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ever, that the entire Army of Virginia was present, engaged in or supporting the attack, and animated by a sanguine confidence that its results could differ only in being more decisive from those of the recent bloody conflicts. But much time was consumed in getting into position and bringing up the artillery necessary to respond to our heavy and well-placed batteries, so as to cover the advance of assaulting columns of infantry. Jackson, at 3 P. M., pushed forward D. H. Hill's division on his right, and Whiting's on his left, with part of Ewell's in the center, holding his own division in reserve; Isuger simultaneously advancing on their right, with Magruder's three divisions on his right, under general orders to break our lines by a concentric fire of artillery, and then “charge with a yell” on our entire front with columns of infantry, which, however torn and thinned by our fire, should rush right over our defenses, as they did in the final assault at Gaines's Mill, and drive our fugitive army into the James far more hurriedly than Porter's wing had been driven across the Chickahominy. The infantry attack, after a brief cannonade, was made accordingly, and for the most part with great intrepidity; and, though the carnage was fearful, some ground was gained by Magruder on our left, where Kershaw's and Semmes's brigades, of McLaws's * division, charged through a dense wood, nearly up to our guns; as did those of Wright, Mahone, and Anderson, still farther to their right, and Barksdale, nearer to the center; while D. H. Hill, with Jackson's foremost division, charged on Couch's
division next, then Kearny and Hooker, forming IIeintzelman's corps; next to these, Sedgwick and Richardson, under Sumner; with Smith and Slocum, under Franklin, on our right; while McCall's shattered Pennsylvania Teserves and our cavalry were posted in the rear, near the river. Batteries above batteries, along the brow of the hill, rendered the attack little less than madness, on any other presumption than that our men were cowards, who, if resolutely charged, would inevitably run. Apart from the great strength of our position, we had more men than the Rebels, and many more and heavier guns; and then the battle opened too late in the day to justify a rational hope of success: the main assault being made, after a very considerable pause for preparation, so late as 6 P. M.; yet it was made with such desperation—the sheltering woods enabling the Rebels to form their columns of assault within a few hundred yards of our batteries, emerging on a full run, and rushing upon our lines in utter recklessness of their withering fire—that Sickles's brigade of IIooker's division, and Meagher's, of Richardson's divis“Jackson reports the loss of his corps (comprising his own, Ewell's, Whiting's, and D. H. IIill's divisions) in this fight: 377 killed, 1,746 wounded, 39 missing; total, 2,162. Magruder thinks his loss will not exceed 2,900 killed and wounded, out of 26,000 or 28,000 under his orders. Brig.-Gen. Ransom reports the losses in his brigade at 499, out of 3,000. Brig.-Gen. Mahone, of IIuger's division, reports a total loss of 321, out of 1,226. Gen. A. R. Wright reports the loss of his already weakened brigade, in this fight, at 362. I). R. Jones reports the losses in his division at 833. Among the woundéd in this fight were Brig.-Gen. Jones, Va.; Col. Ransom, 35th N. C., severely; and Col. Ramseur, 49th N. C. Brig.-Gen. J. R. Trimble, of Ewell's divis
ion, were ordered up to the support of Porter and Couch, who held our right front, which Jackson was charging ; but not one of our guns was even temporarily captured or seriously imperiled throughout the fight, wherein the losses of the Rebels must have been at least treble our own.” Darkness closed this one-sided carnage; though our guns were not all silent till 9 o'clock, when the Rebels on our front had been fairly driven out of range; though on our left they sunk to rest in ravines and hollows somewhat in advance of the ground they had held when their artillery first opened. And still, as throughout the struggle, our gunboats continued to throw their great missiles clear over the left of our position, into the fields and woods occupied by the enemy, probably doing little positive execution, since that enemy was not in sight, but adding materially to the discomforts of his position. Gen. McClellan, who had been down to Harrison's Bar in the Galena, in the morning, landed toward night, and was on the field during the last desperate charge of the enemy.“
ion, giving an account of the conduct of his brigade in this battle, says:
“The next morning, by dawn, I went off to ask for orders; when I found the whole army in the utmost disorder; thousands of straggling men asking every passer-by for their regiment; ambulances, wagons, and artillery, obstructing every road; and altogether, in a drenching rain, presenting a scene of the most woeful and disheartening confusion.” “There has been much unseemly controversy respecting McClellan's being or not being on a gunboat during this action; the interest thereof being heightened by this passage in Gen. M.'s testimony before the Committee on the Conduct of the War: “Question: Were you down to the river, or on board the gunboats during any part of that day, between the time you left the field and your return to it? “Answer: I do not remember; it is possible I
may have been, as my camp was directly on the river.”
