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southward, through Ripley, New Albany, Pontotoc, Clear Spring, Starkville, Louisville, Decatur, and Newton, Miss.-thus passing behind all the Rebel forces confronting and resisting Grant—until, having passed Jackson, he turned sharply to the right, and made his way W. S. W. through Raleigh, Westville, Hazlehurst, and Gallatin, to Union C. H., back of Natchez; thence zigzagging by Bogue Chito to Greensburg and Clinton, La., and so to Baton Rouge;” having traversed more than 600 miles of hostile territory in 16 days; crossing several considerable rivers by ferriage, burning great numbers of railroad bridges, trestles, cars, and dépôts of supplies, having several smart engagements with Rebel forces hastily gathered to obstruct his progress, killing or wounding about 100 of them, beside capturing and paroling over 500 prisoners, and destroying 3,000 stand of arms, at a total cost of 27 men, including Lt.-Col. Blackburn, 7th Illinois. Col. Grierson sent back, after he was fairly on his way, the 2d Iowa, as also 175 of the least ef. fective men of his remaining regiments; so that this brilliant raid was actually made with less than 1,000 men. It was a succession of forced marches, sometimes without rest for 48 hours; often through drenching rain, over long stretches of swamp, so completely submerged that no road could be discerned; so that, in crossing one swamp, eight miles wide, on the Okanoxubee, near Louisville, no less than twenty fine horses were drowned. Grierson proved himself eminently fitted for his place, as did Col. Prince, of the 6th, and Lt.-Col. Loomis, 7th Illinois, and their sub

ordinates. Detachments necessarily made to the right and left to destroy Rebel supplies or mislead pursuers— of whom thousands were sent after : him from Jackson, Vicksburg, and other points—were frequently compelled to ride 60 miles per day of these horrible roads in order to regain the main body—which, during the 28 hours preceding its arrival at Baton Rouge, had marched 76 miles, enjoyed four fights, and forded the Comite river where it was necessary to swim many of the horses. Grierson's conclusion that the Confederacy was a mere shell, which needed but to be fairly pierced to demonstrate its rottenness, was justified by his experience; but a leader less able, alert, wary, untiring, and courageous, would have found that shell far easier to enter than to emerge from.

All being at length ready,” Gen. Grant directed a naval attack on the batteries of Grand Gulf; which was gallantly made by Admiral Porter, with his gunboat fleet. But five hours of mutual cannonade, during which our larger boats were often within pistol-shot of the Rebel batteries, brought no decisive advantage to our arms. The enemy's fortifications were strong; many of their | guns planted on the bluffs at too great an elevation to be effectively assailed from the water; the hillsides were lined with rifle-pits; beside which, they had field-guns which could be moved from point to point, and so concentrated wherever they could be most effective to prevent à landing or defeat an assault. After watching the cannonade from a tugboat from 8 A. M. to 1 P. M.,

* May 2.

* April 29.

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Grant decided against its further prosecution; having determined to debark his troops now on shipboard, and march still farther down the Louisiana bank, to a point opposite Rodney; while the gunboats and transports should run the Grand Gulf batteries, as they had run those of Wicksburg and Warrenton, and be ready to cross his army at a point where little resistance was anticipated. Accordingly, at dark, our gunboats again engaged the batteries, while our transports ran by them; receiving but two or three shots, which did them no essential harm. Finally, having learned from a negro that there was a good road from the little hamlet of Bruinsburg, half way down to Rodney, running back to Port Gibson, in the rear of Grand Gulf, the General decided to cross at this point; and, by daylight next morning,” both gunboats and transports were ferrying over the 13th corps; our soldiers, so fast as landed, taking three days’ rations in their haversacks, and pushing out on the road to Port Gibson, followed by the 17th corps. Meantime, Gen. Sherman, with the 15th corps, had been left above Wicksburg, expecting to follow on the track of the 13th and 17th, until

