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Mandamus was prayed.

A rule to show cause was issued and the Commissioner's action stayed until the determination of the cause.

The Commissioner in his answer admitted the filing of the applications as alleged and the correspondence with Linthicum, but denied the legal conclusion drawn by petitioner therefrom. He alleged that an interference as defined by the rules of the patent office is a proceeding for the purpose of determining the question of priority of invention and that when an applicant informs the office that the invention shown in his application was made at a date which was subsequent to the date upon which another application for the same invention was filed, the statute does not require that an interference be established between his application and the prior application. That in asking the later applicant to inform the office of the date of its invention the Commissioner was only asking for information upon which he might form, as required by $ 4904, Rev. Stats., an opinion whether a situation existed where the statute required that the later application should be put into interference with the earlier application, and that the rules do not require or contemplate a declaration of interference where it is known that the later applicant made his invention subsequently to the fili of the earlier application; in other words, they do not contemplate the declaration of an interference except where there is a possible conflict in the dates of invention.

The answer further denied that petitioner had shown injury or threatened injury and alleged that the only injury averred in the petition was that if the application of petitioner be put in interference with the patent granted upon the other application, and if priority should be awarded to petitioner and a patent granted to it a bill in equity under $ 4918, Rev. Stats., would be necessary to get rid of the menace of the outstanding patent. Tha, the date of Fowler's invention being subsequent to the filing

Opinion of the Court.

244 U.S.

date of the other party, there would be no ground of awarding priority to Fowler. That even if interference should be declared, "a litigation to be conducted between the application owned by the petitioner and the patent issued to the other party would be no longer or more expensive than a litigation to be conducted between the two applications. No suit could be brought under section 4918 of the Revised Statutes either by or against this petitioner, unless it were proved that Fowler was the first inventor and a patent issued to him; but, as above stated, the date upon which Fowler states he conceived the invention is subsequent to the date upon which the other application was filed."

There was detail of the business of the Patent Office and of the inconvenience to its administration if the right insisted upon by petitioner were allowed.

A discharge of the rule was prayed.

The Solicitor General, with whom Mr. Assistant Attorney General Warren and Mr. R. F. Whitehead were on the brief, for petitioner.

Mr. George L. Wilkinson, with whom Mr. Melville Church was on the brief, for respondent.

MR. JUSTICE MCKENNA, after stating the case as above, delivered the opinion of the court.

The case is not in broad compass. It depends upon a few simple elements. Section 4904, Rev. Stats., provides: “Whenever an application is made for a patent which, in the opinion of the Commissioner, would interfere with any pending application, or with any unexpired patent, he shall give notice thereof to the applicants, or applicant and patentee, as the case may be, and shall direct the primary examiner to proceed to determine the question

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of the priority of invention. And the Commissioner may issue a patent to the party who is adjudged the prior inventor, unless the adverse party appeals from the decision of the primary examiner, or of the board of examiners-inchief, as the case may be, within such time, not less than twenty days, as the Commissioner shall prescribe.”

The duty prescribed by this section and the other duties of the Commissioner, it was provided ($ 483, Rev. Stats.), might be regulated by rules established by the Commissioner, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Interior. And rules were established. They define an interference to be a proceeding instituted for the purpose of determining the question of priority of invention between two or more parties claiming the same patentable invention (Rule 93) and provide that an interference shall be declared between two or more original applications containing conflicting claims (Rule 94). Before the declaration of an interference all preliminary questions must be settled by the primary examiner, the issue clearly defined and the claims put in such condition that they will not require alteration (Rule 95). Whenever the claims of the co-pending applications differ in phraseology they must be brought to expression substantially in the same language and claims may be suggested to the applicants and if not followed the invention covered by them shall be considered as disclaimed. The declaration of an interference will not be delayed by the failure of a party to put his claim in condition for allowance (Rule 96). Each party to the interference will be required to file a concise statement, under oath, showing (1) the date of original conception of his invention, (2) the date upon which a drawing of it was made, (3) the date of its disclosure to others, (4) the date of its reduction to practice, (5) the extent of its use, and (6) the date and number of any foreign application. If a drawing has not been made or the invention has not been reduced to practice or dis

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closed to others or used to any extent, the statement must specifically disclose these facts (Rule 110).

Priority of invention is necessarily the essential thing, and to determine it interference proceedings are provided. But are they considered as a matter of course on the mere assertion or appearance of a conflict? Upon the answer to the question the controversy here turns. The Commissioner contends for a negative answer and supports the contention by the language of $ 4904 reinforced by the assertion that there is no necessity for proceedings to determine what is already apparent as in the pending case by the admission of respondent. The mere fact of asserted antagonism does not put the proceedings in motion, is the contention. There must be the precedent and superintending judgment of the Commissioner. The law requires, it is said, his opinion to be exercised upon the effect of a conflict in applications, and such indeed is the language of § 4904. It provides that “whenever an application is made for a patent which, in the opinion of the Commissioner, would interfere with any pending application. he shall give notice thereof

and shall direct the primary examiner to proceed to determine the question of priority of invention.”

In. opposition to this view petitioner replies that the only fact upon which the Commissioner is to exercise an opinion is the fact of the conflict in the applications, and, that fact ascertained, the duty is imperative upon the Commissioner to declare an interference. “Interference," it is said, "is a question of fact; it exists or it does not exist. If it exists then priority must be determined in the way pointed out by the statute and the rules. Other conditions than priority in time determine priority of invention, it is insisted; that the rules of the Patent Office and the motions for which they provide contemplate such conditions, and that in twenty-five years of practice under them “the question of interference in fact, the question

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of seniority of the parties, the patentability of the claim to one or the other, and a number of other questions became inter partes, and it often happens that the interference is dissolved because of mistake in declaring it or the burden of proof shifted on the ground that the senior party is not entitled to his original filing date as his effective date for the reason that he did not disclose the invention in his case as originally filed, or that his application discloses an inoperative embodiment of the invention, or that he was not entitled to make the claims, or that the junior party had an earlier filed case disclosing the invention, or that the issues as formed did not apply to the structures of the two parties.”

The result of the practice is declared to be that it “prevents a judgment of record based solely upon an ex parte consideration by the Commissioner and affords each of the parties an opportunity to contest the right of the other party to a judgment.”

If there are such possibilities in some interferences they are precluded in petitioner's case. Seven claims of a prior application were adduced by the Commissioner as making a conflict with the invention claimed by petitioner. The latter, through its attorney, adopted six of the claims and directed that they be inserted in its application. It did not intimate the existence of any

rcumstances which would overcome the priority of vention as determined by the difference in times of the conceptions of the contending applicants.

The conceptions were thus established to be identical and that that of Fowler did not come to him until some months after the filing of the other application. And it is to be observed that the priority was complete. There was not only the precedent conception but there was its expression in claims; and that it was practical, a useful gift to the world, petitioner concedes by adopting the claims. There were, therefore, all of the elements of a completed

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