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march ; and accordingly put his mns in motion southward, aiming lear the Wilderness and concene his army on the high, open und around Spottsylvania C.II. only serious conflict this day was indecisive one near Todd's store, ween four brigades of our cavalry a like force of J. E. B. Stuart's, h a loss about 250 on either side. Stuart attacked, and failed to ieve any advantage, Sheridan med the result as a triumph. Nur losses in this terrible struggle he Wilderness were nearly 20,000 l, of whom some 6,000 were taken oners. Our loss in officers was vy. The country's salvation med no nobler sacrifice than that Hen. James S. Wadsworth, of New k. Born to affluence and social inction, already past the age of tary service, he had volunteered 861, under the impulse of a sense luty alone. As an aid of Gen. Dowell, he was conspicuously useAt Bull Run ; accustomed to every ury, he had courted, ever since, hardships and perils of the field; le the Republican candidate for •ernor in 1862 by an overwhelming ority, he could not have failed to elected, could those have voted ), like himself, were absent from State at the call of their country; , though he peremptorily declined, fellow citizens, had he lived, ld have insisted on electing him sernor in 1864. Thousands of unnamed and unknown have iced as fervid and pure a patriot, but no one surrendered more for country's sake, or gave his life e joyfully for her deliverance, n did James S. Wadsworth.
Among our wounded in this contest were Gens. Hancock (slightly), Getty, Gregg, Owen, Bartlett, Webb, and Carroll.
Of the Rebel killed, the most conspicuous were Maj.-Gen. Sam. Jones and Brig.-Gen. Albert G. Jenkins. Among their wounded were Gens. Longstreet (disabled for months), Staf. ford (mortally), Pickett, Pegram, and Hunter. Doubtless, their aggregate losses were much less than ours, es: pecially in prisoners; but they were nevertheless severe, as they were estimated by themselves at 8,000.
Warren, starting at 9 P.M. of the 7th, preceded by cavalry, emerged" from the Wilderness at Alsop's farm, where the Brock road crosses the little river Po; but he had been detained by the obstruction of his roads by the enemy, and by the cavalry fight in his front, so that Longstreet's corps had arrived before him, and | taken post across the little river Ny, with his guns planted on the ridge beyond, to sweep our columns as they advanced. After a mutual cannonade, Robinson's overmatched division was advanced to the assault, but repulsed; Robinson being severely wounded. Later in the day, when part of the 6th corps had come up, the assault was renewed, Griffin's
* Sunday, May 8.
Gen. II. G. Wright next day succeeded to the command of the 6th corps, and Gen. Iłurnside came into position on our left; when our batteries opened on the enemy's position, and charges on his rifle-pits were made by Barlow's and by Gibbon's divisions, in front of the 2d and 5th corps, bringing on a general engagement. We finally attempted to turn the enemy's left flank, but failed; Barlow's division, which had advanced across the Po, being ordered to return, was fiercely attacked on its retreat, and at one time in danger of destruction, but finally extricated with some loss, including a gun. Several charges on our part were repulsed with loss—Brig.-Gens. J. C.
those of the enemy.
they were obliged at dark to abandon. The day closed with no decisive success; our aggregate loss having been severe; the enemy's—because of their position—probably much less. Gen. Grant dispatched next morning to the War Department the following pithy but rather roseate bulletin: “IIEADQUARTERs IN THE FIELD, ) “May 11, 1864–8 A. M. “We have now ended the sixth day of very heavy fighting. The result, to this time, is much in our favor. “Our losses have been heavy, as well as I think the loss of the enemy must be greater. “We have taken over 5,000 prisoners by battle, whilst he has taken from us but few, except stragglers. “I PIropose. To FIGIIT IT ouT ON TIIIs LINE, IF IT TAKES ALL SUMME it. “ U. S. GI:ANT, Lieut.-Gen. ('ominanding the Armies of the United States.” This day was spent in reconnoitering, skirmishing, and getting ready for the morrow. The afternoon was rainy. IIancock, at nightfall, was ordered to leave at midnight his position fronting IIill, and move silently to the left, taking post between Wright and Burnside, so as to be ready for work early in the morning. When morning came, the rain had given place to a fog of exceeding density, under cover of which, IIancock sternly advanced, in two lines; Barlow's and Birney's divisions forming the first; Gibbon's and Mott's the second. Defore them was a salient angle of earthworks, held by Edward Johnson's division of Ewell's corps. Swiftly, noiselessly sweeping over the rugged, difficult, thickly wooded intervening space—some 1,200 yards—Barlow's and Dirney's divisions dashed, with a thundering cheer, over the front and flank of the
my's works, surprising and overelming the Rebels in their trenchand capturing Johnson, with most his division; also Brig.-Gen. Geo. Stewart" and part of two briles; also 30 guns. The number prisoners secured and sent to the r was over 3,000.
Iancock wrote in pencil to Grant: have captured from 30 to 40 guns. ave finished up Johnson, and am ng into Early.” He had in fact, ugh he did not know it, all but tured Lee himself, and had nearly the Rebel army in two. But the prise was now over, and the rally he IRebels was prompt and vigor
ous. Their case was desperate—for defeat now was annihilation—and they fought with invincible ardor and resolution. Grant had fully prepared for the emergency; Wright's (6th) corps hurried up to the aid of Hancock, and Warren and Burnside charged promptly and bravely on our right; but the enemy's position here was so strong that he held it and at the same time dispatched aid to his endangered right. Charge followed charge in quick succession, and the mutual carnage was fearful. Seeing that noimpression was made by our attacks along the enemy's unshaken front, they were intermitted, while Cutler's
Stewart was an old army friend of Han, who, when the former was brought before as a prisoner, held out his hand, cordially iring, “How are you, Stewart?” The latter ;htily replied, “I am Gen. Stewart, of the
Confederate Army, and, under the circumstances, I decline to take your hand.” “And under any other circumstances, General, I should not have offered it,” was the prompt and fit response of the victor.
