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Lord; the envious brethren of doctrines, which, with almost a mi Joseph compared with the envious raculous closeness of application,may countrymen of Jesus ; and Judah be made to fit into one another, and by name proposing to sell Joseph, into “the analogy of faith.” It is compared with Judas the traitor. however, we repeat it, where these We have the sale of Joseph to the applications are warranted, are made Egyptians, illustrating that of Jesus to our hands by the words of into the Romans; and, more curiously spiration itself, that we deem them still, the abiding of Joseph with the either positively certain or absoEgyptians, whither his brethren lutely wise and safe. And on the must come to meet him, the con- other hand, we may justly demur signment of Christ to the Gentile when on fanciful grounds, even the church, whither the Jews must here- good and philosophic mind of Mr. after come to recognise their rejected Jones himself warns us of the imMessiah. The comparison of Jo- portance of baptism prior to the seph between the two chief officers reception of the Lord's supper, of Pharaoh-one to be delivered, and introductory to all Christian and one to be banged-with Jesus privileges, (a most true doctrine,) between the two malefactors, of by the man bearing a pitcher of similar fates, forms, with other cir- water; who thereby points out, cumstances, but an under-plot in and leads to the house where Jesus the general master-piece.
was afterwards to admit his disciples The truth of the whole matter to sacred communion, and deliver unquestionably lies in a short com- to them the emblems of his own pass. The interpretations of this most precious body and blood. nature which are adopted by Scrip. And we are not able exactly to see ture itself, are infallible; but when the force of another amongst a they stand alone upon the authorities thousand of his analogies taken from of human invention and imagination, natural objects ; namely, that the or what is sometimes absurdly in- birds of the air, the land animals, troduced as the analogy of faith, and the fishes of the sea, represent they are simply fallible, and often respectively, first, the general existvery simple indeed. No man of ence of all spiritual creatures, whecommon sense will pretend on such ther good or bad; next, the prepoints to any superior inspiration, sent state and residence of man on or judicial authority over another. land or the earth; and lastly, the Here the right of private judgment future state of the same migratory takes its most legitimate stand. being, when sunk in the darkness The Scriptures, no doubt, are suited and depths of the unseen bades. to every turn of mind and taste. In a very different and most The very large place which the edifying rank of spiritual interpreimagination occupies in the mind of tation, are those views which lead man, cannot have been unknown to us to place the whole Jewish regiHim who framed the Scriptures for men and history in the light of a
Hence we may justly admire type or figure of the Christian that ineffable wisdom which has Church; and each circumstance given faith enough for the dullest occurrent in Egypt, in the wilderand most sterile understanding of ness, in Canaan, and the passages " the wayfaring man,” to guide him; between, as, in sober application and has superadded an abundance descriptive of the Christian's life, of most instructive and impressive and daily experience. “Unto us analogies for every higher grade of was the Gospel preached,” and no intellect or imagination ; not even less, the Apostle to the Hebrews inrefusing food to the most soaring and timates, “unto them.” The word aerial of all minds, by the construc- preached did, or not, profit both tion of narratives, occurrences, and them and us, as being mixed, or not, with faith. Their earthly rest was in Scripture, sufficiently instructive, the glass, or reflection, of that hea- and awfully or comfortably illustravenly rest yet remaining for the tive of the mercies or judgments people of God. And, by parity of of the Almighty,
And whilst we reasoning, their wilderness state thankfully accept all without exrepresented our wilderness world; ception in this their general, broad, in which the rebellious dwelt as and practical application; we are in a dry land," and which conducted perfectly safe, and perhaps quite these to no land of promise ; but in sufficiently supplied for the purpose, which the believer partook by faith, in confining our typical illustraof spiritual food, and drank of spiri- tions to those selected histories in tual drink, even of that rock which which, as in a mirror, God has more followed them; and “ that rock was expressly exhibited his spiritual dealChrist."