boats, and proceeded “ to the mouth of the Yazoo, where he found Capt. Breese, with the iron-clads Black IIawk, Choctaw, and De Kalb, and several wooden boats, all ready, with steam up; and they at once ascended the Yazoo, stopping for the night at the mouth of the Chickasaw bayou, and moving up next morning to within range of the IIaines's Bluff batteries, which were engaged for four hours by our iron-clads and the Tyler—the enemy replying with spirit; but, though the Tyler was hit once, and the Choctaw repeatedly, none of our men were seriously hurt. Toward evening, Blair's division was debarked in full view of the enemy, and seemingly prepared to assault; our gunboats thereupon renewing their fire and provoking the enemy to reply. Thus the menace of an assault was maintained till after dark ; when our troops were quietly réembarked. Next day, equally threatening demonstrations were made, accompanied by reconnoissances on all sides; meanwhile, orders were received from Grant to desist from the feint and hurry the whole corps forthwith to Grand Gulf. Sending orders to the divisions of |sted. and Tuttle to march southpushed forward 18 miles next day, to Hankinson's Ferry. Grant’s advance, under McClernand, first encountered the enemy “ when eight miles out from Bruinsburg; but the Rebels were not in force, and fell back unpursued till morning; when McClernand advanced, and, when approaching Port GIBSON, was resisted with spirit by a Rebel force from Vicksburg, under Maj.-Gen. Bowen ; the country being broken into narrow ridges, separated by deep ravines, which afforded great advantage to the defensive. Our superiority in numbers being decisive, however, they were steadily driven; Grant finally sending up J. E. Smith's brigade of McPherson's corps to the support of our left, under Osterhaus; when, late in the afternoon, the enemy was defeated with heavy loss, and pursued toward Port Gibson. Our loss was 130 killed, 718 wounded. We captured 3 guns, 4 flags, and 580 prisoners. Night soon closed in, and our troops slept on their arms till morning; when it was found that the enemy had retreated across Bayou Pierre, burning the bridge behind them, abandoning Port Gibson, and evacuating Grand Gulf, as our army advanced * in its rear to IIankinson's Ferry on the Big Black, skirmishing and taking some prisoners, mainly stragglers, but not seriously resisted. Gen. Grant now rode across to Grand Gulf, with a small escort of cavalry, to make arrangements for changing his base of supplies from Bruinsburg to this point, while his army awaited the arrival of wagons, provisions, and Sherman's corps; meantime, scouts were busy and re

he received" a letter from Gen. ward at once, Sherman kept up the Grant, near Carthage, depicting the feint till after nightfall; then quietly badness of the roads, and directing dropped down the Yazoo to Young's him to remain where he was for the Point; and next morning " Blair's present. Two days later, Grant division moved up to Milliken's wrote him that he proposed to Bend, to remain there as a garrison attack Grand Gulf next day, and till relieved by fresh troops from suggesting a simultaneous feint on above; while Steele's and Tuttle's the Rebel batteries near IIaines's hurried down the west bank of the Bluff. Sherman accordingly em- Mississippi to Isard Times, where barked Blair's division on ten steam- they were ferried across,” and were

* April 26, * April 29–10 A.M. * May 2.

*April 30. * May 6 and 7.

connoissances employed in obtaining information of the enemy. Grant had expected to remain Some time at Grand Gulf, accumulating provisions and munitions, while he sent a corps down the river to cooperate with Gen. Banks in the reduction of Port Hudson; but the information here obtained dictated a change in his plans—Banks not having yet invested Port Hudson. Accordingly, his army was pushed forward" on two parallel roads up the left bank of the Big Black: McPherson on that nearest the river; McClernand on the higher, or ridge road; while Sherman's corps, divided, followed on each; all the ferries on the Big Black being watched to guard against a surprise from the enemy, who had taken care to burn the few bridges. Thus advancing, our army encountered no serious resistance until its van, under McPherson, then moving on Clinton and Jackson, was encountered," near RAYMOND, by two Rebel brigades, under Gen. Gregg, who had taken a good position, with two batteries, commanding the road in our front, having his infantry posted on a range of hills to the right of the road, and in the timber and ravines just in foont. The fight here was a short one. The Rebels opened it with great fury, attempting to charge and capture De Golyer's battery, which was in position on our front, but, being repulsed by a terrific fire of grape and canister, they broke and fled precipitately, so that McPherson had scarcely begun the fight when it was ended; the Rebels fleeing at full speed through Raymond, which our troops occupied at 5 P. M. Only Lo

* May 1–2 A. M. "May 3.

