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tion for that gosed models and the Hana

From a study conducted in 1985, the Department identified critical educational needs at the intermediate grades, grades seven and eight, particular among Hawaiian students. Efforts have been made for the last 3 years to address these needs in the Hana Kupono project, which uses culturally-based models and approaches in improving the education for that group of youngsters who are going through a traditionally difficult transition period in their lives.

Federal funds through Alu Like, Inc., have been used to provide additional resources to 25 selected classrooms throughout the State involving 758 students. Cooperative efforts with the Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate have spanned many years. Among these efforts have been Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate's provision of supplemental support for intermediate level counseling and alternative school opportunities for our public school students of Hawaiian ancestry. In addition, two major initiatives have been initiated by the Kamehameha Elementary Education Program (KEEP] and the cooperative summer program, as initiated by the Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate.

KEEP is a language arts program. It was established in 1971 to improve the language performance of students of Hawaiian ancestry. Currently, the program is cooperatively implemented in eight of our elementary public schools. At each site, curriculum materials, equipment, and a team of trained staff members including site manager, consultants, and trainers, are provided.

Since 1983, the Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate has been assisting the Department of Education in the development of summer educational programs. At 16 sites this summer Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate provided funding for special staff-coordinator, teachers, curriculum specialist, kupuna, student aides, and clerk-as well as other support, including financial assistance to students, bus transportation, and snacks.

The Department of Education and the State of Hawaii continues to be sensitive to the concerns about the educational advancement of our Hawaiian students. Where the needs and interests of this target group are similar to those of other students, we have implemented programs to benefit all students. However, where the needs appear unique to the target group, we have received support from external sources.

While this arrangement will continue in order to take full advantage of the expertise, interest and resources of these groups, there are major areas that could benefit from direct Federal assistance. With additional Federal assistance to the Hawaii Department of Education as the administering agency, statewide programs to benefīt the Hawaiian students, in particular, would be possible, including additional basic skills reinforcement, cultural counseling, early career planning, and orientation to occupations and professions with inadequate Hawaiian representation.

We have sought to share with you some of the major educational activities being undertaken by our public schools which have made significant impact on our Hawaiian children. However, we also seek to leave you with the understanding that much remains to be done by lower education. Toward this end, we ask that you consid

er additional Federal assistance and support specifically targeted for Hawaiian children.

We are constitutionally required and committed to develop understanding and appreciation of the fundamental values, concepts, practices, history, and language of our Hawaiian culture among all of Hawaii's children. In the meantime, as we meet this charge we have found that there are special needs among our Hawaiian children that require special attention if they are to benefit from the application of their own culture within a broader society.

We ask for your support and understanding of our efforts, and we appreciate the opportunity to testify before you.

I'm sure that in presentations of testimony such as this it is especially beneficial to look at the providers at the grass roots level and also the recipients of the providers. For the next few minutes what we'd like to do is share with you two of our programs, and that sharing will be done by one of our teachers, Mrs. Alohalani Kaina, who is a teacher at Waiau Elementary School, and she will be helped by two students from our Hawaiian Language Immersion program. Mrs. Kaina. [Prepared statement of Charles Toguchi appears in appendix.] STATEMENT OF ALOHALANI KAINA, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

TEACHER Mrs. Kaina. Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, [remarks given in native tongue.]

Aloha. The Hawaiian Language Immersion program was implemented in two elementary schools during the 1987-88 school year.

The program was begun at the request of parents of students who had attended the school, a Hawaiian Language Immersion program for pre-school aged children and others interested in preserving and reviving the Hawaiian language and culture.

The program was open to any kindergarten or first grade student regardless of ethnicity or language background.

The program was successful in providing a total Hawaiian language immersion experience to participating students, and by the end of the year all students had attained a functional to proficient degree of fluency in Hawaiian language. Students were instructed in language arts, mathematics, and in the content areas in the medium of Hawaiian language.

