the same love of culture and of right which we are accustomed to find in our best circles, the same genial feelings in all classes, the same warm sentiments. I am sure that I and my countrymen will leave with these feelings most warmly impressed upon our minds. We shall leave with an admiration of your exhibition, an intense admiration of those who have brought it to a successful end, and with a warm feeling for the hearty welcome which has been extended to all of us.
IVART and Argyll hold that new species are developed out
of old ones with as much regularity, and as little direct interposition of Divine will, as oaks from acorns; that in all organisms there are tendencies to depart from the parental type; that those tendencies are innate, and ready to manifest themselves whenever certain conditions are fulfilled ; that those conditions are determined by immutable laws, and that those laws were established at the first inbreathings of organic life. Darwin is criticised by them not because he believes in the existence of such conditional forces, but because he claims to have discovered them; those authors contending that natural and sexual selection, though instrumentalities, are not the only, nor the chief, nor even the prominent ones appointed
1 From a monograph on “ The Supernatural."
for this work; that the changes, instead of commencing in minute, indefinite, individual variations, and advancing at a very slow and steady pace to meet the emergencies of an endless battle for life or love, reach their goal at a single bound, under the influences of forces whose nature and methods of working are yet enveloped in the profoundest mystery.
While they have shown upon what insecure foundations rests the hypothesis of Darwin, they have at the same time failed to thoroughly establish their own. They are forced to make two concessions that render possible an interpretation of the phenomena of nature, which, while answering as fully the claims of science, is more in consonance with the natural and commonly received interpretation of the Scripture record, and satisfies in larger measure the cravings of the hungry human heart. The concessions are these : First, that they know nothing either of the nature of these supposed creative forces or of their methods of working : Second, that, to use Mivart's own words in his Genesis of Species (p. 295), “the soul of every individual man is absolutely created, in the strict and primary sense of the word ; that it is produced by a direct or supernatural act, and that by such an act the soul of the first man was similarly created.” What valid objection can they urge to our believing that those so-called creative forces are directly controlled by some self-conscious intelligence, inasmuch as they confessedly know nothing about them, and especially as they concede that there are phenomena, the introduction of human souls, which can thus, and thus only, be explained. Grant if you please that there are, indeed, forces properly denominated creative, that they are subject to unchangeable laws, that new species are born out of old ones, that out of brute life has sprung the human; yet, as we are conscious that our own wills are essential causes, sources of unfailing force, lying outside of the chain of natural cause and effect, and are capable with a finite knowledge of stepping in and by skillful appliances directing the elemental forces to the accomplishment of their own sovereign purposes, we can readily conceive that the Divine will, guided by an infinite knowledge, can, by complying with the conditions that unfetter these creative forces, turn the currents of organic life into whatever channels it chooses. The transformations wrought by the human will upon the Earth are marvelous; yet no natural force has been destroyed, no law abrogated. The relations of the Divine will to the universe need be no