The following extract from the Diary of Dr. R. E. Wan Grieson, then Surgeon of the gunboat Galena, of which the accuracy is not disputed, seems to embody all the essential facts: “U. S. STEAMER GALENA, July 1, 1862. “9 A. M. McClellan has just come on board again. “10 A. M. Under way down the river, taking McClellan with us; who, being considerably fatigued, has gone into the cabin for a little sleep. About noon, we came to IIarrison's Bar. “12:30 P. M. Tug came alongside, and took McClellan and Franklin to the encampment. In about an bour, McClellan returned, when we started up the river. As we pass on up, we can hear heavy firing. After passing Carter's Landing, it increases to a perfect roar. McClellan, though quietly smoking a cigar on the quarter-deck, seems a little anxious, and looks now and then inquiringly at the signal officer, who is receiving a message from shore. After a while, the signal officer reports ‘IIeavy firing near Porter's Division." Next came a message demanding his resence on shore. A boat is manned, and McClellan left. The firing still continues—nearer and louder than before. About 6 P.M., We ran a little farther up, and threw in a few shell with good effect. “9 P.M. The firing has about ceased. News on shore—“Slaughter immense'-' Enemy in full retreat.' * 10 P.M. McClellan has just returned with Gen. Marcy. Mac says “They took one gun from us yesterday; o .# we have taken f their guns and colors.' mo o, “we whipped them like the devil to-day.' is 12 M. From what I can gather from the conversation of McClellan, we may expect to see the major part of the army at Harrison's Landing to-morrow.” Gen. McClellan, in his report, says: “I left Haxall's for Malvern soon after daybreak. Accompanied by several general officers, I once more made the entire circuit of the posi: tion, and then returned to Haxall's, whence I went with Capt. Rodgers to select the finalloca
tion for the army and its dépôts. I returned to Malvern before the serious fighting commenced; and, after riding along the lines, and seeing most cause to feel anxious about the right, remained in that vicinity.” The Rebels made no attack on our right, and it was at no time in action.
* Even Fitz-John Porter's devotion to his chief was temporarily shaken by this order, which elicited his most indignant protest.
“Gen. IIooker, when examined before the Committee on the Conduct of the War, testified with regard to this affair as follows:
“Ques. : Were you in the battle of Malvern ? “Answer: Yes, sir; and at that place we won a great victory, “ Q.: Could you have gone into Richmond after that fight? “A.: I have no doubt we could. The day before, I had had a fight at Glendale; and, under the orders, I had to leave my wounded behind me, and I left two surgeons to take care of them. The enemy, in coming to Malvern, had to march right by my hospital. My surgeons afterward reported to me that, about 3 P.M. on the day of the battle of Malvern, the enemy commenced falling back, and kept it up all night; that they were totally demoralized, many of the men going off into the woods and trying to conceal themselves from their officers; and that they were two days collecting their forces together. “Q.: IIad the defeat of the enemy at Malvern been followed up by our whole force, what would have been the probable result 2 “A.: Richmond would have been ours beyond a doubt. “Q.: Instead of that, you fell back to Harrison's Landing” “A.; Yes, sir. We were ordered to retreat; and it was like the retreat of a whipped army. We retreated like a parcel of sheep; everybody on the road at the same time; and a few shots from the Rebels would have panic-stricken the whole command.”
Mechanicsville to Harrison's Bar, at 1,582 killed, 7,709 wounded, and 5,958 missing; total, 15,249." This may or may not include those abandoned to the enemy in hospitals, most of whom are probably numbered among the wounded. Lee's report does not state the amount of his losses, but says it is contained in “the accompanying tables;” which the Confederate authorities did not see fit to print with his report. IIe sums up his trophies as follows:
“The siege of Richmond was raised; and the object of a campaign which had been prosecuted, after months of preparation, at an enormous expenditure of men and money, completely frustrated. More than 10,000 prisoners, including officers of rank, 52 pieces of artillery, and upwards of 35,000 stand of small arms, were captured. The stores and supplies of every description, which fell into our hands, were great in amount and value, but small in comparison with those destroyed by the enemy. His losses in battle exceeded our own, as attested by the thousands of dead and wounded left on every field; while his subsequent inaction shows in what condition the survivors reached the protection to which they fled.”