Extra assistance to the teacher in meeting the needs of two grade levels of students who entered at different levels of proficiency in Hawaiian was provided through the Hawaiian Studies program and by parents and other community volunteers.

Work sheets and some books were translated into Hawaiian, but the lack of translated and readily available materials in Hawaiian language presented a serious problem for the program implementors.

Teachers and other adults were constantly translating materials for use in daily instructions, and the provision of adequate printed materials was viewed as one of the most important needs in future program implementation.

Perhaps one way to alleviate the problem of materials would be to hire a staff of people to work on materials on a year-round basis.

There are many strengths of the program. One of the greatest strengths is parent involvement. Parents volunteer to enroll their children in this school and, therefore, are responsible for transporting their children from many parts of this island. We have children coming from Laie, Kahaluu, Honolulu, Pearl City, Makaha, and Nanakuli. They all come to our school which is located in Pearl City. For some it is a 12-hour drive one way in the morning and a 1/2-hour drive home in the afternoon.

Our parents are also very supportive by attending meetings on a monthly basis. At these meetings we discuss curriculum and other concerns of our program. Our parents also volunteer their time to come on Saturdays to cut and paste our books so that our children will have materials to use in class and at home.

Our parents also volunteer their time and enroll themselves in classes of Hawaiian language so that they can better assist their children in the education process and also in the acquisition of the Hawaiian language.

We also have the support of our administrators. From the school level, the district level, from the State level, and from the government level, we have had a lot of support and our administrators are to be highly commended for all that they do for us.

We also have a lot of community involvement. Several times throughout the year teachers from many institutions gather to work on curriculum and also the production of materials. These teachers come from the Universities of Hawaii. They come from our high schools, from our elementary schools, and also our preschools.

All of these people working together hope to benefit our children. On many occasions our parents have commented on how their children enjoy coming to school and how much they enjoy learning and are interested in learning.

As Mr. Takata has mentioned, our program at this time is very limited. We opened with two schools, and this coming fall we will have four sites, one on each of the major islands.

Many Hawaiian communities would benefit by having more immersion schools in their community not only at the pre-school level, but in the elementary schools, also.

At this time I would like to ask two children to come. (Remarks in native tongue.]

STUDENT. [Remarks in native tongue.)
(Laughter and applause.)
STUDENT. [Remarks in native tongue.)

Ms. Kaina. Kabehe just completed the kindergarten year. She entered without any prior background in Hawaiian language and has progressed beautifully this year.

This is Calee. She'll be entering the second grade.
STUDENT. [Remarks in native tongue.)
Ms. Kaina. I'd like to translate what they said. Kabehe said,

My name is Kabehe Tong. I'm 6 years old. I live in Pearl City. I go to Elementary School. Some of the things that I learn in school are how to read, how to write. I learned math. And the Hawaiian language is very good.

Calee said, My name is Calee. She is 7 years old. She goes to Elementary School and, like Kabehe, she also learns mathematics, reading, writing, phonics, physical education. She tells us that the Hawaiian language is very important, and the reason that it is important is because if we don't speak it we're going to lose it.

(Hawaiian words.] [Applause.]

The CHAIRMAN. May I say to our young citizens on behalf of the committee, mahalo.

Mr. Takata. Thank you, Mrs. Kaina, Calee and Tabehe.

Mr. Chairman, by the end of the sixth grade year we expect the youngsters to be fluent both in English and Hawaiian.

We would like to spend a few more minutes with Mrs. Kupuna Violet Hughes. As our chairman mentioned, the kupuna are our most vital resources. At present in our schools we have several hundred kupuna working in our classrooms on the largest Hawaiian program that we have, the Hawaiian studies program.

Kupuna Violet Hughes.

STATEMENT OF KUPUNA VIOLET HUGHES Mrs. Hughes. Aloha Kakahiaka Kakou.

