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to the crown. When we arraign the interesting character of the any man at the bar of our judgment, amiable Edward, but his life is too for conduct deemed reprehensible, well known to render it necessary. justice requires that we should take His biographers have detailed vainto our consideration, before we rious striking illustrations of his condemn him, the times in which personal piety, and, considering his he lived, the circumstances under youthful age, of the solidity of his which he was placed, and the vari- mind. Even when a child, he enous actuating motives by which he tertained a peculiar veneration for was governed. To apply this to the the book of God. case before us, we should remember, “ So powerful indeed was the revethat the idea of regal succession, in rence imbibed by the royal youth for God's strict lineal descent, had but very once laid a Bible on the floor, in order to
recorded word, that when a play-fellow little hold on the national mind give him the means of reaching someduring any period of the Tudor thing above his head, he not only refused dynasty.
Henry bequeathed the to avail himself of such a help, but also crown to his daughters in reversion; capable of using the Book of Life for an
expressed his displeasure, at being thought but, as they had both been declared end so trifling" p. 2. illegitimate by act of parliament, As he ripened in years, he imtheir right evidently rested on the bibed a sincere regard for the pure legislative power conveyed to the principles of the Reformation, toking for its disposal.
gether with a knowledge of the As Edward professed his inten- points at issue between the two tion to procure the same sanction churches, not usual to his age or for subverting that arrangement, station. But the most striking traits and as the Lady Jane stood next in of the youthful monarch's character the succession after the princesses, were humility, and an earnest desire there would not appear, to persons to fulfil the duties of his exalted rank. living in those days, so violent a de. His remarks to Bishop Ridley, on parture from acknowledged right as his sermon respecting the duties strikes us, with our widely different incumbent on those whom Provi. and more constitutional views of dence elevates above their fellowthe question. The oath sworn by beings, exemplify this very strongly. Cranmer and the other executors to fulfil the late king's will, ought, discourse, and after dinner he desired the
“ Edward was much affected by this we think, to have proved an in- preacher should wait on 'him in the great superable bar to so palpable a gallery of the palace. When Ridley obeydeparture from it, and it actually The king however mildly said, “ Be cover
ed the call, he was, as usual, bare-headed. caused the Archbishop long to ed, my lord, and take a seat by me. I have hesitate before he acquiesced; but to thank you most heartily for the excelwhatever might be the real cause lent sermon which you preached this mornof his yielding at last, we do not ing. In what you said I feel myself more
concerned than any other person ; for my believe that it was in order to assist
means are the greatest, and my station a petty intrigue, on the part of is the highest in the kingdom : I therefore Northumberland, to elevate his fa- beseech you give your counsel as to how I mily at the expense of justice and may best perform the duty which you have
shewn to be incumbent upon me. The equity. He was far more likely to bishop was so much overpowered by this be shaken by the consequences unexpected display of goodness, that after which he well knew would ensue sitting for a short interval he burst into on the accession of the bigot Mary, he replied, that indeed the city of London
tears. At length, mastering his emotion, -the subversion of the fair fabric afforded ample room for the exercise of of a scripturally constituted church, benevolence, but that he could wish, beand the probable reversion to the fore pointing out any particular channel errors of Rome.
for the royal bounty, to consult the civic We might have offered, had our gestion, and immediately furnished the
authorities. Edward approved this suglimits permitted, some remarks on prelate with a letter demanding the requi
site information. A committee of the very important portion of our eccleçitizens was in consequence formed; and siastical annals yet remains before into three classes, the young, the diseased, him, which will demand all his diand the idle. For the effectual relief of ligence, and which, if placed before the unfortunate persons under the first two the public in a pleasing form, will, designations, King Henry's grants to the Blue-coat and St. Bartholomew's hospitals beneficial. But, in order to attain
we doubt not, prove acceptable and were confirmed, and additional sums were supplied to these establishments. For the this desirable end, we would recomrelief and reformation of the idle, the mend him to compress his materoyal palace of Bridewell was appropriated rials into a smaller compass, and to and endowed.” pp. 752, 753. How much might have been an
avoid those digressions which have
increased the size, (and, we may ticipated from the riper years of such a sovereign, guided by the add, the expense) of the present of
volume beyond what we conceive much of human woe and suffering, the subject demanded. If he asin the dark and dreary reign of his sign to the remaining important persecuting sister, would have been periods a space proportionable to persecuting sister, would have been that which he has occupied with the spared ! But “ the ways of God are not our ways, neither are his short reign of Edward, he will dethoughts our thoughts."
