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SECT. III. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of iwo witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open couri.
The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason : but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person altainted.
Full failh and credit shall be given, in each State, to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other Siate. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
SECT. II. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.
A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the Executive Authority of the 'State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State, having jurisdiction of the crime. No person,
beld 10 service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour ; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erecled within the juris. diction of any other Slate-nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States—without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations respecting, the territory or other property belonging to the United States: and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed, as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular Slate.
SECT.IV. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union, a republican form of government; and shall protect each of them against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.
ARTICLE V. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall Vol. I.
deem it necessary, shall propuse amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing amendmenis, which, in either case, shall be valid 10 all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislature sof three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress ; provided, that no aiendment, which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect ihe first and fourib clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
ARTICLE VI. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States, under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land : and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constilution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all Executive and Judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
ARTICLE VII. The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, proposed by CON-
States, pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. I. Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the goveroment for a redress of grievances.
II. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
III. No soldier sball, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner ; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated: and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation-and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment by a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war, or public danger : nor shall any person be subject, for the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself ; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law : nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury, of the state and district wherein the crime sball have been committed ; which district shall have been previously ascertained by law; and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; 10 be confronted with the witnesses against him ; to have com. pulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed i wenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved : and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according 10 the rules of common law.
VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required; nor excessive fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
İx. The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others, retained by the people.
X. The powers, not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
XII. 1. The electors shall meet in their respective Stales, and vole by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted : the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole nuinber of electors appointed ; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each Slate having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary lo a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.
2. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President: a quo. rum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.
3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President, shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States.
ACTS OF THE FIRST CONGRESS
THE UNITED STATES :
Passed at the first session, which was begun and held at the City of
New York, in the State of New York, on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and ended September 29, in the same year.
George WASHINGTON, President. Joun Adams, Vice Presi
dent, and President of the Senate. FREDERICK AUGUSTUS MUHLENBURG, Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Chap. 1. An act to regulate the time and manner of administering certain oaths.
1789 ch. I. Sect. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representalives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the oath or affirmation required by the sixth article of Form of the the constitution of the United States, shall be administered in oath to supthe form following, to wit, “I, A. B. do solemnly swear or af- port the confirm (as the case may be) that I will support the constitution of To be adminthe United States.” The said oath or affirmation shall be ad, istered to the ministered within three days after the passing of this act, by the senate, its
president of any one member of the senate, lo the president of the senate, members and and by him to all the members, and to the secretary ; and by secretary ; to the speaker of the house of representatives, to all the mem- the house of bers who have not taken a similar oath, by virtue of a par- representaticular resolution of the said house, and to the clerk : Aud tives, and its in case of the absence of any member from the service of clerk; and to either house, at the time prescribed for taking the said oath bers of either or affirmation, the same shall be administered to such member body on takwhen he shall appear to take his seat.
ing their seats. § 2. That ai ihe first session of congress after every general Method of adelection of representatives, the oath or affirmation aforesaid ministering shall be administered by any one member of the house of repre- affirmation. sentatives to the speaker; and by him to all the members present, and to the clerk, previous to entering on any other business; and to the members wbo shall afterwards appear, previous to taking their seats. The president of the senate for ihe time being, shall also administer ihe said oath or affirmation to each senator who shall hereafter be elected, previous to his taking his seat: And in any future case of a president of the senate, who shall not have taken the said oath or affirmation, the same shall be administered to him by any one of the members of the senate. VOL. I.