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In the preparation of this volume the editor has made use of material found in the Congressional Record without giving credit to the several Senators and Representatives whose remarks have been utilized, except in cases where the character of the debate was such that names must necessarily appear. The services of Hon. W. W. Curry, of Indiana, are acknowledged in the preparation of the work. The tables used have been verified and corrected throughout the entire work. The figures can therefore be quoted with absolute assurance by speakers and writers. Great care should be taken in noticing the BLACK-FACED TITLES of the book, as this will guide the reader invariably to the subject without the use of an index. All important matter relating to money is found under the headings of "Currency" and "Coin." The volume has been prepared under great disadvantages to the editor, by reason of the haste and confusion incident to the work of the campaign and the closing hours of Congress. It is therefore not so full and complete in all it details as at first contemplated by the editor; but we believe it to be sufficiently so to be of invaluable assistance to those interested in the subjects herein contained. THOMAS H. MCKEE,

September 12th, 1894.

Assistant Secretary.

Copyrighted 1894, by Thomas H. McKee.)



AUG 6 1974

If a Nation was made of adamant, free

trade would grind it to powder.'




Political parties exist in all free governments, representing opinions and purposes more or less coherent. Many of these parties are evanescent, because representing passing phases of public opinion; but some are permanent and endure for generations. Their organizations are necessarily loose, their declarations often incongruous, and their personnel eenstantly shifting; but still there are certain permanent tendencies in public affairs around which parties must adhere, under whatever changes of names, and pursuing whatever different immediate results. This will be found true of all parties in the United States.


During the revolutionary war the colonies were kept together by the spirit of patriotism, and the pressure of a common enemy. At its close the necessity presented itself of maintaining some sort of union in order to receive recognition in the family of nations. A confederation was formed; but its utter inefficiency soon became apparent, and they were driven to the adoption of the present Constitutional Government in order to form a more perfect Union for the purposes enumerated. Before and during the formation of this government there was developed a very wide and permanent difference of opinion as to what should be its scope and character. Before the war the colonies were independent of each other, having no political connection except through the distant mother country. In the formation of the new government, one class insisted on maintaining this independence as Sovereign States, while another demanded a united country under one sovereignty. Between these extremes, as a matter of necessity, the Constitution was finally adopted. The independence of the States was preserved in all that related to their local affairs, while the general government was made sovereign in all that concerned their external relations, The Constitution was formed in the name of the people, and not of the States. It was declared to be the supreme law of the land, even as against the state constitutions, and the nation was charged with the supreme authority of guaranteeing to each state a government, republican in form. On the other hand, it was to be a government of delegated powers, and all power not delegated was expressly reserved to the states respectively, and to the people.

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