feat his purpose, and his ensuing We have been carried on so far deter those from reading it for whom
volume will become so large as to by the engrossing nature of our subject, as almost to have lost sight it is well calculated to interest and
it is professedly intended, and whom of the work under our review. We
benefit. consider it highly creditable to Mr. Soames's reading and research; and, although we fear we should differ from him on some important points
Memoirs of a West-India Planter ; of doctrine *, if his statements were
published from an original Manusufficiently explicit to allow of our
script; with a Preface and adperfectly collecting his sentiments,
ditional Details. By the Rev. this does not prevent our appreciat
John RILAND, M. A. Curate of
Yoxall,' Staffordshire. London. ing the value of his work as an his
1827. 58. torical composition. We hope that he will proceed in his labours. A The Anti-slavery cause has called
forth, as well it deserved, persons In illustration of this remark, we might notice the author's statement re
of all ranks, and minds and talents specting the article on “ predestination of every order, in its defence. Those to life," that “God has foreseen from all who consult merely the coldest abeternity the character of every moral stractions of the understanding will agent in the great human family, and that find an ample fund of argument and he has mercifully determined upon guiding through earthly goodness, to heavenly of fact, political, statistical, moral, joys, those who are fitted for the opera- and economical, to shew the feartions of his grace.” Surely, whatever may fully calamitous effects of slavery ; of our church, respecting" predestination while those who think that on such to life,” this supposition of foreseen merit a question, the warmest feelings of or fitness in man accords with neither. humanity, and the sacred dictates Such a sentiment, we fear, involves very of religion may allowably exercise inadequate notions respecting the character of original sin, the natural inability of
will be utterly overman to turn to God, and the doctrine of whelmed with the mass of heartDivine agency as explained by our own rending details which have been church. There is indeed to our minds a elicited on this afflicting question. considerable defectiveness of statement wherever there occurs a reference to these Poets, philosophers, statesmen, poand kindred points of doctrine.
litical economists, and divines, have
all, in their respective spheres, open- to abolish. He collects his facts ed most powerful attacks upon this from friends or opponents, wherever pestiferous and many headed hydra. he can find them, with no other stiWe should indeed be fearful of pulation than that facts they must be, poets, and their allies the writers of and facts strongly bearing upon the fictitious narratives, pouring in their details of his own highly able argulighter troops in such a contest, if ments. Of such facts he has amassthey were not amply supported from ed a most convincing and affecting van to rear, from flank to centre, by collection, and he has made a the weighty arms of solid argument powerful use of them, either as and impregnable truth. But thus direct quotations, or by embodying guarded, thus entrenched, we have them in the substance of his narraalready more than once hailed the tive ; and even then generally with writers of such works as “ Outalissi," such references as bear out the truth “ The System," and the authors of of his details. various little moral tales and dia. We have just remarked, that the logues on the evils of slavery, as va. respected author makes an especial luable coadjutors in this great cause. appeal to all persons who are inteThey have not written fictions but rested in other works of Christian well ascertained and deeply affect charity, to come forward in this ing truths; for the convenient exhi- also. Let our readers weigh well bition of which a slight web of fic. the following remarks upon this titious narrative is woven together, subject. but which have not been allowed to be coloured or distorted by being mystery. I mean the apathy, and even
“ The subject presents also another thus inserted into a connecting the impatience and irritability, manifested, tissue.
