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his entire front before sunrise, gave him ample assurance of this; while his soldiers, exhausted and stiffened by yesterday’s protracted efforts, and chilled, like ours, by the rain of the intervening night, stood to their arms firmly, but without alacrity or enthusiasm. Nelson had quietly aroused his men at 4 A. M.; and he advanced in parade order at 5% ; soon concentrating upon himself the fire of half the Rebel army. Not having received his artillery, his infantry, annoyed by two Rebel batteries, began, at 74, to give ground; when, on applying to Gen. Buell, the battery of Capt. Mendenhall, and at 9 that of Capt. Terrill—both regulars—were sent to his support, and the Rebel batteries in front thereby silenced. Meantime, the Rebel concentration upon this division was continued; but its behavior was splendid, especially that of Ammen’s brigade, admirably handled by its chief; while that of Hagen, on the right, maintained its position with equal gallantry. The loss by this division of , 39 out of 4,541– more than half of it in Hagen's brigade—attests the tenacity of the Rebel resistance this day. Crittenden's and McCook’s divisions were engaged later, but not less earnestly. Advancing across a ravine, McCook's right and center were immediately attacked in force; but the steady valor of Rousseau's brigade prevailed, and their assailants, recoiling, were pursued nearly a mile; when they were rêenforced and rallied among the tents whence McClernand’s left had been so hurriedly driven the previous morning. Two of his guns, being now turned against us by the enemy, were finally cap
tured by a charge of Col. Buckley's 5th Kentucky; while McClernand's headquarters were retaken by Rousseau, who, impetuously pursuing across a level field, opened too wide a gap between his right and Gen. Crittenden's division, which was filled by Col. Willich's regiment advancing, under a deadly fire of shell, shot, and musketry, to its support; rushing up for a bayonet-charge to within 200 yards of the enemy’s line, when the latter gave way, and the regiment was deployed in line of battle to give them a hastening volley. Disordered by bad management, which brought its skirmishers under a fire of our own regiments on either side, Col. Willich's 32d Indiana hastily fell back; but was soon reformed and deployed, advancing with the entire division until the retreat of the enemy was decided. Lew. Wallace, on our extreme right, with Sherman and McClernand between him and Buell’s divisions, had likewise opened fire at daylight, dismounting a gun of the Rebel battery before him. Throwing forward his right, by Gen. Grant's personal direction, until his line, which had been parallel, formed a right angle with the river, he advanced en ächelon, preceded by skirmishers, across a ravine to the opposite bluff, where he waited for Sherman to come up ; and meantime, finding his right secured by a swamp, attempted to turn the enemy's left, which was thereupon heavily rêenforced, being effectively cannonaded by the batteries of Thompson and Thurber. An attempt was made to capture Thurber's battery by a dash of cavalry, which was easily defeated by the skirmishers of the 8th Missouri; when the battery was charged by infantry; who were easily repelled by Col. Morgan L. Smith's brigade. Meantime, Gen. Sherman, who had waited for the sound of Buell's guns upon the main Corinth road, advanced at 8 A. M., steadily and slowly, under fire, until he reached the point where the Corinth road crosses the line of McClernand's abandoned camps, and saw Willich's regiment, on his right, fighting gallantly for the possession of a point of timber some 500 yards east of Shiloh church. Hence the Rebel army could be seen re-forming its lines to the southward, with a battery by the church, and another near the Hamburg road, pouring grape and canister into any column of our troops that advanced upon that green point of timber whence Willich's regiment had just been repulsed, but into which one of McCook's brigades (Rousseau's) was now advancing. Directing the fire of two 24-pound howitzers of McAllister's battery upon the Rebel guns, Sherman formed his two brigades (David Stuart's, now commanded by Col. T. Kilby Smith, and Col. Buckland's) to advance in line with Rousseau; which they did superbly, sweeping every
thing before them. At 4 P. M., our soldiers held the original front line whence we had been so hurriedly driven 34 hours before; and the whole Rebel army was retreating, unpursued, on Corinth." Gen. Sherman, with two brigades and the cavalry, went out a few miles next morning on the Corinth road, and had a smart skirmish with a small Rebel force, mainly of cavalry, which he repulsed, destroying a camp, and capturing a hospital, wherein he found 2SO Confederate and 50 Union wounded; returning with the former to his camp near Shiloh next morning. Beauregard, in his official report, states that his effective force had now been reduced, “from exhaustion and other causes, from 40,000 to less than 20,000 men;” and adds:
“IIour by hour opposed to an enemy constantly réenforced, our ranks were perceptibly thinned under the increasing, withering fire of the enemy; and, by 12 M. [of the second day], 18 hours of hard fighting had sensibly exhausted a large number ; my last reserves had necessarily been disposed of; and the enemy was evidently receiving fresh reenforcements after each "repulse; accordingly, about 1 P.M., I determined to withdraw from so unequal a conflict; securing such of the results of the victory of the day before as were practicable.”
