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SEC. 3. That whenever the marriage of any white man with any Indian woman, a member of such tribe of Indians, is required or offered to be proved in any judicial proceeding, evidence of the admission of such fact by the party against whom the proceeding is had, or evidence of general repute, or of cohabitation as married persons, or any other circumstantial or presumptive evidence from which ths fact may be inferred, shall be competent.

Approved, August 9, 1888.
CHAP. 172.-An act in relation to dead and fallen timber on Indian lands.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the president of the United States may from year to year in his discretion, under such regulations as he may prescribe authorize the Indians residing on reservations or allotments, the fee to which remains in the United States, to fell, cut, remove, sell or otherwise dispose of the dead timber standing or fallen, on such reservation or allotment for the sole benefit of such Indian or Indians. But whenever there is reasonable ground to believe that such timber has been killed, burned, girdled, or otherwise injured for the purpose of securing its sale under this act, then in that case such authority shall not be granted.

Approved, February 16, 1888. CHAP. 236.-An act to provide for writs of error or appeals to the supreme court of the United States in all cases involving the jurisdiction of the courts below.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where a final judgment or decree shall be rendered in a circuit court of the United States in which there shall have been a question involving the jurisdiction of the court, the party against whom the judgment or decree is rendered shall be entitled to an appeal or writ of error to the supreme court of the United States to review such judgment or decree without reference to the amount of the same; but in cases where the decree or judgment does not exceed the sum of five thousand dollars, the supreme court shall not review any question raised upon the record except such question of jurisdiction; such writ of error or appeal shall be taken and allowed under the same provisions of law as apply to other writs of error or appeals except as provided in the next following section. SEC. 2.

That in cases of judgments or decrees mentioned in the first section of this act, and heretofore rendered, where the period of limitation for taking writs of error or appeals in other cases has not expired, appeals or writs of error may be sued out at any time within one year after the passage of this act.

Approved, February 25, 1889.
CHAP. 381.-An act to withdraw certain public lands from private entry, and for other

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and


after the passage of this act no public lands of the United States, except those in the state of Missouri shall be subject to private entry. SEC. 2.

That any person who has not heretofore perfected title to a tract of land of which he has made entry under the homestead law, may make a homestead entry of not exceeding one quarter section of public land subject to such entry, such previous filing or entry to the contrary notwithstanding; but this right shall not apply to persons who pe fect title to lands under the pre-emption

. or homestead laws already initiated: Provided, That all pre-emption settlers upon the public lands whose claims have been initiated prior to the passage of this act may change such entries to homestead entries and proceed to perfect their titles to their respective claims under the homestead law notwithstanding they may have heretofore had the benefit of such law, but such settlers who perfect title to such claims under the homestead law shall not thereafter be entitled to enter other lands under the pre-emption or homestead laws of the United States.

Sec. 3. That whenever is shall be made to appear to the register and receiver of any public land office, under such regulations as the Secretary of the Interior may prescribe, that any settler upon the public domain under existing law is unable by reason of a total or partial destruction or failure of ciops, sickness, or other unavoidable casualty, to secure a support for himself, herself, or those dependent on him or her upon the lands settled upon, then such register and receiver may grant to such settler a leave of absence from the claim upon which he or she has filed for a period noi exceeding one year at any one time, and such settler so granted leave of absence shall forfeit no rights by reason of such absence: Provided, That the time of such actual absence shall not be deducted from the actual residence required by law.

That the price of all sections and parts of sections of the public lands within the limits of the portions of the several grants of lands to aid in the construction of railroads which have been heretofore and which may hereafter be forfeited, which were by the act making such grants or have since been increased to the double minimum price, and, also, of all lands within the limits of any such railroad grant, but embraced in such grant lying adjacent to and coterminous with the portions of the line of any such railroad which shall not be completed at the date of this act, is hereby fixed at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre.

SEC. 5. That any homestead settler who has heretofore entered less than one-quarter section of land may enter other and additional land lying contiguous to the original entry, which shall not, with the land first entered and occupied, exceed in the aggregate one hundred and sixty acres without proof of residence upon and cul

SEC, 4.

tivation of the addition entry; and if final proof of settlement and cultivation has been made for the original entry, when the additional entry is made, then the patent shall issue without further proof: Provided, That this section shall not apply to or for the benefit of any person who at the date of making application for entry hereunder does not own and occupy the lands covered by his original entry: And provided, That if the original entry should fail for any reason, prior to patent or should appear to be illegal or fraudulent, the additional entry shall not be permitted, or if having been initiated shall be canceled.