with regard to the abolition, by numbers Of this class is the work before of the Christian philanthropists of these us. The “ Memoirs, published from busy times. Their conduct is a direct
contrast to the spirit awakened throughan original Manuscript,” are but
out their own body, when the cause of slight, and are avowedly only para. the African was first debated. In 1787, bolical, for the sake of giving the their exertions in favour of the Negroes reader at once a faithful and an were unanimous, rapid, and efficient. In affecting picture of West-Indian
1827, they are either slumbering on their
arms; or, in effect, subsidising the colo. slavery, and of inducing him to nists. The circumstance is more extraexert his just portion of influence ordinary, as we live in days when activity and exertion for its extermination. in doing good--whatever be the motive
is become fashionable. Never was the The author has exhibited powers of machinery of benevolence worked with conception and description which greater skill, precision, and perseverance. shew that, had the production of a But, in some quarters, the cause of the merely interesting tale been his ob- slaves is forgotten, or ridiculed; or it is ject, he could have succeeded to no sorbed'in schemes of charity, as-for so
even opposed by persons so intensely abslight extent in impressing the ima- the accusation runs—to postpone their gination and the heart of his readers. domestic and more imperative duties till But to write a novel was not his tionists cannot bring forward, on their
Is this because the aboliobject. He
appears in the far higher hustings, stories of triumph equivalent to character of a minister of Christ, the splendid success announced at the anendeavouring to awaken his coun- niversaries of Missionary and Bible societrymen, especially those who are
ties? Alas! our details are too generally interested in other works of Chris: those of languid operation, of retrograde
movements, and even of confusion and tian charity, to the enormity of a discomfiture! And why—but for one reasystem which exists only by their son, because we have so few auxiliaries ! sufferance-or rather by their ac
“ Let it be at length recollected, that tive support—and which it is their that the earnestness once displayed by
the Slave Trade and Slavery are identical ; duty promptly to examine into and the moralists of this county, to annihilate the commerce in human beings, ought to cal system, we do not mean to as. have been continued against the oppres- sert that the expense of reparation sion of the same beings, either as transferred from a slave-ship to a slave-colony, pught not, in its just proportion, to or as descended from the exiles of Africa, be borne by all the culprits, as and inheritors of their affliction. I think,' well as by the party most directly said the late Right Honourable William Windham, that too much distinction has concerned. What that just proporbeen made between two things so closely tion may be is not our present connected with each other, as Slavery and question; though we firmly believe, the Slave Trade. They are in essence that whatever share of guilt was one and the same, and in their nature
contracted by the government, or equally objectionable." pp. vii, viii.
parliament, or the public, of past We fear that Mr. Riland has too days, they were little more than much cause to make this appeal. unwitting instruments to work mea. The friends of religion, generally sures, devised and proposed by the speaking, have not done all they West-India interest, and borne ought, or all they could, to promote along triumphantly, by the powerful either the temporal or the spiritual weight of West India power, and interests of the many hundreds of influence, and property. But to thousands of their ignorant and return to Mr. Riland on the legiti, oppressed fellow-creatures, confined macy of the caption and detention. in our slave colonies. Many well
“ Let the inhabitants of this enlightendisposed and religious laymen hang from their recent liberation of European
ed empire take a lesson of consistency back, because their pastors do not bondsmen among the Algerines. When urge upon them the importance of Lord Exmouth succeeded, by the bomthe subject; while their pastors bardment of their fortress, in bringing a refrain from so doing lest, it is said, despot to terms, what would Europe have “ they should injure their minis- said, had he insisted merely upon the ex:
tinction of piracy, and left the captives try.” But we have already dwelt in chains ? Among those victims, there so often and so recently upon this might have been some even of our own topic, that we will not dilate again countrymen; taken, we will suppose, in upon it at present. We will only Algerine commander, who had ventured add, that we believe that nothing to steer through the Straits of Gibraltar, is more injurious to the usefulness and to cruize at the very mouth of the of a minister of Christ than a hol. Tagus. We may faintly' imagine, what low compromise with any disposi- throughout the empire at the news, that
thunders of indignation would have rolled tion or practice which he knows or
even a single British family should have suspects to be wrong, but which he been manacled, branded, bastinadoed, and also knows to have a powerful ad- worked in a gang of White slaves under a vocate in the interests or prejudices deniable, that an Algerine crew have as
Moorish driver. It is nevertheless unof an influential portion of his flock. national and as moral a right to carry A West-India merchant or planter, away, from the chain-pier at Brighton, a who is truly a religious man, would party of fashionables into African bonnot really think the worse of his sessed ourselves in the days of the Slave
dage ; as we Christian Protestants, pospastor, or be less edified by his Trade ; or now retain, in continuing the ministrations, because he found him arrangements of a slave-cultured plantafaithful in stating what he conceived tion.” pp. viii, ix. to be his sins or his duties, however
Mr. Riland continues to press different his own estimate might be home the question upon the friends upon the subject.