and Griffin's divisions were detached from Warren and sent to the aid of Hancock, who still held fast to the captured work, but could not go beyond it ; while Lee made five successive and desperate assaults on him, with intent to hurl him back; the men fighting hand-to-hand, with their respective flags often planted on opposite sides of the same breastwork. These assaults were all repelled with frightful carnage; but IIancock was unable to advance, as he had expected to do, and ultimately got off but 20 of the captured guns. Rain set in again at noon; but the fighting continued till near midnight, when it was terminated by Lee's desisting and leaving IIancock in possession of his hard-won prize; but that was the extent of our advantage, which had cost us several thousand men, and the enemy almost as many. Lee fortified and held a line immediately in front of IIancock; so that the enemy's general position proved as invulnerable as ever.
IIere ensued several days of maneuvering, marching and countermarching, in quest of a weak point in the enemy's defenses; but none was found: an assault being delivered on the 18th, by Gibbon's and Darlow’s divisions, supported by Birney's and Tyler's, nearly in front of the work they had so gallantly carried on the 12th ; but they were stopped by formidable abatis, and repulsed, losing heavily.
Next afternoon, observing Ol' SllSpecting that our army was gradually moving to the left, with intent to flank and pass him, Lee threw forward Ewell against our weakened right, held by Tyler's division of foot artillerists
recently drawn from the defenses of Washington, by whom he was gallantly repulsed and driven off, though not without serious loss on our side. The reckless fighting of the artillerists—mainly veterans in service, but new to the field—excited general admiration, but cost blood. The 2d and 5th corps hurrying to their aid, Ewell's men were run off and scattered in the woods, on our left, where several hundreds of them were hunted up and taken prisoners. Somewhat delayed by this sally, our army, moving by the left, resumed, next night,” its march to I&ichmond. Gen. Meade reports his losses up to this time at 39,791; to which something must be added for the losses of Burnside's corps before it was formally incorporated with the Army of the Potomac. If we assume that half these fell in the Wilderness, our losses around Spottsylvania C. II. were scarcely less than 20,000 men. The IRebels, holding a ridge, generally fighting on the defensive and behind breastworks, had suffered considerably less, but still quite heavily. Among their officers killed were Gens. Daniels, Perrin, and J. M. Jones. In the Wilderness, our army had cut loose from its original base north of the Rapidan. It had since established a new one at Fredericksburg, to which its wounded were sent, and where they were met by officers, nurses, and other employés of the Sanitary and Christian Associations, with the amplest and most thoughtful provision for the mitigation of their sufferings. As it moved down toward Richmond, new bases were established at Port Itoyal and en at White IIouse; so that, while ere was doubtless much suffering Om privation as well as from ounds, it was always within a short stance of posts to which abundant pplies were forwarded from Washgton and from the great commeral cities, under the efficient direc»n of Gen. Rufus Ingalls, its chief uortermaster.
* May 20–21.
On emerging from the Wilderness, en. Sheridan, with the better part our cavalry, led by Merritt, Wiln, and Gregg, was dispatched” on raid toward Richmond. Crossing xt day the North Anna, Sheridan rried the Beaverdam station on e Virginia Central, destroying the ack, three trains of cars, a million d a half of rations, and liberating 0 Union prisoners captured in the ilderness and now on their way to chmond. Stuart's cavalry here ertook and assailed his flank and ar, but to little purpose. Crossing e South Anna at Ground Squirrel idge, Sheridan captured Ashland ation at daylight;" breaking up e railroad, destroying a train and a ge quantity of stores. Ise then remed his march to Richmond.
Stuart had meantime passed him and assed his cavalry at Yellow Tavern, ew miles north of Richmond, where proposed to stop the raid. A spird fight ensued, wherein Stuart was rtally wounded (as was Brig.-Gen. B. Gordon) and his force driven the turnpike toward Ashland, wing the road to Richmond open. eridan pressed down it; Custer ‘rying the outer line of defenses l taking 100 prisoners. But Richind was no longer to be taken on a
gallop, and our assault was repulsed; Sheridan crossing the Chickahominy at Meadow bridge, beating off attacks both front and rear, burning the railroad bridge, and moving to Haxall's;” where he rested three days, and then, moving by White House and IIanover C. H., rejoined the Army of the Potomac.
Gen. Butler, commanding at For. tress Monroe, had been rêenforced in pursuance of a programme suggested by him and concurred in by Gen. Grant: Gen. W. F. Smith's (18th) corps and Gen. Gillmore's (10th) corps (from South Carolina) having been sent him, raising our effective strength in his department to some 40,000 men, of whom perhaps 30,000 were disposable. Having sent” a small force on steamboats up the York to White IIouse, to move out and menace Richmond so as to draw the enemy's attention to that quarter, the
day after Gillmore's arrival his real
movement commenced,” in cöoperation with General Grant's, and with others. Embarking his infantry and artillery, 25,000 strong, Gen. Butler proceeded up James river, while Gen. Kautz, with 3,000 cavalry, moved out from Suffolk, crossing the Blackwater and cutting the Weldon road at Stony creek; Col. It West, with 1,500 more troopers, simultaneously advancing from Williamsburg up the north bank of the James. The armed transports moved up the James by night, the unarmed following next day,"pioneered by the iron-clads and other naval forces under Admiral Lee. Wilson's wharf, Fort Powhattan, and City Point, were seized without resistance; 10,000 men being at once
* May 1. * May 4. * May 5.