This is the way we begin our class, in the schoolroom as kupuna. We teach the children, beginning in kindergarten.

I am Violet Hughes, one of the many Kupuna that we have in our Department of Education public education system. We are of varied backgrounds. Some of us Kupuna have our masters, and some have bachelor's degree. Others have 12th grade diplomas and 8th grade diplomas. You can see the background is varied. We have social workers, teachers, nurses, and just plain kupuna.

And because of the varied backgrounds you might question, how come they are teaching. Well, where did they learn the concepts that they teach? They didn't get it with their bachelors or their masters degree or their high school diploma. It was at home with the kupuna, who is the transmitter of the culture. And we now find ourselves in that capacity.

Some of the very important values I must read, because I have them listed: Lokahi, harmony in life, living together with each other, not just yourself; Laulima, all hands working together for the good of all; Kuleana, each person has his responsibility regardless of where he is in life-at home, at school, in the community, and in a hearing such as this; Ike, recognize your fellow man; as well; Aloha, love, respect, give respect to mankind-all mankind; Na'oiuao, to seek knowledge; Mana'o'i'o the truth, seek the truth


Mrs. HUGHES. United States, try to settle misunderstandings by all understanding. And at this time I must say when we have Ho'oponopono, we give on both sides, and we must be willing to admit our shortcomings, each one of us.


Mrs. HUGHES. How do we take this into the classroom? We can. We have tried it, and it has worked. The kupuna has seen it work and the teachers have seen it work. The children will now greet you openly.

I taught school, you see, for many years. My children greeted me always, but not always to the other teachers. Now, as a Kupuna, they not only greet me, they greet every other kupuna, every teacher-even the principals are beginning to say, "Now we have to learn a little Hawaiian, the children are talking to us.” Which is all right. Some of them know the words, they just have not internalized them, probably.

And so all of these concepts and values the kupuna learned in her upbringing with her Ohana. So the Ohana concepts are taught in the classroom. It can be used. We use it every day. We should use it more than we use it presently.

The Hawaiian in his concept also had sayings 'Olelo No'eau. And one of those that I like is, (Po'okela)-“Kulia i ka Nu'u," "Whatever you do, do it to the best of your ability." Wa'a. When you think of the canoes or mention the Wa'akauluo our kupuna who first came built these without the benefit of machinery. They were a stoneage people, and so their tools were stone. But what a beautiful job they did with their Pohoku. To come this far and not be Maka'u because they knew the stars and they could endure. That's why I think the Hawaiians, the Polynesians are survivors. There is a little bit of that still left in us.

And how do we teach these to the children? What we want to teach them is the Hawaiians found this place, have left it for us, the present, and generations, the growing children. We don't want all the trees cut because when we came there were trees. We don't want all the fish polluted out of our waters.

The Kapu system that they had was to keep people from fishing out the ocean. To let them spawn before fishing. Throw back the lobster with the eggs, because next year there will be lobsters. If you take them with the eggs, nele the next time you go, there won't be any.

The aina that we see now has been perfect. It is left for others to see. We didn't invent the Kapa I found out 2,000 years before Christ there was a “Paper Culture" in China, and it was the same thing. But, our kupuna perfected it, because they believed in Po'okela. Do your best. Find perfection.

I talked about the material things. There are also two other things I want to mention: Health-and that's so easy to get to the children right away. First you look at each other. Did you brush your teeth? Of course they all look at each other and smile so that the other can see. It is so easy. And before you know it, they are all smiling because they all learn that if they're going to smile they have to brush their teeth. And they have to 'au'au because the person behind them might be looking and see what's behind their ear. So simple, and yet so important because the Hawaiians believe in prevention, and cleanliness was the first part of it.

And it is not only cleanliness of the kino of the body, but of that spiritual thing inside that we call mana. And everyone is endowed with mana. It is what you do with that mana and this is what we want the children to learn. Take care of that inside. We all have it,

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