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that the order denying the defendant's motion to vacate the judgment had become academic by the affirmance of the order setting aside the removal. The appeal was dismissed by the Appellate Term. Defendant thereupon applied to the Appellate Term for leave to appeal to the Appellate Division from the order affirming the order of the City Court, setting aside the removal of the action, and from the judgment entered by the plaintiffs while the action was in the federal court, and also from the dismissal of the appeal from the order refusing to vacate this judgment. Both motions were denied. Defendant then applied to a Justice of the Appellate Division, First Department, for an order permitting him to take appeals, and these applications were denied. In these applications the defendant set forth that he had been denied rights asserted by him under the Constitution and statutes of the United States. Afterwards a writ of error was allowed from this court.

As we view this case, we think the judgment of the court below must be affirmed, as this proceeding is practically an attempt to review an order remanding a cause attempted to be removed to the District Court of the United States. Section 28 of the Judicial Code provides that “whenever any cause shall be removed from any State court into any district court of the United States, and the district court shall decide that the cause was improperly removed, and order the same to be remanded to the State court from whence it came, such remand shall be immediately carried into execution, and no appeal or writ of error from the decision of the district court so remanding such cause shall be allowed.” After the filing of the transcript in the United States District Court the matter came on for hearing before Judge Lacombe, and it was ordered that until the further order of the court the plaintiff should be enjoined and restrained from proceeding in the City Court, or from collecting in any manner any

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judgment entered therein. Accompanying this order Judge Lacombe wrote the following memorandum:

Jurisdiction is too doubtful to warrant this court in retaining the cause. Crane Co. v. Guanica Centrale, 132 Fed. Rep. 713. Plaintiff's proper course would have been to make a motion to remand. This he may now do. When such motion is made and granted the cause may proceed there; it is now here. Plaintiffs in the meanwhile

may

be enjoined (until remand is made) from proceeding further in the State Court."

We think the effect of this order, read in the light of the opinion, simply manifested the purpose of the court to prevent proceedings while the question of the jurisdiction of the United States court was pending, and did not amount to a decision that that court had jurisdiction. It is true that an order of injunction was granted; but it is apparent from a reading of Judge Lacombe's memorandum that his purpose was merely to enable the District Court to hold the case until it decided the question of its jurisdiction. Afterwards the motion came up in the United States District Court, in which an opinion was delivered by Judge Hough, wherein he said:

“When this matter was argued the record on removal was not in court. If it had been the motion would not have been held until now. The opinion of Judge Lacombe in Crane Co. v. Granica Centrale, 132 Fed. Rep. 713, merely states what for many previous years had been the practice of this Court,-i. e. doubtful cases were always remanded.

“Rulings of this nature are admittedly unsatisfactory. Counsel and parties are entitled to a clear-cut statement of the law if it is possible to make one;—and it would seem as if the removal acts were sufficiently old by this time to enable a court to select what appeared to be the best of conflicting rules.

“Since no case (irrespective of amount involved) can

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be removed over which the United States Court might not have had original jurisdiction, it has always seemed to me illogical to consider a counterclaim in ascertaining the propriety of removal or remand.

“In the State of New York there is no compulsion on a defendant to set up a counterclaim. It is always optional with the party possessing it to reserve his affirmative demand for an independent suit.

"Imagine this action brought originally in this Court; the defendant would only have been obliged to appear and move on the pleadings to dismiss the complaint without prejudice. Such a motion would have been granted as of course.

"Thus it appears that an action of the most trilling nature may (under defendant's contention) be removed to this Court at the option of defendant if he can assert a counterclaim of sufficient size. That this was never the intent of the statute I am clear. Considering, however, the confusion of decisions and (so far as I know) the failure of late years to observe the difference between the Act of 1875 and that of 1888, I should have felt impelled to consider and classify decisions were it not for the consideration next to be stated. If it be true that by a preponderance of rulings the affirmative claims set up in an answer are to be considered in determining jurisdiction, it is at least necessary that somewhere and in some shape the defendant who sets up counterclaims shall plead them in a manner' which enables his opponent to criticise them, modify them or expunge them as may be proper under the rules of good pleading.

“In this case, -and in any similar case under the Act of 1888 there is no answer. The only knowledge that to this moment plaintiff has regarding defendant's counterclaim is contained in the petition for removal,—the language of which petition sets forth no reason whatever for the recovery by the defendant from the plaintiff of any

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sum of money at all. The petition says in substance that the defendant has a counterclaim, without stating what it is. Whatever may be the preferred rule, when in a proper and formal manner the amount in controversy between the parties is made to appear and shown to exceed $3,000 exclusive of interest and costs ;—I feel justified in holding, and do hold, that it is impossible to show that such controversial amount exists in any such manner as this defendant has attempted."

For the reasons stated, the case was remanded to the City Court. We think these orders, with the accompanying memoranda and opinion, taken together, show that the District Court denied its jurisdiction, and remanded the cause to the City Court. In this attitude of the case, the judgment of the state court must stand, as the effect of the orders of the District Court was to hold the attempted removal unauthorized. This court has more than once held that such an order is not subject to review, directly or indirectly, but is final and conclusive. Missouri Pacific Ry. Co. v. Fitzgerald, 160 U. S. 556, 580-583; McLaughlin Brothers v. Hallowell, 228 U. S. 278, 286; Pacific Live Stock Co. v. Oregon Water Board, 241 U. S. 440, 447.

Nor are we able to find anything in the conduct of the plaintiffs estopping them from contesting the ju diction of the federal court, or amounting to a waiver of their right to the benefit of the judgment remanding the case from the District Court.

It follows that the judgment of the City Court of the City of New York must be

Affirmed. MR. JUSTICE PITNEY concurs in the result.

Statement of the Case.

244 U. S.

LEWIS, EXECUTRIX OF LEWIS, v. UNITED

STATES.

APPEAL FROM THE COURT OF CLAIMS.

No. 197. Submitted April 23, 1917.—Decided May 21, 1917..

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The clause in the Sundry Civil Appropriation Act of March 4, 1909,

c. 299, 35 Stat. 945, 987, appropriating money to enable the Secretary of the Interior to complete unfinished work pertaining to surveys in Louisiana and other States “caused by the discontinuance of the offices of surveyors-general in those States," abolished the office of surveyor general in Louisiana, repealing by necessary implication

$ 2207 of the Revised Statutes creating that office. In determining the effect of the later enactment it must be assumed

that Congress was familiar with action whereby the Interior Department had already undertaken to terminate the office, which the act

recognizes as discontinued. In view of § 1765, Rev. Stats., which fixes the compensation of federal

officers at the salaries established by law with only such additional compensation as is by law authorized and explicitly appropriated, the surveyor general of Louisiana was not entitled to the fees for furnishing copies of plats and transcripts of records which the Act of March 3, 1831, § 5, c. 116, 4 Stat. 492, required him to collect but

did not undertake to dispose of. 50 Ct. Cls. 226, affirmed.

This suit was instituted by James. Lewis, and revived upon his death by Josephine B. Lewis, as executrix, to recover the sum of $2,000 salary claimed to be due him from the United States as surveyor general of Louisiana for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1909, and ending June 30, 1910, and to recover the further sum of $2,287.80 claimed to belong to him as perquisites of this office and paid over his protest into the Treasury of the United States between May 1, 1907, and June 30, 1909, at the direction of his superior officer, the Commissioner of the General Land Office, a total of $4,287.80, for which he prayed judg

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