ings with the objects of his paterEven to go still farther backward nal regard. In the formerhe teaches into patriarchal history," Your us by what is plainly preceptive or father Abraham rejoiced to see my doctrinal; in the latter, by a species day,” said Christ, “and he saw it, of divine hieroglyphics. and was glad." The patriarchal wan- Under these limitations we quite derings in the land they were after- agree with Mr. Buddicom's opening wards to receive for an inheritance, observations, in Sermon I. vol. i. could not but represent the pilgrim
« The LIVES of the ancient tribes were state of the Christian sojourner, not less prophetic, than their sacred ora. whilst under hope of heavenly cles. Their whole condition forms one grace. “I am a stranger with thee, grand prediction and outline of human and a sojourner, as all my fathers redemption, and of the righteous dealing
of God with mankind. While therefore were,” is the language of believers
we study and receive the ancient Scripalike of every age and dispensation. tures in their literal and primary sense, Under each alike they have learned and thus avoid the peril of enthusiastic to “ look for a better country, that mysticism, we must also bear in mind is, an heavenly,” and God hath meaning of the Holy Ghost. We shall builded for them a city.” Under otherwise form inadequate and unworthy each alike there has been the one views of that gracious revelation, in which “born after the flesh,” as well as patriarchal, legal, and prophetical dispenthe other, “ born after the Spirit;" ful testimony to the great mystery of godthe seed of meek Isaac, or of mock- liness, "God manifest in the flesh. ing Ishmael: of praying Jacob, or “ A Christian, who reads the Old Testarebellious Esau. Whether traces of ment as a mere history, will rise from the the same anology are discoverable immediate interest in the stupendous
sacred employment, unaffected by his own in antediluvian or diluvial history, events of the Jewish Exodus; or by its in the grand primitive distinction momentous reference to his own spiritual between righteous Abel and murder-condition, and to the terms upon which ous Cain ; in the walk of Enoch with eternal life will be imparted to the need of God; in the solitary testimony of his soul. On the other hand, a fervent Noah to the truth of God, and his student of holy writ, 'comparing spiritual consequent salvation in the ark, things with spiritual,' looks through the
veil of the elder dispensation, and sees amidst the all-devouring flood, Christ 'the end of the law for righteous"the like FIGURE whereunto bap- ness to every one that believeth. To tism doth even now save us," such an inquirer, spiritual blessings are is perhaps a question on which the enwrapped in external distinctions ; spiricloseness and brevity of those histo- hind the curtain of temporal judgments.
tual and everlasting plagues are hidden beries scarcely allow us to pronounce. The miraculous deliverance of Israel, perAs direct histories of the dealings spicuously, although figuratively represents and interpositions of God, whether the experience of Christian in his eventindividual, national, or universal, his unrenewed condition ;--the method of
ful journey. It shadows forth the evil of they are doubtless, with many more his escape ;--the manner in which bis al.
mighty Father and Redeemer try him, to their requirement; as the tale of bricks prove what is in his heart, and to do him was exacted from the groaning Israelites. good at his latter end. It exhibits the If the demand be not fulfilled, woe and rebellion and idolatry of the human mind, punishment await the offenders. "Cursed under the very circumstances that invest is every one that continueth not in all God with attributes of unrivalled attrac- things which are written in the book of tion. It proves the long-suffering of the the law, to do them.' Every sin commitMost High ;-the tenderness of his neg- ted, every duty neglected, is a transgresion lected Son ;-the calls of his insulted of the law; and the wages of sin is death.' Spirit; and the danger, lest they who Does the law then promise no strength to despise them, should be eventually left enable men to fulfil its enactment? Abbeneath the irremediable infliction of the solutely none. No such encouragement second death. It contrasts also with such annexed to the covenant of works is to be & state, the unspeakable happiness of found in the Bible. That covenant exthose who through faith and patience hibits the injunction, and insists upon the shall inherit the promises,' and repose, performance, with the most unyielding beyond the dark passage of the grave, in severity. Under the covenant of mercy the rest that remaineth for the people of in Jesus Christ, duty is required, but grace God.'” pp. 4–6.
and sufficiency are also offered. I will We shall give only one passage put my Spirit within you, and cause you more from the following sermon, to
to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep shew that we do not think Mr. under the legal covenant is represented by
my judgments, and do them.' But man Buddicom is wholly free from the the case of Israel in Egypt: Go thereblame of faulty limitations and per- fore and work: for there shall no straw be haps indistinct conceptions in the bricks." Now the law is spiritual; application of these important canons but man, from the corruption of his nature of interpretation. After describing 'is carnal, sold under sin’ and unless he the bondage of Israel “under the obtain help from without, can no more dominion of their powerful and im- fulfil the bidding of his taskmaster the law,
than the Israelites could make up the placable enemies in Egypt,” he pro- amount of their stipulated burdens. Man ceeds:
may follow after the law of righteousness, “ We are here presented with a signifi. but cannot attain unto the law of rightcant emblem of the natural condition of eousness,' while he endeavours to fulfil
