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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, by

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District

of New York.

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PREFACE.

The flattering reception by the public of the previous volumes of this work, with the numerous testimonials of eminent individuals, has been such as to induce the publishers to believe that they have been successful in furnishing a truthful and valuable record of the great events of each year of the work. The same efforts have been made as heretofore, with increased earnestness, to secure the completeness and accuracy of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, and to preserve it free from every mark of partisanship.

The events of the year 1864 have been more varied than those of any previous one during the war. The contest was carried on with an earnest purpose to make it, at once, decisive and final; and the reconstruction of States was commenced in the most thorough manner. Emancipation became a subject of State action, and was incorporated as a principle in the fundamental law of several of the States. In other parts of the world, although no extensive war has been waged, the discussions of principles and the agitation of the minds of men have been no less intense than in former

years. Among the numerous questions discussed in the United States were those respecting the relations of the insurrectionary States to the Union; the principles on which the reconstruction should be effected; the powers of the Federal Government; the amendment to the Constitution; the equality and rights of the colored men; the encroachments of military authority; the terms of peace; the exciting topics involved in a Presidential election; and the relations of foreign governments arising upon numerous international questions.

A detailed statement of the vast military and naval operations in this country is continued, which presents the movements of the armies day by day, and step by step, illustrated with complete topographical maps of the field, and the objects of those movements and their consequences; also the efforts of the humane through the Sanitary, Christian and Union Commissions to relieve • the hardships of the soldiers and to aid refugees from the South.

The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the replenishing of the armies North and South; the number and condition of the troops; the important measures and debates in Congress; the acts of State Legislatures and results of elections ; the finances of the Federal Government and of that of the insurrectionary States, and the important public measures of the latter ; the discussions relative to peace, and the efforts to obtain it; the commerce of the country and the regulations for commercial intercourse with the South—and all these important occurrences comprised in the history of the nation.

The interesting events relating to foreign nations in all parts of the world are presented ; also the famous encyclical letter of the Pope, the manner of its reception, and the questions raised thereby.

In mechanical industry considerable progress has been made, especially in the department of military implements; and inventions and improvements have been numerous also in other departments.

The applications of science to useful purposes have been pursued with much diligence, and interesting results are described.

Geographical explorations have been very actively continued in all quarters of the globe, and the discoveries which have followed are very carefully and fully presented.

The unusual enterprise which has been awakened by successfully refining and converting to various uses the article of Petroleum, has caused not less astonishment than the unbounded wealth which it is likely to yield to the country. The history of this branch of industry, including an investigation of all the scientific questions relating to Petroleum, has not been overlooked.

The record of Literature is not less important than in any previous year. By a reference to that title its most interesting features may be seen.

A notice of the principal religious denominations of the country states their branches, membership, views on civil affairs, and the progress of their distinctive opinions.

In no year has the number of distinguished men who closed their career been so large. A brief tribute has been paid to their memory.

All important documents, messages, orders, despatches, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.

State officers, committees of legislative and other public bodies, principals of public institutions, whether benevolent, educational, reformatory, scientific, etc., will confer a favor by sending their printed reports and documents to the Publishers.

THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A AFRICA. The whole of North Africa was, the reduction of the personal tax from 72 to 20 during some months of the year 1864, in an piastres, and the nomination, in the provinces, extraordinary fermentation, which was sup- of Caids (native governors), instead of Mameposed to spring, in part, from the fanatical lukes. The insurrection was, however, far preaching and the influence of the Mohamme- from being completely subdued. While fourdan priests. On the 8th of April an insurrec- teen of the tribes were stated to have made tion broke out among the Arabian tribes in their submission, forty others were said to Algeria against the French, which assumed continue in insurrection. One chief who very large dimensions. The natives were un- signed the conditions of peace, was obliged to able to obtain any lasting successes, but at take refuge in Tunis, and several other chiefs the close of the year quiet was not wholly who had manifested a wish for peace were restored. (See FRANCE.) Simultaneously, a killed. Most of the tribes demanded the disviolent outbreak occurred in Tunis. A body of missal of the Kasnadar. The French and cavalry, which, under the command of Gen. Italian admirals despatched ships of war to Si-Far-Hat, was sent out to collect taxes, was watch the coast and to protect French and murdered by the discontented tribes. The in- Italian subjects. The French admiral having surrection spread rapidly over a large portion learned that the Turkish flag had been substiof the Tunisian territory. The cause of the tuted for that of Tunis, wrote a circular note, discontent was the doubling of the highly un- on the 26th of June, protesting against manipopular personal tax which at the beginning festations disavowed even by the Ottoman of the year 1864 was raised from 36 to 7 Government, and declaring that France would piastres, and the unpopularity of the courts countenance no intervention in the established which had been introduced in 1860. The in- order of the regency. Toward the close of surgents, numbering from 15,000 to 20,000, took the year the insurrection began again to expossession of the towns Kef-Kadgia, Kairvan, tend. The Arabs, who had submitted, threw and others, and threatened the coast towns off their allegiance to the Bey and surrounded Monastir and Susa. The Bey of Tunis, Sidi- the camp of Gen. Ruthen. On the 15th of Mohammed El Sadak, on May 1, consented December, Prince Alij set out with a body of to the demanded abolition of the courts, troops for his relief. but the insurgents, whose chief leader was The Government of Morocco seems to be Ali Ben Gahum, insisted on more concessions, disposed to favor reforms. Sir Moses Monteespecially on the dismissal of the Kasnadar fiore, who paid a visit to the Sultan of Mo