This is pretty fair, but not strictly accordant with the dispatch which
* “An Impressed New-Yorker” says:
retreating, between our division and the main
the now broken, weary, and dispirited Rebel:
"Beauregard's official report enumerates, among the casualties on his side, in addition to the loss of their commander-in-chief, Albert S. Johnston, that Hon. Geo. W. Johnson, “Provisional Governor of Kentucky,” was killed on Monday, having had his horse shot under him on Sunday; Brig.-Gen. Gladding, of Withers's corps, was mortally wounded; that Gen. Bragg had two horses shot under him; Gen. Hardee was slightly wounded, his coat cut with balls, and his horse disabled; that Gen. Breckinridge was twice struck by spent balls; that Gen. Cheatham was slightly wounded and had three horses shot under him; that Brig.-Gens. Clark, Bowen, and B. R. Johnson were severely wounded; and that Gen. Hindman had his horse shot under him and was severely injured by his fall. [He was hoisted ten feet into the air by the explosion of a shell, which tore his horse to shreds, and was himself supposed to be killed; but he rose at once to his feet and called for another horse.] Several Cololels were killed, and many more severely wounded; among them, Henry W. Allen, 4th Louisiana, who was chosen
next Rebel Governor of the State, and whose
official report of the second day's fight contains the following:
“Having suffered from loss of blood and intense pain, I placed the regiment under the command of Lt.-Col. S. E. Hunter, and rode over to the hospital to get relief. After having my wound dressed, I was about lying down, in order to take a little rest, when a general stampede began of wagons, ambulances, and men. I mounted my horse immediately, and rode after the disgraceful refugees. I succeeded in putting a stop to the stampede, and placed cavalry in the rear, with orders to cut down all who attempted to pass. Here I met an aid of Gen. Bragg, who ordered me to rally all the stragglers and form them in line. This I did. After forming a battalion, Lieut.-Col. Barrow, commanding the 11th Louisiana, came to me with the remnant of his regiment, and placed himself and regiment under my command. This force, together with the remnants of two Alabama and one Tennessee regiment, made a large body of men, who stood firm in front of the hospitals, ready to receive the advancing column of the enemy.
“While rallying the stragglers, I came across two batteries that had lost all their commissioned officers. These I took possession of, sent for ammunition, supplied them with men from my command, and sent one of them to Gen. Beauregard. This battery fired the last shots against the enemy. The other battery, and the forces under my command, held their position in the very face of the enemy until ordered to be retired by command of Geo. Bragg.”
and the killed and wounded in Prentiss's, McClernand's, and Lew. Wallace's divisions—the latter known to be very light—and our actual losses in these two days’ desperate conflict can hardly have been less than 15,000 men; and it is probable that Beauregard's, including the skulkers who here saw enough of fighting and never rejoined their regiments, was barely, if any thing, less than this.” The victory was clearly ours; for we had the field and the dead; but the losses were fairly equalized, while the Rebels had the spoil of our camps —though they could carry off but little of it—and the prisoners.
Maj. Gen. Halleck, commanding the Department of the Mississippi, left St. Louis directly after receiving news of the Shiloh battles,” and reached Pittsburg Landing by steamboat two or three days thereafter. Meantime, and for weeks following, no attempt was made against the Rebel army at Corinth; and, though Gen. Pope arrived from Missouri on the 22d, with a rēenforcement of 25,000 men, even Monterey was not occupied by us till the 1st of May, when Gen. Halleck’s army had been
* “An Impressed New-Yorker,” writing of the retreat from this Rebel victory, says:
“I made a detour from the road on which the army was retreating, that I might travel faster and get ahead of the main body. In this ride of twelve miles alongside of the routed army, I saw more of human agony and woe than I trust I will ever again be called to witness. The retreating host wound along a narrow and almost impassable road, extending some seven or eight miles in length. Here was a long line of wago
onsloaded with wounded, piled in like bags of grain, groaning and cursing; while the mules
plunged on in mud and water belly-deep, the water sometimes coming into the wagons. Next came a straggling regiment of infantry, pressing on past the train of wagons; then a stretcher borne upon the shoulders of four men, carrying a wounded officer; then soldiers staggering along, with an arm broken and hanging down, or other
increased by accessions from various quarters to a little over 100,000 men. All this time, and afterward, Gen. Beauregard industriously strengthened his works, covering Corinth with an irregular semicircle of intrenchments, 15 miles long, and well-mounted with artillery; destroying the roads and bridges beyond, and blocking the approaches with abatis. Gen. Halleck saw fit not to flank these formidable defenses, but to overcome them by regular and necessarily slow approaches, involving constant and mutual artillery practice and picket fighting, with very little loss; three weeks of which brought our nearest batteries within three miles of Corinth.” A reconnoissance under Gen. Paine to Farmington,” five miles N. W. of Corinth, had brought on a skirmish, in which he took 200 prisoners, striking the Charleston and Memphis Railroad at Glendale, three miles farther, and partially destroying it; while the Ohio road was in like manner broken at Purdy.