The “inaction” thus vaunted was mutual. Lee did not see fit to repeat at Harrison's Bar his costly experiment at Malvern; but, after scrutinizing our hastily constructed defenses, and guessing at the numbers and spirit of the men behind them, withdrew “to Richmond, leaving but a brigade of cavalry to watch and report any fresh evidences of activity on our side. None being af. forded, he sent Gen. Frenčh, with 43 guns, to approach Harrison's Bar stealthily on the south side of the
river, during the night," and open a fire on our camps and vessels, whereby we had 10 killed and 15 wounded, with some little damage to tents, &c. French desisted after half an hour’s firing, or so soon as our guns were brought to bear upon him, and decamped before daylight. Gen. McClellan thereupon occupied and fortified Coggin's Point, on that side of the river; and was no farther molested.
POSITION AT IIARRISON'S LANDING.
Even if we raise our actual losses of men in the Seven Days' to 20,000, it is doubtful that they much, if at all, exceeded those of the Rebels, whose
* List of killed, wounded and missing in the Army of the Potomac, from the 20th of June to the 1st of July, 1862, inclusive.
Rilled. Wound. Misso. Total. 1. McCall's division........ 253 1,240 1,581 3,074
2. Sumner's corps 1,076 848 2,111 3. Heintzelman's “. - - - - 1,051 $33 2,073 4. Keyes' “. . . . . . . . . 69 507 201 777
A illed. Wound. Missa. Tofa Z. 5. Porter's , corps......... 620 2.460 1,19 4.27s 6. Franklin's “ .. - 1,313 1,170 2,737 Engineers........... -- 21 .. 23 Cavalry..................... 60 97 176 Total................ 1,582 7,709 5,958 15,249 “July 8 * July 31.
reckless attacks on our strong posi...tions at Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mill, Glendale, and Malvern, being stoutly resisted, must have cost them very dearly. The official reports of two corps commanders show an aggregate of 9,336 killed, wounded, and missing;" while other “ subordinate reports indicate heavy losses in other divisions. On the whole, it is fair to estimate our total loss at 15,000 killed and wounded, and 5,000 unwounded prisoners; and the Rebel as at least equal to ours, minus the prisoners and the guns.
Gen. McClellan had telegraphed the President from Haxall’s, on the morning of this battle, that: “My men are completely exhausted, and I dread the result if we are attacked to-day by fresh troops.” Next day (2d), he telegraphed from Harrison's Bar that, “As usual, we had a severe battle yesterday, and beat the enemy badly; the men fighting even better than before.” Next day (3d), he telegraphed again to the Secretary of War that he presumed he had not over “50,000 men left with their colors;” and that, “To accomplish the great task of capturing Richmond and putting an end to this Rebellion, röenforcements should be sent to me rather much over than less than 100,000 men.” The President had advised him, the day before, that
there were, in all; east of the Alleghanies, less than 75,000 men not already on the James, including those under Gen. Wool at Fortress Monroe; so that to send him even 50,000 was impossible. The President went down" to the Army at Harrison’s Bar, and found 86,000 men there. As 160,000 had gone into that Army on the Peninsula, he wrote for an account of the residue. Gen. M. replied” that his force then “present for duty” numbered 88,665; absent by authority, 34,472; absent without authority, 3,778; sick, 16,619; present and absent, 144,407. Of those absent by authority, he says that one-half were probably fit for duty; but, having got away on sick leave or otherwise, had failed to return. The AdjutantGeneral's office reported (July 20th) Gen. McClellan's army as numbering —Present for duty, 101,691; on special duty, sick, or in arrest, 17,828; absent, 38,795; total, 158,314. This does not include Gen. Wool’s nor Gen. Burnside's force, then at or near Fortress Monroe.
Upon a suggestion” from Gen. Halleck at Washington that deserters had reported the Rebels moving southward of the James, leaving but a small force in Richmond, Gen. McClellan ordered Gen. Hooker, with his own division and Pleasan
• Brig.-Gen. R. S. Ripley, Rebel chief of ar
| tillery, reports that his brigade entered into | these fights 2,366 strong, including pioneers and ambulance corps, of whom 889 fell at Malvern, and 3 out of 4 Colonels were killed. Brig.-Gen. Garland reports his loss in all the battles at 192 killed, 637 wounded, 15 missing; total, 844.
Howell Cobb reports that his brigade, of Magruder's division, went into battle at Savage's Station 2,700 strong; whereof but 1,500 appeared on the battle-field of Malvern, where nearly 500 of them were killed and wounded. Among the Rebel officers killed during the Seven Days were Gen. Griffith, Miss.; Cols. C. C. Pegues, 5th Ala., Allen, 2d Va., Fulkerson, commanding Texas brigade, and Lt.-Col. Faison, 3d N. C.
* July 7. *July 30.
* July 15.