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NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE.

No. CXCVIII.—NOVEMBER, 1866.-VOL. XXXIII.

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THE CIDER MILL.
UNDER the blue New England skies,
Flooded with sunshine, a valley lies :
The mountains clasp it, warm and sweet,
Like a sunny child, to their rocky feet.
Three pearly lakes and a hundred streams
Lie on its quiet heart of dreams.
Its meadows are greenest ever seen;
Its harvest fields have the brightest sheen:
Through its trees the softest sunlight shakes,
And the whitest lilies gem its lakes.
I love, oh! better tban words can tell,
Its every rock, and grove, and dell:
But most I love the gorge where the rill
Comes down by the old, brown cider mill.
Above the clear springs gurgle out,
And the upper meadows wind about;
Then join, and under willows flow
Round knolls where blue-beech whip-stocks grow,
To rest in a shaded pool that keeps
The oak-trees clasped in its crystal deeps.
Sheer twenty feet the water falls
Down from the old dam's broken walls,
Spatters the knobby boulder's gray,
And, laughing, hies in the shade away,
Under great roots, through trout-pools still,
With many a tumble, down to the mill.

All the way down the nut-trees grow,
And squirrels bide above and below.
Acorns, beechnuts, chestnuts there
Drop all the fall through the hazy air;

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by Harper and Brothers, in the Clerk's Office of the Dio trict Court for the Southern District of New York,

Vol. XXXIII.-No. 198.-Z z

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But wherefore gods? Those ideal toys
Were soulless to real New England boys.
What classic goblet ever felt
Such thrilling touches through it melt
As throb electric along a straw
When boyish lips the cider draw?

And burrs roll down with curled-up leaves,
In the mellow ligbt of harvest eves.
For ever there the still, o'd trees
Drink a wine-of peace that has no lees.
By the road-side stands the cider mill,
Where a lowland slumber waits the rill:
A great, brown building, two stories high,
On the western hill-face warm and dry:
And odorous piles of apples there
Fill with incense the golden air:
And heaps of pumice, mixed with straw,
To their amber sweets the late flies draw.

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The years are heavy with weary sounds,
And their discord life's sweet music drowns;
But yet I hear, oh! sweet, oh! sweet,
The rill that bathed my bare, brown feet;
And yet the cider drips and falls
On my inward ear at intervals ;
And I lean at times in a sad, sweet dream,
To the babbling of that little stream;
And sit in a visioned autumn still,
In the sunny door of the cider.mill.

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THE WORK-HOUSE-BLACKWELL'S ISLAND. RUNKENNESS and small thefts are two such the proposal was adopted by the Common

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in the institution which forms the subject of ture in 1850. The corner-stone was laid in this article. The writer, therefore, has been November of that year. The architectural plan prevented from emulating an English brother of that date exhibits many features not seen in of the pen who created no small sensation by his the structure as completed. The engraving at treatment of a similar theme. He has not be the head of this article shows that it comprises come an inmate of the Work-house for the sake two wings, the one extending northerly, the of a novel experience and the desire to give a other southerly, from an extensive centre buildvivid description. He may premise, however, ing. A third wing, projecting immediately that he has had advantages far from common back of this, is also to be descried in the origin eliciting information concerning it, and that inal plan, as well as four outhouses of consider“our artist" was on the spot when the accom- able architectural pretensions situated on the panying sketches were made.

corners of an inclosure in which the main strucThe Work-house is the most recently estab- ture was to stand. None of these have been lished of the institutions upon Blackwell's Isl- erected. and. Previous to the erection of the present The northern wing contains the female wards, building the classes that now fill it were dis- the southern the male. They are similar in tributed among the District Prisons, the Tombs, exterior and interior construction, and the prethe Penitentiary, and the Alms-house. It was sented view of the galleries and rows of cells in originally recommended, "for the employment the northern wing gives a fair idea of the apof able-bodied inmates of the Alms-house," by pearance of each. In the middle of the further a committee from the Board of Aldermen. As I extremity will be seen an altar-like structure,

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INTERIOR OF THE NORTHERN WING.

male wing is not so regularly divided into small cells, some within it holding twentyfive beds, but its general capacity is doubtless the same. The largest number ever at any one period incarcerated within the walls has been 1700. This happened at the time of the riots in the city concerning the draft during the late war of secession. In 1855 the number of inmates was 200; in 1856 the daily average was 625, upon which, from that year to 1860, the annual increase was about 100, the daily average being, in 1860, 1208. Since that date there has been a gradual decrease, although in a fluctuating manner. For the past three years the daily average has been from 700 to 900. The expense to the city of each inmate is about fifteen cents daily, sometimes a trifle more, sometimes a trifle less.