Sec. 6. That every person entitled, under the provisions of the homestead laws, to enter a homestead, who has heretofore complied with or who shall hereafter comply with the conditions of said laws, and who shall have made his final proof thereunder for a quantity of land less than one hundred and sixty acres and received the receiver's final receipt therefor, shall be entitled under said laws to enter as a personal right, and not assignable, by legal subdivisions of the public lands of the United States subject to homestead entry, so much additional land as added to the quantity previously so entered by him shall not exceed one hundred and sixty acres: Provided, That in no case shall patent issue for the land covered by such additional entry until the person making such additional entry shall have actually and in conformity with the homestead laws resided upon and cultivated the lands so additionally entered and otherwise fully complied with such laws: Provided, also, That this section shall not be construed as affecting any rights as to location of soldiers' certificates heretofore issued under section two thousand three hundred and six of the Revised Statutes. SEC. 7.

That the cact to provide additional regulations for homestead and pre-emption entries of public lands,” approved March third, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, shall not be construed to forbid the taking of testimony for final proof within ten days following the day advertised as upon which such final proof shall be made, in cases where accident or unavoidable delays have prevented the applicant or witnesses from making such proof on the date specified.

Sec. 8.' That nothing in this act shall be construed as suspending, repealing or in any way rendering inoperative the provisions of the act entitled, "An act to provide for the disposal of abandoned and useless military reservations," approved July fifth, eighteen hundred and eighty-four.

Approved, March 2, 1889.


Of Provisions Concerning Particular Organized Territories.


SEC. 1903

All that part of the territory of the United States included within the following limits, to-wit: Commencing at a point formed by the intersection of the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west from Washington with the forty-fifth degre of north latitude; thence due west on the forty-fifth degree of latitude, to a point formed by its intersection with the thirty-fourth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence due south along the thirty-fourth degree of longitude, to a point formed by its intersection with the crest of the Rocky mountains; thence following the crest of the Rocky mountains northward till its intersection with the Bitter Root mountains; thence northward, along the crest of the Bitter Root mountains, to its intersection with the thirtyninth degree west from Washington; thence along the thirty-ninth degree of longitude northward to the boundary line of the British possessions; thence eastward, along that boundary line, to the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west from Washington; thence south ward along the twenty-seventh degree of longitude, to the place of beginning—is created into a temporary government by the name of the territory of Montana.

SEC. 1906. The delegate to the house of representatives from each of the territories of Washington, Idaho and Montana must be a citizen of the United States.

SEC. 1907. The judicial power in New Mexico, Utah, Washington, Colorado, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts, probate courts, and in justices of the peace.

Writs of error and appeals from the final decisions of the supreme court of either of the territories of New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Dakota, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming shall be allowed to the supreme court of the United States in the same manner and under the same regulations as from the circuit

SEC. 1909

SEC. 1910.

courts of the United States, where the value of the property or the amount in controversy, to be ascertained by the oath of either party, or of other competent witnesses, exceeds five thousand dollars, exclusive of costs, except that a writ of error or appeal shall be allowed to the supreme court of the United States from the decision of the supreme courts created by this title, or of any judge thereof, or of the district courts created by this title, or of any judge thereof, upon writs of habeas corpus involving the question of personal freedom.

Each of the district courts in the territories mentioned in the preceding section shall have and exercise the same jurisdiction, in all cases arising under the constitution and laws of the United States, as is vested in the circuit and district courts of the United States; and the first six days of every term of the respective district courts, or so much thereof as is necessary, shall be appropriated to the trial of causes arising under such constitution and laws; but writs of error and appeals in all such cases may be had to the supreme court of each territory, as in other cases.

SEC. 1914. The judges of the supreme courts of the territories of Idaho and Montana, or a majority of them shall, when assembled at their respective seats of government, define the judicial districts of each of such territories, and assign the judges who may be appointed for each of such territories to the several districts; and shall also fix the times and places for holding court in the several counties or sub-divisions in each of such judicial districts, and alter the times and places of holding the courts, as to them may seem proper

and convenient; but not less than two terms a year shall be held at each place of holding court in the territory of Montana.

Sec. 1926. Justices of the peace, in the territories of New Mexico, Utah, Dakota, and Wyoming, shall not have jurisdiction of any matter in controversy where the debt or sum claimed exceeds one hundred dollars.

SEC. 1932. The probate courts of the territory of Montana, in their respective counties, in addition to their probate jurisdiction, are authorized to hear and determine civil causes wherein the damage or debt claimed does not exceed five hundred dollars, and such criminal cases arising under the laws of the territory as do not require the intervention of the grand jury; but they shall not have jurisdiction of any matter in controversy when the title or right to the peaceable possession of land may be in dispute, or of chancery or divorce causes; and in all cases an appeal may be taken from an der, judgment, or decree of the probate courts to the district court.

There shall be appropriated, respectively, for the territories of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, annually, a sufficient sum, to be expended by the secretary of each territory herein named, upon an estimate to be made by the secretary of the treasury, to defray the expenses of the legislative assembly and other


SEC. 1940.

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