The enemies of his soul have suc- the covenant of works. "As many then ceeded in establishing over him a domi- as are of the works of the law are under nion, at once the most subtle, and the the curse'-in a state of bondage, misery, most despotic;-a dominion not the less and death. Nay “the strength of sin is secure, nor the less fatal, because it is the law;' because that law, pronouncing invisible, and has fixed its seat in the the sentence of condemnation against heart. All the relations in which he every transgressor, enables sin to bring stood to God have been mournfully death upon mankind, and to imbitter its changed by the first apostacy. •The agonies with the dread of eternal punishcreature was made subject to vanity, not ment.” vol. i. pp. 26–29. willingly,' but by a kind of constraint, through the guilt of Adam, and the right
We venture to suggest on this eous condemnation denounced by God passage, whether, according to any against him and his posterity. And gloomy proper mode of interpretation, it is indeed would be the condition of man, possible to link together the taskwere he not subjected in hope; and were not ample means devised, that every one
masters of Egypt with the law of who receiveth Jesus Christ by faith, should God, - that law, which is holy, just, be delivered from the bondage of corrup- and good; and which, in all its hotion, into the glorious liberty of the sons liness, justice, and goodness, Mr. of God.' “ Satan, the implacable enemy of our
Buddicom sets forth under its full fallen race has established a dominion over evangelical terms, as a law of love. human nature, of which the tyranny exer- Amongst the innumerable boundacised by Pharaoh over the Israelites was a ries between, we should imagine, faint and shadowy representation. Then
so incongruous an analogy, is this comes the law of God, like the taskmasters of Egypt, eracting a full uncompromising obe consideration, that the heavy tasks dience to the letter and spirit of every injunc- of Egypt were, when performed, a tion. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God fruitless exertion, or but to the with all thine heart, and all thy mind, and honour of false deities, and to the all thy soul, and all thy strength : and thy neighbour as thyself. These duties disgrace of the slavish builders; and must be perforined in all the extent of such is sin, But the yoke and bur
den of Divine love rendered only people had believed, had bowed their heavy by the corruption of man, heads and worshipped, in token of having would, when accepted and borne by mercy. Yet
, alas! the first opposition
gratefully and gladly accepted the offered the human heart, become its glory which the rebellious king gave to the bidand its joy, the fruit unto boliness, ding of God, overwhelmed them with unand the end everlasting life.
believing terror and despondency. Their We had marked for notice some
unworthy dread of Pharaoh immediately
overcomes and destroys the confidence few passages of a mixed nature, in- and faith, which every possible consideradicative of Mr. Buddicom's weighty tion ought to have interwoven with the style of general instruction. And very frame of their minds. They had exfrom no part of his volumes could pected an immediate deliverance: and, lo!
increasing difficulties were laid in the way; they have been better selected than new burdens were added, and new woes from the early discourses on the Op- were to be endured. So at least they inposition of Pharaoh, and the Dis- terpreted the course of Providence; and couragements and Fears of the Israel. therefore they hearkened not for anguish
of spirit. ites. One passage. we are disposed “How faithfully does their history disto give, as marking the writer's play the spiritual lineaments of those who style of experimental remark on the are unable to retain a hold of the promises
of God, in the hour of affliction and sorlatter subject, from Sermon VIII.
row! The everlasting word has declared, “Behold, the exceeding great and pre- that the redeemed of the Lord shall recious promises made by the God of truth turn, and come with singing unto Zion, and and love in the Gospel of his redemption, everlasting joy shall be upon their heads : adoption, and salvation! Sometimes in- that they shall obtain joy and gladness ; deed, these assurances vainly solicit the and that sorrow and sighing shull flee hearts of Christians, in moments of alarm away.' And yet, how often does a longand discouragement, because the course of suffering and gracious God deign to remon. Providence contradicts their hopes; and the strate with us, when he sees us sinking expected deliverance seems far removed. into doubt, and murmuring, and despair, Their spirit therefore faints within them, as as he leads by the hand through the paths they contemplate the trials and afflictions of affliction, in order to try us, and do us by which they are visited. It was thus with good at our latter end? How frequently the children of Israel in Egypt. The gra- does he expostulate with us, and say, ' 1, cious assurances of their heavenly Father even I am he that comforteth you: who were repeated to them: but coming in the art thou that thou shouldst be afraid of a hour of darkness, disappointment, and sor. man that shall die, and of the son of man row, they were received with unbelief and which shall be made as grass : and forgetdespondency; although, at that very hour est the Lord thy Maker, that hath stretched they ought to have been most dear and forth the heavens, and laid the foundamost encouraging. It is comparatively tions of the earth; and hast feared contieasy to commit our way to God, and to nually every day because of the oppressor; repose with confidence upon the assurances as if he were ready to destroy: and where of his power, his presence, and his love, in is the fury of the oppressor?'. God limits the brightness and sunshine of peace and not the accomplishment of his promises prosperity. At such a time, the course of to the calm and prosperous exterior of his Providence coincides with our wishes, providences; but frequently visits his dearand we readily own the wisdom as well as est and most devoted servants with disthe mercy of our heavenly Father. But pensations, which seem rather calculated when he comes to us in gloom and sorrow;