of religion, in the following exposBut the planter has a legal pro
tulation. perty in his slave; and would you pretensions; and numbers among us are
“ We are a nation of high religious interfere with legal property? On spiritually
, vain of their country, as having this most Christian legality let us shone so brilliantly, in their view, as the hear Mr. Riland; only premising, light of the world, and the glory of all that, as the whole nation has been the success of our great society in disperguilty in sanctioning a truly pirati- sing millions of copies of the Scriptures. But, if those Seriptures be true, what is But “slavery is not what it was." the meaning of such passages as denounce In answer to this palliation we the vengeance of God upon the oppressor? We may suggest to the incredulous might re-quote sheet after sheet of reader, the expediency of studying in the Mr. Riland's authorities and cita, retirement of his closet, only the few tions. Our readers, we hope, will following texts ; Exodus xxii. 21-24; peruse them for themselves. To Jeremiah v. 25--29; xxi. 12 ; xxii. 3, 13 ---17; Ezekiel xxii. 7, 9, 12-14, 29-31;
our minds, even were it proved that Zechariah vii. 9–14; Joel iü. 3, 4, 7, 8} the draught of bitterness is some, James v. 1-6; Rev. xviji. 13; as a what diluted, which practically, we scanty example of the many, so thickly fear, is not the fact, yet still slavery strewn throughout the book of God; and of asking himself, after the examination of ever is and must be bitter. each, Lord, is it I?' He may not be a
“Even if I were to allow, well said planter, neither a planter's agent. But in Bishop, Horsely, that the slaves in the those national affairs which involve relic West Indies receive, from the liberality gion and our subject is one of them of the planters, all the alleviations which neutrality is guilt. It is among the signs their condition will admit, yet I would of the times which men of serious minds say, that they cannot be otherwise than will observe well, that our students of pro- miserable; for, if you were to pamper phecy appear to pass over prophetic de them with the most exquisite delicacies, nunciations against oppression; as though or put them to rest on a bed of roses, a these might be forgotten in their calcula- slave will still be a slave.' (Speech' in tions on the decline and fall of empires, the house of lords, June 10, 1806.)" pp. and in their hopes or anxieties respecting 213, 214. the destiny of our own country. The We shall not detail the planter's author of Babylon and Infidelity fore- memoirs, which, as we have said, are doomed of God a book not to be men. but a vehicle for matters of fact, whatever may be its writer's mistakes. They are comprised in a few no. either as a theorist or rhetorician--may be tices of his birth and infant educaparticularized as, in this view, deficient. tion, or mis-education, in the West Mr. Irving tells fearful things in respect Indies ; his early removal to En. to what, as he and many others think, may come upon this land. But will the gland; his school-boy memoranda ; sorrowful erying of our captives, their his return to the colonies, and the sighs and groans, and their bursts of con- scenes he there witnessed ; with his vulsive grief, never be heard in the day, final settlement in England, and and before the day, when God arises to shake terribly the earth, and when he his becoming a zealous advocate makes inquisition for blood? It is a so- for the abolition of slavery, lemn question; and we ought to be pre- We present a few specimens of pared to answer it." pp. xxiv, xxv.
the narrative. They at once illus, Let those who are seriously anx- trate the direful effects of slavery, ious for the extension of Chris- and the intellectual and moral tianity and the salvation of the powers of the author in reprosouls of men, weigh well the fol- bating it. lowing argument.
The following is his account of a “Dr. Paley has pointedly owned the poor old blind Black man, whonı he very partial recognition, and almost the finds when at school in England. non-existence, of Christianity in colonial economy; and has closed his statement “ I shall now relate parts of Cæsar's by expressing a hope, that what the Go- history; not in his language, neither as spel once did in an idolatrous empire, it detailed at one interview; but as digested may still accomplish in islands colonized, by myself—without, I trust, any material for ages, by people professing to believe inaccuracy from what he told at various in Jesus Christ!He bas, of course, an- times, either to me alone, or in the comticipated our main position, that Chris- pany of others. I was born,' said tianity and slavery-that is, be it dis- Cæsar, 'in a kingdom of Africa far distant tinctly understood, the cart-whip, demo- from the coast. My birth-place, was a ralizing slavery of the West Indies; and village situated in the midst of a thick not the milder modifications of bondage, wood; through which there was a narrow existing by suffrage under the Jewish winding path, not easily to be found by Theocracy; neither such as are known the enemy : I say, the enemy; because, among the nations of Africa--cannot co- remote though we were from the sea exist. They are principles inevitably de- shore, the slave-traders, by means of their structive of each other." pp. xii, xiii, agents, made frequent incutsions into our