The utmost economy prevails, and the containing a mammoth reflector, which at night | labor of the prisoners produces no inconsiderillumines the entire avenue. There are three able amount of money. This labor, contracted stories to the edifice, to which exceptions, how- for by manufacturers in the city, has in times ever, exist in the cross buildings at the end of past brought as much as $6000 to the ineach wing; these comprise four with a loft be- stitution in a single year. The manufacture sides. In them are the work-rooms, the offices, of cigars was then carried on in a somewhat and the reception-rooms. The centre building extensive manner. The receipts from concontains the apartments of the warden and phy- tracts fluctuate not a little, the principal cause sicians, the kitchens, the laundries, and the being the occasional suspension of a manufacchurch auditory. Contiguous to and back of turer. In the past year the receipts were only it, a small outbuilding with the usual tall chim- $2975, to which sum the Hoop-skirt Factory ney, is the engine-house, whence steam is gen- contributed its quota. There have also been erated for the whole institution as well as the cap and stocking contractors. Garments for Retreat, a structure now pertaining to the Lu- United States troops were made here during natic Asylum, but which formerly belonged to the war. the Work-house.

The greater proportion of work, however, Like that of all institutions upon the Island, done by the prisoners is consumed by the inthe edifice is constructed of blue stone rubble stitution and the various other departments masonry, the materials obtained from the in- under the control of the Commissioners. Carsular rock. There are also several wooden penters, coopers, boat-builders, blacksmiths, outhouses belonging to it, a stable, a carpenter wheel-wrights, tinsmiths, etc., are all employed shop, a blacksmith shop, and a boat-house. at their respective branches, and their prodThe last contains not only the boat and crew ucts, as may be required, are sent to the Almsof the Work-house Warden, but those of the house, Bake-house, Bellevue steamboat, BelleResident Physician of the Asylum as well. vue Hospital, City Cemetery, Island Hospital,

The grounds of the institution comprise about ten or twelve acres, which, carefully cultivated by certain of the prisoners, afford fair yearly returns in a variety of vegetables. They are consumed by the institution. The paid officials of the Work-house number some thirteen, of whom the highest in rank is the Superintendent or Warden. Next in order come the Clerk, then the Engineer, the Keepers, and the Matrons. The Bellevue Hospital furnishes two physicians from its staff; which staff also fills the medical departments of the Penitentiary, the Alms-house, and the Island Hospital, its members taking turns in serving at every place.

It is supposed that it would be possible to crowd two thousand prisoners into the Workhouse, although it can not be strictly said that there are accommodations for them. In the female wing are some one hundred and thirty cells, each of which contains four beds. The

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NOOP-SKIRT FACTORY

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Lunatic Asylum, Small-pox Hospital, Peniten- ed in occupations requiring greater strength tiary, City Prison, Commissioners of Emigra- either of body or mind. They blast the rocks tion, and Randall's Island.

of the Island and hew the stone, the larger proThe carpenters are mainly employed in mak- portion of masons and house-carpenters coming ing coffins for the use of the above-named in- from their ranks. The more fatiguing work is stitutions and the outdoor poor; from 700 to evidently apportioned them. A large quarry 900 are constructed yearly, of various sizes. engages them continually. The tailors do all the repairing and making The number of deaths in the Work-house, required by the Work-house in coats, pants, considering the population, is very small. Of vests, and caps, and also that needed by Ran- over 12,000 commitments during the past year, dall's Island in boys' clothing. The women of 1865, only eighty died. The number of elopethe department are largely employed in the ments is, however, not so minute, over 400 havSewing-room upon stockings, socks, dresses, ing escaped in the same period. This is owing under-garments for both males and females, in a great measure to the scattering of the inshrouds, and mittens.

mates among the institutions. Latterly the Work-house women have been It will be found interesting to examine the greatly used as help in other Island institu- history of the Work-house, for a casual glance tions as scrubbers, cooks, washers, and ironers, will determine that it is not now exclusively the Lunatic Asylum being well furnished with used for the reception of the classes for which them. Including patients to the Island Hos originally it was erected. The inquiry can not pital, the number of transferred inmates to oth- be held tiresome, for it embraces a period of cr institutions as help during the year 1865 but sixteen years. We learn from a report amounted to 1329 males, and 3336 females. of distant date, emanating from the SuperinThese numbers, it will be understood, refer to tendent of the Alms-house, that a majority of different commitments merely, and include the inmates of that edifice had always been those sent up for a term of ten days as well as accustomed to idleness, and did not care for those for six months or a year. The daily nor feel shame consequent upon pauperism. average of inmates was 772. The males have It was adjudged that a great point would be been mostly employed in the grounds in tilling gained if there could be some line drawn, some land, digging excavations for cellars and foun- distinction made—which could be impressed dations, whceling dirt, breaking stones, level- upon the feelings of the poor themselves-being, etc. Not a few wooden structures have tween those reduced by uncontrollable circumbecn lately erected by the Commissioners, and stances and those of a lazy, shiftless disposiWork-house mechanics have been largely used. tion. It was urged that the establishment of The Penitentiary convicts appear to be employ-two institutions might tend to draw the line of

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