to frustrate than to establish his purposes. when he draws nigh to us as Jesus ap- The slavery of the Ishmaelite merchants, proached the disciples in the storm and and the prison of Potiphar, conduct Jodarkness that beset them upon the sea of seph to the side of Pharaoh's throne, as Galilee, we mistake his errand and cry out the second in the land of Egypt. Jonah for fear. Then we refuse to walk any is cast on shore by a whale, while the longer by faith. Then unbelief assumes mariners arrive at their port in the ship. its power over us, and we hearken not to The blind man, in the Gospel, is cured by the voice of our Lord, speaking to us in the very means which seemed to make mysterious mercy. Then the very pro- the recovery of sight more hopeless, mises, which a little while before formed Such visitations of hidden wisdom, and our chief joy, lose all their sweetness, all disguised love, are meant to prove and intheir power, and all their value. Infidelity crease the efficacy and vigour of real faith. steps between them and our hearts, and They are to be accounted among the best makes us insensible to all their comforts. privileges and blessings of a Christian; and The wonders of approaching redemption in moments like these, he is most effectuhad been foretold to Israel-the oppo- ally upheld by the sure, but secret energy sition of Pharaoh had been declared--the of his Saviour's Spirit. It was thus with
Joseph, in the hour of his affliction. The can no more understand the length and archers sorely grieved him, and shot at breadth, and depth and heighth, of the him, and hated him; but his bow abode secret harmony existing between the forein strength, and the arms of his hands knowledge or thepurposes of Almighty God, were made strong by the hands of the and the free agency of his creatures, than mighty God of Jacob," vol. i. pp.157-159. we can comprehend the nature of his
“ The Case of Pharaoh," in the essence, or span the duration of his being. following sermon, would have been that shall assert eternal providence, and
Some arguments however we may adduce, more completely “considered " if vindicate the ways of God to man.' Some reference had been made to the very considerations we may advance, to prove, important view taken of it by st. that even when God is said to have hard Paul, in his 9th chapter to the struction was from himself-the fault and Romans. The views, however, of the punishment entirely and exclusively Mr. Buddicom, clearly lead to the his own. The unspeakable woe that befel rejection of any intimation, as de him in the infliction of this penal impeni ducible from St. Paul's words, of a instructed, lest my soul depart from thee.'
tence, cries to every one of us, •Be thou sovereign and irresistible decree of It stands upon record as a beacon to warn reprobation in force against the us against the presumptuous sin by which hardened monarch. The very allu- he suffered a temporal and an eternal ship sion indeed used by the Apostle in to lay the solemn lesson to heart ; that we
wreck. May the Holy Spirit incline us that place to the potter and the may not receive the grace of God in vain!” clay, though sometimes interpreted vol. i. pp. 169, 170. into such a decree, yet bas always We find ourselves hurried towards appeared to us to make against it a conclusion, after perhaps too long when compared with Jeremiah xviii. a detention amidst Mr. Buddicom's from whence that allusion is bor- analogies, which may have rendered rowed. There we find the very usapparently, not really,unmindful of illustration used to shew the sove- many other important points in these reignty of God, not in originally two substantial volumes; but we forming his work according to one must now in fairness conclude with given and irrevocable purpose; but one or two extracts from Mr. Close's in moulding and fashioning it ac- single and interesting volume; which cording to his wil), after it had taken, indeed very sparingly treats of through its own “marring" of itself, these analogies, but which draws a different form from that originally every useful and practical lesson proposed. A due consideration of from the several histories he consithis distinction, we apprehend, with ders, in a style of much excellence a collateral distinction between that for sermons, from its united simpli. free agency which is essential to city and force. Mach of good sense responsible beings, and that inde- appears in his ordinary style of rependence, on the contrary, which mark : as an instance of which, we belongs to no creature, and least of may give the following very useful all to fallen creatures, would dissis observations in introducing the subpate many of those “clouds” to ject of the Flood; and that more which Mr. Buddicom alludes in the especially in these inquisitive, not to following portion from the opening say impertinent, times in reference to the sermon in question.
to that very subject. “Clouds of gloom or fear have often “ The most fearful event that has oce gathered around the minds of those, who curred in the annals of mankind, is that to were honestly endeavouring to understand which your attention
is now invited, the and obey the word of the Lord. The ju- universal Deluge. There is no history dicial obduracy of impenitent sinners ranks recorded in the Bible that is more replete among the greatest mysteries on which the with useful warning and instruction to our mind can dwell. It is as high as heaven, souls ; but I would preface my remarks what can we know? deeper than hell, upon it by a few brief explanatory obserwhat can we understand? It must be vations. It is not the proper office of the classed among the most intricate counsels minister of Christ to substantiate the facts of Him whose judgments are unsearch- recorded in the word of God: it is rather able, and his ways past finding out.' We his office to expound and apply its obvious