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DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUT, ss.
BE it remembered, That'on the eleventh day of December, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Sereno E. Dwight, of the said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof to the "works" he claims as proprietor, and to the "memoir" as author, in the words following, to wit:
"The Works of President Edwards, with a Memoir of his Life. In ten volumes." In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled "An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;” and also to an act, entitled "An act supplementary to an act, entitled An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints."
CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, Clerk of the District of Connecticut. A true copy of record, examined and sealed by me,
CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, Clerk of the District of Connecticut.
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH,
That the things of the Old Testament are Types of things apper
taining to the Messiah and his kingdom and salvation, made manifest from the Old Testament itself.
We find by the Old Testament, that it has ever been God's manner from the beginning of the world, to exhibit and reveal future things by symbolical representations, which were no other than types of the future things revealed. Thus when future things were made known in visions, the things that were seen were not the future things themselves, but some other things that were made use of as shadows, symbols, or types of the things. Thus the bowing of the sheaves of Joseph's brethren, and the sun, moon, and stars doing obeisance to him, and Pharaoh's fat and lean kine, and Nebuchadnezzar's image, and Daniel's four beasts, &c. were figures or types of the future things represented by them. And not only were types and figures made use of to represent future things when they were revealed by visions and dreams, but also when they were revealed by the word of the Lord coming by the mouth of the prophets, (as it is expressed.) The prophecies that the prophets uttered concerning future things, were generally by similitudes, figures, and symbolical representations. Hence prophecies were of old called parables ; as Balaam's prophecies, and especially the prophecies of the things of the Messiah's kingdom The prophecies are given forth in allegories, and the things foretold spoken of, not under the proper names of the things themselves, but under the names of other things that are made use of in the prophecy as symbols or types of the things foretold. And it was the manner in those ancient times, to deliver divine instructions in general in symbols and emblems, and in their speeches and discourses to make use of types, and figures, and enigmatical speeches, into which holy men were led by the Spirit of God. Tbis manner of delivering wisdom was originally divine, as may VOL. IX.
be argued from that of Solomon. Prov. i. 6.“ To understand a proverb, (or parable,) and the interpretation, the words of the wise and their dark sayings ;” and from that of the psalmist, Ps. xlix. 3, 4, “My mouth shall speak of wisdom, and the meditation of my heart shall be of understanding. I will incline mine ear to a parable. I will open my dark sayings upon the harp.” And Ps. Ixxviii. 1, 2. “Give ear, O my people, to my law; incline your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in a parable, I will utter dark sayings of old.” By a parable is meant an enigmatical symbolical speech. Ezek. xvii. 2, and xxiii. 3. Hence speeches of divine wisdoin in general came to be called parables, as the speeches of Job and his friends. Hence of old the wise men of all nations, who derived their wisdom chiefly by tradition from the wise men of the church of God, who spoke by inspiration, fell into that method. They received instruction that way, and they imitated it. Hence it became so much the custom in the eastern nations to deal so much in enigmatical speeches and dark figures, and to make so much use of symbols and hieroglyphics, to represent divine things, or things appertaining to their gods and their religion. It seems to have been in imitation of the prophets and other holy and eminent persons in the church of God, who were inspired, that it became so universally the custom among all ancient nations, for their priests, prophets, and wise men to utter their auguries, and to deliver their knowledge and wisdom in their writings and speeches in allegories and enigmas, and under symbolical representations. Every thing that the wise said must be in a kind of allegory, and vailed with types: as it was also the manner of the heathen oracles, to utter themselves under the like representations.
We find that it was God's manner throughout the ages of the Old Testament, to typify future things, not only as he signified them by symbolical and typical representations in those visions and prophecies in which they were revealed, but also as he made use of those things that had an actual existence, to typify them, either by events that he brought to pass by his special providence to that end, or by things that he appointed and commanded to be done for that end.
We find future things typified by what God did himself, by things that he brought to pass by his special providence. Thus the future struggling of the two nations of the Israelites and Edomites was typified by Jacob's and Esau's struggling together in the womb. Gen. xxv. 22, 23. “ And the children struggled together within her, and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of the Lord; and the Lord said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels. And the one people shall be stronger