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control of the higher parts of his nature, his enlightened reason and conscience; and that the Saviour has given instruction of infinite value, when he taught that out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, and when he pronounced a blessing on the pure in heart; thus establishing the rule of the wise man of old, “ Keep thy heart with all diligence.” The instruction he obtains from examining his own structure, and that obtained from revelation, confirming each other in this striking manner, the child will be prepared to admit the duty of self-control ; he will understand how he may exert it, and that it is his highest interest to exercise it.

The duty of self-culture is an inference from the knowledge of the powers with which man is endowed, and the consideration that these are the gift of God, and that it is his will that they should be cultivated and improved to the utmost. The child should be taught that he has a great variety of faculties, each of which has some object in the external world of things, or in their Author, towards which it is naturally directed ; that all are improved, almost indefinitely, by exercise, and that happiness is made by the Creator to consist in the exercise of the faculties upon their appropriate objects. What kind of information is likely to be more practically useful than this, not in procuring wealth, but in securing that on account of which wealth has its only value,happiness? We should convince a child that he has within his own nature, at his own control, and almost independent of external circumstances, many sources of happiness which will certainly yield it, if allowed to flow in their natural, appointed channels. We should show him that the objects of his faculties are in the things

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about him, in his fellow-creatures, in the Creator himself; and that he will miss a great happiness for every one of these faculties which he neglects to cultivate ; that, if he neglects them all, he will have, instead of exhaustless sources of enjoyment, bringing him good from every quarter, only a deep sense of unsatisfied desires, of vague, useless longings, which at last will make life itself seem to be one long, sad scene of bitter disappointment. What knowledge, which we can communicate, will be more likely to lead him to become a useful man, good citizen, than a conviction that one of his highest faculties has the happiness of his fellow-creatures for its object, and that if he prepares himself to live, and does live, a life of active benevolence, he will derive from it constant and elevated pleasure, which he forfeits and loses by a life of selfishness ? What more likely to lead him to strive after perfection, than to show him, what he will soon feel in his own consciousness to be true, that one of the noblest of his faculties was given him to lead him to glorious conceptions of the beautiful, the excellent, the pure, the perfect, and to enable him to obey, and to find delight in obeying, the divine command, “Be ye perfect even as your Father in heaven is perfect” ? Or what kind of instruction is better adapted to make him hold it a reasonable service to reverence and worship the Infinite Being, than to know that that Being has placed first and highest in his child's nature the faculty which aspires to worship, as its happiest and worthiest office ? By what course will you so surely divest the youthful mind of the fatal error, which threatens to blast all that is healthy, and to poison all that is pure, in society, that the possession of wealth and power is happiness, and their ac


quisition a lofty end, as by showing that happiness consists only in the use of the faculties, according to their nature, upon the objects for which they were bestowed ?

It would be easy to enlarge upon this part of my subject, and it is an eminently practical one. But the rapid sketch I am taking forbids my dwelling upon any one point, and I have already, perhaps, dwelt upon this too long ; but it is impossible to give undue prominence to the great and comprehensive duty of so improving and elevating our whole nature, as to render it worthy to be consecrated to the service of God and man.

Growing out of this duty is the habit of self-examination, which should be enjoined upon a child. He may easily be taught to ask himself, “Have I done what I ought ?” and the habit of comparing himself with himself, of asking, “ Have I done better ? Have I made progress? Have I faithfully used my faculties? Have I availed myself, as I ought, of the opportunities which have been presented to me ?”—This habit may be substituted for the always questionable and often pernicious habit of comparing himself with others.

This leads me to consider some of those practices which often prevail in school, which I regard as foreign from the cultivation of the moral sense,

and sometimes even hostile to it ; hostile, because they tend to give activity to those lower propensities which it is the office of the conscience to subdue and keep in subjection. One of them I have just alluded to. It is the practice of stimulating children to exertion, by mating them against each other, by exciting the spirit of rivalry. It is, perhaps, possible for this spirit to exist, in a generous soul, unconnected with its natural allies, jealousy, envy, and hatred. It is, doubtless, easy for one who has without difficulty surpassed all his rivals, to look down upon them with kindness and compassion. But such are not the usual feelings of those who have been outstripped. Generous rivalry is the exception. It is idle and unphilosophical to say, such is human nature, and we must take it as we find it. We must not take it, at least we must not leave it, as we find it. The very object of education is to improve the character of the individual ; and this it must do by fostering the good and repressing the bad tendencies. Whoever will carefully observe the operation of the spirit of rivalry, will find that it is usually accompanied by a desire to pull down the rival, to detract from his merits, to depreciate his virtues. There are few who hear with pleasure the praises of a rival, and still fewer who cordially rejoice in his success. I would, therefore, discourage the spirit of rivalry, because of its tendency to excite the contentious and malignant passions, which, it seems to me, the whole force of my influence should be directed to repress.

Another practice, formerly not uncommon, seems to be founded on a mistaken view of the human character. I mean the attempt to subdue a child of an irritable and violent temperament by violence, by the rod, by brute force. If violence is to be used in school in any case, it is not in this. The remedy exasperates the disease. One who had an infinite insight into the human heart, has told us to overcome evil with good.

And is savage severity, is cruelty, are blows the good wherewith you would overcome the evil of a passionate temper, in a spoilt or perverse child ? Do gentleness, mildness, forbearance grow up under such influences as these ? If your object is to strike terror, to wreak vengeance, or to produce a seeming submission, these are doubtless very suitable means.

But the fruit of severity is obduracy, of cruelty, hatred,—of blows, resistance, or duplicity and cringing servility,—the characteristics of a slave.

Let me not be misunderstood. I would not take the rod out of the teacher's hands. It may be absolutely necessary to enforce authority, and authority must be enforced. But I would remind the teacher that the only sure foundation for authority is justice ; the only thing absolutely irresistible is kindness ;

“ And earthly power does then show likest God's,

When mercy seasons justice.” In our prisons and asylums for the insane, in the management of those who have degraded themselves below humanity, by the commission of crimes against God and society, and of those who have been considered as placed beyond its pale by the visitation of heaven, the holy power of kindness is understood and acted upon. In our schools, among the hopes of tender mothers, over beings with all the attributes of man, and preparing for immortality, shall the iron reign of terror still exist ? A rebellion of the poor convict, whose hand is raised against every man, because he imagines that the hand of his fellowman is against him, is quieted by the force of love and mercy

Shall the noble boy, who, from the very exuberance of happy youthful feeling, rebels, without meaning it, or knowing what he does, against, perhaps, the silly edict of some petty tyrant, be flogged into submission ? Is this a course suited to prepare him for voluntary and cheerful submission to the laws of the land ?

Another point in regard to which a questionable prac

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