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excitement, are excellent sleep-compellers, and by eating or drinking something which has been fatigue, especially of body, if excessive, will so placed in readiness by their bedside. deaden the excitability of the brain that stimuli, If all means fail, and the nights get worse and even of a powerful sort, will have no effect upon worse, and the sufferer more and more restless, it. This is why men and boys have gone to he needs must have recourse to the physician sleep on a ship's deck in the midst of battle. and his pharmaceutical treasury, and he gets a Many will sleep in any position, even the most sleeping potion, which in all probability will be uncomfortable, amidst great noise, or even in some preparation of opium. Now every one great dangers, from sheer fatigue. And when has his views and theories about opium, amountexcessive and morbid wakefulness is present, it ing altogether to what De Quincey calls - the is a very good and natural method of invoking fiery vortex of hot-headed ignorance upon the sleep to subject the body to hard exercise ; and name” of it. Let bim who wants to read the fatiguing the brain by counting, or the like, poetry of this drug study the “Confessions." may have the same effect, though less surely. The prose thereof is written in the pages of If by working our memory till we are tired, we many medical authors, yet no two are agreed can produce fatigue without calling up any anx- upon the mode of its action, whether the beneious feelings or thoughts, volition at last ceases, ficial or the poisonous. Most admit, however, and we sleep. But if sleep does not come, is that in small quantities it is a stimulant, in large there any other method ?

a narcotic, a poison. Some say that the small It may be that we lie awake because we are or stimulating doses procure sleep, and are alone hungry. Hours may have passed since our last beneficial, yet this is contrary to the foregoing meal. Whether we feel hungry or not, it is at remarks, which tend to show that stimulation any rate a fact that something to eat will often of all sorts drives off sleep. That small doses bring sleep. The effect of food has been already of opium will keep many awake is as certain mentioned. It is a reasonable plan, but one as that green tea does. It quickens the pulse often neglected, probably from the difficulty of in these small quantities, and stimulates the cirprocuring something in the night. There is a culation of the brain. A double dose will repopular fallacy abroad that we ought not to go duce the circulation and procure sleep. The to sleep on a full stomach, a fallacy adhered to opium conveyed by the blood to the nerve-cenin the face of the fact that every animal eats be- tres appears to lessen their force and energy, fore sleep, that infants almost invariably require and to deaden the excitability both of the mena full stomach to send them to sleep; and so, tal brain and also of the nerve-structures which fearing to go to bed with a full stomach, people supply the bodily organs. When the dose goes go with an empty one, and do not sleep. Many beyond this it becomes poisonous, and it not would sleep much better with an early dinner only lessens but destroys the excitability, and and a good supper, than they do with their six ' we have coma, collapse, convulsions, and death. o'clock dinner, which allows them to get hungry But this is not the place for an examination of again before they want to go to sleep. Many this question, nor for an enumeration of all the have found this out and guard against it, and if other substances which the physician employs they wake in the night they tempt slecp again to “entice the dewy feathered sleep."



No abbots now in ghostly white nor sable,

No choir to rival the angelic songs,
No whispering thunder in low organ-notes,

To thrill with heavenly answers kneeling throngs.
The monks hare long departed I shadows now

Fall thick upon the roofless porch and chancel; Long since the raging king drew angry sword,

The charter of this fallen house to cancel.

And see, the Elder brings its pure white flowers,

So broad and lerel, lavish, and so fair,
As offerings to the shattered altar-stone,

That still, though rent and mossy, moulders there.
And still the suppliant wind, its frightened dirge

Moans ceaseless o'er the silent sheeted dead,
Or wails its lingering hymns when winter moons

Are shining cold and brightly overhead.
These little worshipers, the wild-flowers, too,

Sown by the pitying angels, rise and bloom
(Speedwell and primrose) in among the stones,

Nod from the arch, or sway above the tomb.
Nature has pity on man's frailty,

And loves such ruins for their builder's sake,
For the old piety that's gone to dust,

And lies so calmly now beneath the brake.

No priests nor worshipers are left-ah! vainly

Frith, praying, consecrates her special places;
Time is a cruel heathen, and delights

To leave on sacred things its mouldy traces.
But "No," Hope says, for where of old there stood

The altar and God's shrine so loved and treasured,
Comes now the blackbird's ceaseless gladxome hymy,

Poured forth with joy and gratitude unmeasured.

