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CHAP. ter itself seem to me so certain and solid, yea, II.

and such fundamental mysteries of faith, that they ought to be uncontroverted among all the orthodox. It is not ours to contend concern

ing the niceties of words. IX. High- IX. This exchange of persons Justin Marly extolled tyr extolled in lofty language in his Epistle to by Justin.

Diognetus. τι αλλο τας αμαρτιας ημών ηδυνήθη καλυψαι, , η εκεινου δικαιοσυνης εν τινι δικαιοθηναι δυνατον τους ανομους μας και ασεβείς, η εν τώ υιώ του θεου; ώ τησ γλυκειας καταλλιγης, και της ανεξιχνιαστου, δημιουργιας, ώ των απροσδόκητων ενεργεσιών, ίνα ανομια πολλων εν δικαιω ένα κρυξη, δικαιοσύνη δε ένης πολλους αν μους δικαιοσr. What else could cover our sins, but his righteousness? In whom else could we the unjust and the impious be accounted righteous, but in the Son of God only? O THE SWEET EXCHANGE! O the unsearchable contrivance! O the unexpected' benefits! that the iniquity of many should be hid in a righteous one, and that the righteousness of one should justify many who were

unjust! X. Clear X. These things are prosecuted excellently ly explain, and at large by Turretin, on the truth of ed by Tura retin. Christ's satisfaction, part II. section xxxiv.

Neither do I think it will be disagreeable to a-
ny, if his words be here recited.
are said to be made righteousness in Christ,
by imputation, because on account of the
righteousness of Christ, apprehended by us
through faith, and imputed by God, we are
pronounced righteous before him; so in like
manner, that the nature of the opposition may
appear, he was made sin for us by imputa-

16 As we


tion, because our guilt, wherewith we were CHAP. bound in the judgment of God, was laid upon him as our Surety, that he might suffer the punishment due to it. Augustine expres. ses himself most excellently in his Enchiridion to Laurentius, chap. xli. He sin, and we righteousness: not our own, but God's: not in ourselves, but in him. As he was made sin; not bis own, but ours; not in himself, but in us. Thus, indeed, by a WONDERFUL EXCHANGE, he took our evils upon himself, that he might bestow his benefits upon us; received misery, that he might grant mercy; received the curse, that he might make us partakers of the blessing; received death, that he might confer life; received sin, that he might impart righteousness. This exchange on both sides agrees in the following things;. first, that in both, something foreign is by the estimation of the Divine judgment transferred to a person: which translation is not an error of judgment, but a certain appointment, whereby on account of something done by another, something is assigned to thee, as if thou hadst been that very person from whom that action arose. On account of our sin, death was inflicted on Christ, as if he himself had sinned; and because of Christ's righteousness, life and the inheritance are conferred on us, as if we had been righteous, and had fulfilled the law. Further, that on both sides there behoved to be a connection between these persons: for our sins could not have


CHAP. been imputed to Christ, unless he had been

united to us both by the bond of the same nature, and a voluntary suretiship: neither could his righteousness have been imputed to us unless we had become one body with him. Yet they differ far in this, that the imputation to Christ is according to justice, to us according to mercy. Sin was translated to him, but to be abolished; righteousness to us, but to be preserved; the curse to him, in order to be swallowed up; the blessing to us, with a view to be continued; pollutions to him, that they might be cast into the depths of the sea; the new robe of the first-born to us, that it might be put on. Hence it is, that we can be called truly righteous, and the sons of God; but Christ cannot therefore be called eithera sinner, or a son of wrath: because he neither had sin of himself, nor did the wrath of God abide on him, but only passed over him.” So far Turretin: to which things, expressed with equal solidity and elegance, I subscribe with heart

and hand. XI. Ap. XI. After I had thus written, conciliatory proved by the English letters were sent me from London, wherein, brethren.

to my great joy, I found things which I think highly calculated to restore harmony among brethren. Some had been justly offended with that inconsiderate assertion, that there is no exchange of persons between Christ and believers. That stumbling-block the reconcilers take out of the way by this declaration, “ Since we conceive, that the doctrine of justification, and



of the satisfaction of Christ, upon which it de- CHAP. pends, cannot be duly explained and defended, if the exchange of persons between Christ and believers be denied; therefore we declare that we disapprove of that proposition in its general sense; and explain our mind as follows. It is clear, that there cannot be a PHYSICAL exchange, whereby Christ and believers are converted into one another, according to substance.

Nor MORAL, whereby Cbrist becomes inherently wicked, and infected with the stain of sin, and believers become iminediately inuocent, harmless, and undefiled. But in reality we do not doubt, but there is an exchange of persons in a legal sense, so that Christ by virtue of the covenant between the Father and him, took upon him the PERSON, and came in the place and stead of sinners: not that he might repent and believe for them, which is required in the gospel, (although he obtained that the elect should at the appointed time be rendered fit for these things). but that for them he might satisfy the violated obligation of the law of works. He was made sin for them, although he had not known sin, that they might be made the righteousness of God in him. And what is repugnant to this exposition, we judge to be erroneous and false. Thus far the learned men; and what impartial person can desire more?


When the translation of sin to Christ, and

his bearing it commenced and ended: and whether when carrying the sins of the Elect, he was separated from God, abomi. nable to him, and abdicated by him.

1. The translation of sins considered either in the decree

or in the execution. II. This began with the assump-
tion of human nature, and ended in death. III. It is
unhappily believed to have begun on the cross, and
ended at the resurrection. IV. Whether Christ, when
bearing our sins, was separated from God. V. That
may be acknowledged in a sound sense. VI. Yet dur-
ing the extremity of his sufferings he was refreshed
with some comfortable sense of favour. VII. Whether
Christ was abominable to God on account of the sins'
which he had taken upon him. VIII. Calvin and some
of the ancients say that he was damaned. IX. It is bet-
ter to confine ourselves to scripture phrases, than by
using others, to multiply controversies. X. The form
of concord. XI. Whether God the Father ever abdi-
cated his Son. XII. Christ even in the extremity of
his agonies acknowledged God as his father. XIII. Ite
is not taught in A&s xiii. 33. That Christ was again
begotten in his resurrection from the dead. XIV.
Anaanxes signifies a recognizing, in opposition to abdica-
tion. XV. It was not necessary that Christ should un.
dergo the same punishments precisely, which the damn-
ed shall suffer. XVI. There is a great difference be-
tween the one and the other. XVII. Which however

derogates nothing from the satisfaction of Christ.

, 1. The whether the translation of sins to Christ, and

LET us now inquire in the third place,

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