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tion; and in the celebrated engagement, on the 20th of August, 1794, which resulted in a complete victory by General Wayne over the combined hostile tribes, there were said to be two companies of British militia from Detroit on the side of the Indians.* But the gates of Fort Mimms being shut against the retreating and wounded Indians, after the battle, opened the eyes of Buckongahelas, and he determined upon an immediate peace with the United States, and a total abandonment of the British. He assembled his tribe and embarked them in canoes, with the design of proceeding up the river, and sending a flag of truce to Fort Wayne. Upon approaching the British fort, he was requested to land, and he did so: “What have you to say to me?” said he, addressing the officer of the day. It was replied, that the commanding officer wished to speak with him. “Then he may come here,” was the reply. “He will not do that,” said the officer, “and you will not be suffered to pass the fort if you do not comply.” “What shall prevent me?” said the intrepid Chief. “These," said the officer, pointing to the cannon of the fort. “I fear not your cannon,” replied the Chief. “ After suffering the Americans to defilet your spring, without daring to fire on them, you cannot expect to frighten Buckongahelas ;" and he ordered the canoes to push off, and passed the fort.
Never after this would he, like the other chiefs, visit the British, or receive presents from them. “Had the great Buckingehelos lived,” says Mr. Dawson, alluding to these circumstances, “ he would not have suffered the schemes projected by the Prophet (brother of Tecumseh) to be matured.” And the same writer states, that on his death-bed he earnestly ad
* Dawson's Memoirs.
+ This was spoken metaphorically, to express the contempt and insult with which the garrison had been treated by the Americans, for their treachery towards the Indians who had been their allies.
vised his tribe to rely on the friendship of the United States, and desert the cause of the British. This was in 1804.
It is said of Buckongahelas, that no Christian knight ever was more scrupulous in performing all his engagements. Indeed he had all the qualifications of a great hero. His perfect Indian independence,—the independence of a noble nature, unperceived to itself, and unaffected to others,-is illustrated by an authentic anecdote which will bear repetition.
In the year 1785, he was present, with many other chiefs of various tribes, at a treaty negotiated by order of Congress at Fort Mc'Intosh on the Ohio river. When the peace-chiefs had addressed the Commissioners of the United States, who were George Rogers Clark, Arthur Lee, and Richard Butler, the two latter of whom he did not deign to notice, approaching General Clark and taking him by the hand, he thus addressed him: "I thank the Great Spirit for having this day brought together two such great warriors as Buckongahelas and General Clark. "* The sentiment reminds one of the Little-Carpenter's address to Mr. Bartram :-“I am Attakullakulla ;– did you know it ?"
* Dawson's Memoirs.
Some account of the Shawanees, the tribe of TECUMSEH
-Anecdotes illustrative of their character---Early history and lineage of Tecumseh---His first adventures as a warrior---His habits and principles---His brothers KUMSHAKA and ELSKWATAWA---The first open movements of the latter, in 1806---He assumes the character of Prophet---His doctrines---His mode of operation upon his countrymen---Other Indian Pretenders---Anecdote of a Shawanee Chief, at Fort Wayne---Tanner's account of the ministry of the Elskwatawa's Agents---Concert traced between them---Witchcraftsuperstition---Anecdotes of TETEBOXTI The Crane, LEATHER-LIPs, and others.
As the distinguished personage whose history now claims our attention, was a member of the Kishópoke tribe of the Shawanee nation, a brief account of that somewhat celebrated community may not be irrelevant in this connection.
As their name indicates, they came originally from the South, (that being the meaning of the Delaware word Shawaneu;) and the oldest individuals of the Mohican tribe, their elder brother,* told Mr. Heckewelder, they dwelt in the neighborhood of Savannah, in Georgia, and in the Floridas. “They were a restless people, we are further informed, "delighting in wars;" and in these they were so constantly engaged, that their neighbors,—the Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Yamassees, and other powerful tribes,finally formed a league, offensive and defensive, for
* So called, because their separation from the parent stock was one of the most ancient of which the tradition was distinctly preserved. Following the same principle, the Delawares themselves have uniformly given the title of Uncle to the Wyandots.
the express purpose of expelling them from the country. But the Shawanees were too wise to contend with such an enemy, and they adopted the more prudent policy of asking permission to leave their territories peaceably, and migrate northward. This favor being granted them, their main body settled upon the Ohio; some of them as far up as where the French afterwards built Fort Duquesne,-now Pittsburg,others, about the forks of the Delaware, and a few even upon the site of what is now Philadelphia.
Those who remained on the Ohio becoming numerous and powerful, it was not long before they crossed the Alleghany mountains, and fell upon a settlement of the Delawares, on the Juniata,- of which very people, their grandfather, they had solicited peace and protection, through the interposition of the Mohicans, on their first arrival in the country. Murders were committed, plunder was carried off
, and a war ensued. As soon as this could be disposed of, they engaged in the French war, which broke out in 1755, against the English. That being terminated in 1763, and the tribe being elated by its increased numbers, and by the strong confederacy now established between themselves and the Delawares, they commenced hostilities against the Cherokees. In the course of this war, the latter occasionally pursued the aggressors into the Delaware territories, and thus that nation was aroused again. The union of forces which ensued, added to the already existing hostility of the Five Nations, proved too much for the Cherokees, and in 1768, they solicited and obtained a peace. Owing chiefly to the influence of the Delawares, the Shawanees were now kept quiet for the unusually long term of six years, when they were involved in a war with the people of Virginia,—then comprising Kentucky,-occasioned by the noted murders committed upon Logan's relations and others, by white people. The burning of some of their villages had scarcely driven them to a sort of truce with this new enemy, when the war of the Revolution com
menced, in which they allied themselves with the English, and continued openly hostile, notwithstanding the peace of 1783, until the famous victory of General Wayne, in 1795.
Their reputation as warriors suffered nothing during all this long series of hostile operations. The first settlers of Kentucky were molested and harassed by them, more than by any other tribe. Boone, who was taken captive by them in 1778, saw four hundred and fifty of their warriors mustered at one place -still called Chilicothe,-ready for a foray among the white settlements, which soon after ensued. Marshall, in his History of Kentucky, gives the particulars of an expedition against them, the season after this, in which,“ many of the best men in the country were privates;" the invaders were defeated and driven off, and nearly two hundred of them pursued with considerable loss, by about thirty of the Shawanees. “Of all the Indians who had been marauding in the country,” the same writer observes elsewhere, “the Shawanees had been the most mischievous, as they were the most active.” Loskiel represents the tribe in question as “the most savage of the Indian nations."
An incident, showing the disposition which they manifested, even at this period, (1773,) towards their American neighbors, may throw some light upon their character, and upon subsequent events. The celebrated missionary, Zeisberger, visited some of their settlements, during the year last named, in the hope of establishing a mission among them. At one of their villages, he met with the head-chief of the tribe. The latter gave him his hand and addressed him: “ This day,” said he, “the Great Spirit has ordered that we should see and speak with each other, face to face.” He then entered into a long detail of the practices of the white people, describing their manner of deceiving the Indians, and finally affirmed that they were all alike,—all hypocrites and knaves. The Missionary made some reply to these charges,