* May 7. * May 12.

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gan's division, now numbering less Dennis's brigade, which was in adthan 6,000, was seriously engaged on vance, and of which the 20th Ohio, our side; but Crocker's division came 23d Indiana, and 20th Illinois fought up just after the battle was won by desperately and suffered severely. the advance of Stevenson's brigade, Our loss in this affair was 69 killed and a splendid charge with fixed (including Col. Richards, 20th Illibayonets by the 8th Illinois, Lt.-Col. nois, who fell at the head of his regiSturgis. The enemy had previously ment, and Maj. Kaga, 20th Ohio), been strongest in the numbers en- |341 wounded, and 32 missing: total gaged, and had fought stubbornly; 442. The Rebels lost 103 killed, charging to turn the left flank of with 720 wounded and prisoners. vol. II.-20

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We took prisoners from ten different regiments; and Johnston reports that Gregg's force numbered 6,000. Here McPherson and Logan were constantly under fire; the latter having his horse shot twice. McPherson’s generalship and dash elicited the admiration of our soldiers. McPherson pushed on next morning" to Clinton, which he entered unopposed at 2 P. M., and commenced tearing up the railroad thence toward JACKSON; Gen. Sherman advancing simultaneously on the direct road from Raymond to Jackson. McPherson’s march was resumed at 5 A. M. next day;" and, at 9 A. M., when five miles from Jackson, the enemy's pickets were driven in ; and, proceeding 2% miles farther, their main body was encountered in strong force, under Gen. W. H. T. Walker, whose command consisted partly of South Carolina and Georgia troops, which had only arrived the evening before. A tremendous shower occurred while McPherson was making his dispositions, which delayed his attack for an hour and a half. At 11 A. M., the rain having nearly ceased, our soldiers advanced, preceded by a line of skirmishers, who were soon exposed to so heavy a fire that they were recalled to their regiments, when an order to charge was responded to with hearty cheers. Our whole line swept forward in perfect array, driving the enemy out of the ravine which covered their front, and up the hill whereon their batteries were posted; when, without having checked our momentum, they broke and fled precipitately, eagerly followed for a mile and a half, till our infantry was within range of the guns forming the de

fenses of Jackson; when McMurray's and Dillon's batteries were brought up and poured a deadly fire into the routed masses of the foe. Here our troops were halted and our lines réformed, while skirmishers were thrown out and officers sent forward to reconnoiter: these soon reported the capital of Mississippi evacuated; and, at 4 P.M., the flag of the 59th Indiana was waving over the dome of the State House; Sherman's command about this time entering the city from the south-west. McPherson’s loss in this collision was 37 killed, 228 wounded and missing ; while that he inflicted on the enemy amounted, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, to 845. Our captures in Jackson included 17 pieces of artillery; while railroads, manufactories, and army stores, were extensively destroyed. Grant was in Jackson directly after its capture; and, after giving orders to Sherman for the thorough destruction of its railroads, military factories, and stores, directed McPherson to retrace his steps next morning “to Clinton, following himself in the afternoon; impelling McClernand's corps westward next morning" upon Edwards's Station; while Sherman, having finished his work at Jackson, was ordered to evacuate that city and rejoin him so soon as might be; for Grant had learned in Jackson that Gen. Jo. Johnston, who had just arrived in our front and assumed." immediate command of the Rebel forces in this quarter, had ordered Pemberton to march out from Wicksburg and assail our rear: the Rebels routed in Jackson having fled northward from that city, as if intending

* May 13. * May 14.

“May 15.

* May 16. * May 13.

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