Minister), Sidi Mustafa. This, however, the rocco for the purpose of obtaining toleration Bey steadily refused to grant, and the insur- and protection for the persecuted Jews of the rection continued. In July the Arabs marched empire, was entirely successful. A threatening again in force upon Tunis, and when they difficulty with France, arising out of the asarrived within two leagues the army of the sassination of a French subject, was promptly Bey surrendered. On the 28th of July the adjusted. The four principals charged with minister of the Bey officially informed the the deed were arrested, and the governor who French consul-general of the pacification of assisted the flight of the criminals, was disthe regency under the following conditions: missed and also arrested. The granting of an amnesty without reserve, Of all the native governments of Africa

VOL. IV.-1 A

Egypt is by far the most progressive. The com- States of the North and Northwest. The long merce of Alexandria is increasing immensely, drought of June and July, which it was at one and the Viceroy says he hopes to see the time time supposed would greatly diminish and perwhen the commerce of that city will demand haps destroy the corn and potato crops, proved of him his palace at Raset-tin for the purpose of less injurious than was feared. The corn crop building docks and warehouses. The difficulty was everywhere much larger than in 1863, between the Pasha and the Suez Canal Com- when it was about three-fourths an average pany was submitted to the arbitration of the crop, but was not quite equal to that of 1862, Emperor of France, whose decision was adopted though much nearer to it than was at first exby both parties. At the annual general meet- pected. Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, ing of the shareholders of the Suez Canal Maryland, Kentucky, Michigan, Indiana, MisCompany it was stated by M. de Lesseps, the souri, Kansas, and Nebraska' Territory, rePresident of the Company, that the principal ported materially reduced crops of corn as canal would be completed in 1867. The compared with the crop of 1862, while Rhode Egyptian Government also took vigorous meas- Island, Iowa, Minnesota, and West Virginia ures for the prevention of the extensive slave were largely beyond even that year of plenty trading expeditions on the White Nile. A in their production, and Connecticut, Delaslight misunderstanding between the American ware, Illinois and Wisconsin were fully equal consul and the Egyptian Government was soon to it. In potatoes there was a diminution of removed.

about 2,700,000 bushels from the crop of 1863, King Theodore of Abyssinia, who was for- and of about 16,320,000 bushels from the crop merly looked upon as a patron of Protestant of 1862. The heaviest reduction was in the missions, treated some of the missionaries with Northwestern States, Michigan, Indiana, Ilithe most severe cruelties. The king, also, nois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Kansas, and through the British consul at Massoowah, the Nebraska reporting not over three-fourths of port of Abyssinia on the African coast, sent a crop, as compared with 1862. Maine, New proposals of marriage to Queen Victoria of Hampshire, New York, and Ohio yielded nearEngland, and when the consul declined to ly as large quantities as in 1862; and Vermont, transmit this offer to England he was im- Massachusetts, Connecticut, and West Virginia prisoned at Guada, King Theodore's capital. exceeded the production of that year. At the close of the year the English had not The wheat crop was less in quantity by yet succeeded in obtaining the release of the 17,262,000 bushels than that of 1862, and by imprisoned consul.

about 13,000,000 than that of 1863, but its The doubts concerning the death of King quality is greatly superior to that of 1863. Radama of Madagascar continued in the Island, The rye crop varied but a few thousand bushand manifestations and movements in his fa- els from that of 1863, but was about 700,000 vor were several times renewed. On the 18th bushels less than in 1862. Oats were 6,500,000 of May an attack was made upon the palace, bushels in excess of 1862, and 7,000,000 bushbut repulsed, and eighteen of the ringleaders els in excess of 1863. Barley was about put to death. The prime minister having, 2,500,000 bushels less than the crops of 1862 while intoxicated, insulted the queen, was de- and 1863, which were nearly alike in amount. posed from his office. His successor ordered Buckwheat was fully up to the production of the expulsion of several foreigners who for 1862, and 3,000,000 of bushels in excess of fifteen years had been in the service of the that of 1863. Potatoes, as we have already Government. The progress of the Christian stated, were below the amount produced in missions in the capital and the surrounding 1863, fully one-seventh less than the crop of country was, however, uninterrupted.

1862. The bay crop was slightly below the On the Gold Coast the English were again crop of 1863, and about 3,000,000 of tons beengaged in a war with the King of Ashantee, low that of 1862. The tobacco crop was main which the British troops suffered very se- terially less than in 1863, the principal falling verely from the climate.

off being in Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland, The King of Dahomey made war apon

be- and being due to the disturbed condition of okuta, but was repulsed with immense losses those States, and partly perhaps also to the in killed and prisoners.

drought. The hop crop, which is confined In the English colonies a considerable sensa- mainly to a section of central New York, and tion was produced by the deposition of Bishop a portion of New England, was materially less Colenso of Natal, at a synod of the Angli- than in previous years, owing to the “blight" can bishops of South Africa. (See ANGLIOAN which entirely destroyed the product of many CHUROH.)

yards and deteriorated the quality of others. AGRICULTURE. While the war has in- In 1862 the crop was about 80,000 bales of 200 terfered with production in some of the border pounds each; in 1863, 65,000 bales, a considStates, and notably in Kentucky, Missouri, erable portion of it inferior in quality; and in Maryland, and Virginia, and has rendered it 1864 only_45,000 bales, much of it of poor impossible to obtain any full statistics from quality. The crop of ilax and flaxseed is nearthe States in insurrection, the year has been ly 25 per cent. in advance of that of the preone of agricultural prosperity in most of the vious year, and is mainly the result of the

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