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In all the criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previcusly ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses againt him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of council for his defence.
In suits at common law, where the value o controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined by any court of the United States than according to the rules of the common law.
ARTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments imflicted.
ARTICLE IX. The enumeration, in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
ARTICLE X. The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively or to the people.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
ARTICLE XII. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice president, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice president, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and trarsmit sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate; the president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be
counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president the votes shall be taken by states; the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the vice president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other unconstitutional disability of the president.
The person having the greatest number of votes as vice president shall be the vice president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the senate shall choose the vice president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the oflice of president shall be eligible to that of vice president of the United States.
SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in the United States, or any place subject to to their jurisdiction.
DEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
ARTICLE XIV. SECTION I. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person on life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
SEC. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, including Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for president and vice president of the United States, representatives in congress the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.
Sec. 3. No person shall be a senator or representative in congress, or elector of president and vice president, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who having previously taken an oath as a member of congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of ench house, remove such disability.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.
That congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Revised Statutes of the United States.
PROVISIONS COMMON TO ALL THE TERRITORIES.
SECTION 1839. Nothing in this title shall be construed to impair the rights of person or property pertaining to the Indians in any territory so long as such rights remain unextinguished by treaty between the United States and such Indians, or to iuclude any territory which, by treaty with any Indian tribe, is not, without the consent of such tribe, embraced within the territorial limits or jurisdiction of any state or territory; but all such territory shall be excepted out of the boundaries, and constitute no part of any territory now or hereafter organized until such tribe signifies its assent to the president to be embraced within a particular territory.
Seo. 1840. Nor shall anything in this title be construed to affect the authority of the United States to make any regulations respecting the Indians of any territory, their lands, property, or rights, by treaty, law, or otherwise, in the same manner as might be made if no temporary government existed, or is hereafter establised, in any such territory.
SEC. 1841. The executive power of each territory shall be vested in a governor, who shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor is appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the president. He shall reside in the territory for which he is appointed, and shall be commander-in-chief of the militia thereof. He may grant pardons and reprieves, and remit fines and forfeitures for offenses against the laws of the territory for which he is appointed, and respites for offenses against the laws of the United States, till the decision of the president can be made known thereon. He shall commission all officers who are appointed under the laws of such territory, and shall take care that the laws thereof be faithfully executed.
SEC. 1842. Every bill which has passed the legislative assembly of any territory shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the governor. If he approve, he shall sign it; but, if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it originated, and that house shall enter the objections at large on its journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, twothirds of that house agree to pass the bill it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house. If any bill is not returned by the governor within three days, Sundays excluded, except in Washington and Wyoming, where the term is five days, Sundays excluded, after it has been presented to him,the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the legislative assembly, by adjournment sine die, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law: Provided, that so much of this section as provides for making any bill passed by the legislative assembly of a territory a law without the approval of the governor, shall not apply to the territories of Utah and Arizona.
SEC. 1843. There shall be appointed a secretary for each territory, who shall reside within the territory for which he is appointed, and shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor is appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the president. In case of the death, removal, resignation, or absence of the governor from the territory, the secretary shall execute all the powers and perform all the duties of governor, during such vacancy or absence, or until another governor is appointed and qualified.
SEC. 1844. The secretary shall record and preserve all the laws and proceedings of the legislative assembly, and all the acts and proceedings of the governor in the executive department; he shall transmit one copy of the laws and journals of the legislative assembly, within thirty days after the end of each session thereof, to the president, and two copies of the laws, within like time, to the president of the senate, and to the speaker of the house of representatives, for the use of congress; he shall transmit one copy of the executive proceedings and official correspondence semi-annually, on the first day of January and July of each year, to the president; he shall prepare the acts passed by the legislative assembly for