Col. Elliott, with two regiments of cavalry, was dispatched on the night of the 27th to flank Corinth and cut the railroad south of it, so as to intercept the enemy's supplies. He
fearful wounds, which were enough to destroy life. And, to add to the horrors of the scene, the elements of heaven marshaled their forces— a fitting accompaniment of the tempest of human desolation and passion which was raging. A cold, drizzling rain commenced about nightfall, and soon came harder and faster, then turned to pitiless, blinding hail. This storm raged with unrelenting violence for three hours. I passed long wagon-trains filled with wounded and dy: ing soldiers, without even a blanket to shield them from the driving sleet and hail, which fell in stones as large as partridge-eggs, until it lay on the ground two inches deep. “Some 300 men died during that awful retreat, and their bodies were thrown out to make room for others who, although wounded, had struggled on through the storm, hoping to find shelter, rest, and medical care.”
struck it on the 30th, at Booneville, 24 miles from Corinth, in the midst of an unexpected retreat of the Rebel army, which had commenced on the 26th. Beauregard had held Corinth so long as possible against Halleck's overwhelming force, and had commenced its evacuation by sending off a part of his sick and wounded. Elliott captured 20 cars, laden with small arms, ammunition, stores, baggage, &c., with some hundreds of Confederate sick, whom he paroled, burning the engine and trains. The evacuation was completed during the night of the 29th ; the Rebel musketry-firing having ceased at 9 A. M. of the preceding day. Explosions and fires during the night gave plain intimations of the enemy's departure; so that some of our officers in the advance rode safely into town at 6} next morning, and reported no enemy present. Piles of provisions were found in flames, and one full warehouse undamaged; but never a gun. Beauregard retreated to Tupelo, pursued by Gen. Pope so far as Baldwin and Guntown, but without material results. Our army was disposed along the line of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad; which, by the falling of the Tennessee to a Summer stage, had become its line of supply.
Gen. O. M. Mitchel, with a division of Buell's army, had left Nashville simultaneously with his commander, but by a more easterly route, advancing through Murfreesboro’, Shelbyville, Fayetteville, to Huntsville, Ala., which he surprised at daylight,” capturing 17 locomotives and a large number of passenger and freight-cars, beside a train which he
had taken, with 159 prisoners, two hours before. Thus provided, he had uncontested possession of 100 miles of the Memphis and Charleston road before night, or from Stevenson on the east to Decatur on the west;
seizing five more locomotives at Ste
venson, and pushing on so far west as Tuscumbia, whence he sent an expedition so far south as Russelville, Ala., capturing and appropriating Confederate property on all hands, without the loss of a life. He took” Bridgeport, Ala., with a force of five regiments, by striking rapidly and attacking from a quarter whence he was not looked for, driving out a force nearly equal in number to his own, with a loss of 72 killed and wounded, 350 prisoners, and 2 guns;
while his own loss was inconsiderable. .
He was soon compelled, by the gathering of Rebel forces around him, to abandon Tuscumbia and all south of the Tennessee, burning the railroad bridges at Decatur and Bridgeport, but holding firmly and peaceably all of Alabama north of that river. Had he been even moderately rêenforced, he would have struck and probably could have destroyed the great Rebel armories and founderies in Georgia, or have captured Chattanooga; which was assailed,” under his orders, by Gen. Negley, who was driven off by a Rebel force under Gen. E. Kirby Smith. Mitchel’s activity and energy poorly qualified him for a subordinate position under Buell; so he was transferred, in June, to the command at Port Royal, S. C., where he died.” Gen. Halleck was likewise summoned" from the West to serve as General-in-Chief at Washington, leaving Gen. Grant in command at Corinth.
* April 9 * April 29.
** June 6.
* Oct. 20, * July 23.