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ed for not telling the gardens where the step an old French foundation. With this feelrich plums which adorn the heads of “his” chap- ing, but with no positive knowledge of the subters grew -quotes over the eighth chapter of ject, I resolved to delve among the old records Felix Holt the following sentence: “The mind and chronicles in the British Museum and the of man is as a country which was once open to London Library, and find what I could about squatters, who have bred and multiplied, and the ancient city and the bases of its legendsbecome masters of the land. But there hap- especially that of Lady Godiva's ride through it. peneth a time when new and hungry comers In this search I have come across some curious dispute the land; and there is trial of strength, facts. and the stronger wins. Nevertheless, the first Up to the year 1016 there stood on the site squatters be they who have prepared the ground, of Coventry a large Saxon convent.

This was and the crops to the end will be sequent (though entirely destroyed by Edric, who, in the year chiefly on the nature of the soil, as of light sand, stated, invaded Mercia. From this time the mixed loam, or heavy clay, yet) somewhat on history of the city becomes blended with its the primal labor and sowing."

patron saint, Lady Godiva. Whatever, under This exquisite illustration might be special- historic scrutiny, may befall the actual existence ized by the substitution in it of “ Coventry” for of Godiva, it is pretty certain to survive any "country." I mean this in the historical rather skepticism. That the Countess of Mercia, with than any philological sense, though there be ety- whom that name is now associated, was the mologists who might establish a near relation- most distinguished devotee of the middle of the ship between "country" and " Coventry”—that eleventh century Matthew of Westminster, who is, “Convent-tre," tre being the old word for wrote about 250 years after Earl Leofric, writes: " town.” Walking about the streets of this old

"In the same year (A.D. 1057), in September, died city, listening to its poor ragged minstrels sing- Count Leofric, of worthy memory, and was buried with ing and hawking its legends done into doggerel, honor in the monastery at Coventry, which he and his witnessing the Fair and its pageant, one is at

vife, the devout and noble Countess Godiva, worshiper of first bewildered at finding these things in the God and lover of the Holy Virgin Mary, built from the

foundation, out of their own patrimony. And the monaEngland of to-day, and at length perceives that tery buildings being erected, they so endowed them with they are the cropping up, through centuries of lands and with ornaments that in all England no other English formations, of an old and alien life which monastery could be found with such abundance of gold, squatted hereon in an almost pre-historical era. silver, and precious gemg." The quaint and airy gables overhanging narrow He then goes on to mention various other streets, the airy build of churches with their cool towns whose monasteries she, Lady Godiva, stone pavements, the frequent use of external founded and endowed. But it is evident that ornament on plain houses—so characteristic of Sir William Dugdale, whose Antiquities of Warsouthern people, who live out of doors, and so wickshire was published in 1656, had very thordifferent from the English style, which keeps all oughly consulted every record about Coventry.

Vol. XXXIII.-No. 197.-TT

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From him we learn that “Leofrick wedded | tivities and pageants. In 1456 Queen MarGodeva, a most beautifull and devout lady," and garet, being at Coventry, saw “alle the pagentes that she was the sister of Therald de Burgen- pleyde save domesday, which might not be hall, sheriff of Lincolnshire. With reference to pleyde for lak of day.” In 1575, in the celethe convent, which Leofric and Godiva built in brated entertainment of Queen Elizabeth at 1044, Dugdale says that Godiva

Kenilworth, “certain good harted men of “Gave her whole Treasure thereto, and sent for skillfull Coventree,” according to Laneham's narrative, Goldsmiths; who with all the gold and silver she had, "exhibited their old storiall sheaw.” It is surmade Crosses, Images of Saints, and other Curious Orna- prising what admirable courtiers the old prophments, which she devoutly disposed thereto.. ...And even at the point of her death gave a rich Chain of pretious ets and martyrs became in the presence of roystones, directing it to be put about the neck of the Blessed alty. I have seen, in an old Coventry book, a Virgin's Image; so that they that came of devotion thither “gag” used by the Prophet Jeremy in addressshould say as many Prayers as there were severall Gems ing Henry VI. and his Queen, when they were

present with their little son, Prince Edward, at The monastery thus founded had twenty-four the play in Coventry, in which he (Jeremy) Benedictine monks, and the church connected


to them: with it was consecrated “to the honor of God,

"Unto the rote of Jesso rote likkyn you well I may, the Virgin Mary, St. Peter, St. Osburg, and all The fragrante floure sprongen of you shall so the Saints." William of Malmesbury has inci

Encrcce and spredo_" dentally mentioned its extraordinary ornament- The “floure" being, of course, the little Prince. ation, declaring that “it was enriched and beau

These courtly speeches by sacred to royal tified with so much gold and silver that the personages indicate a very important phase of walls seemed too narrow to contain it; inso- the growth of the English drama out of the old much that Robert de Limesi, bishop of the dio- miracle-plays. I must sum up in a few words cese, in the time of King William Rufus, scraped what were a profoundly interesting history to from one beam that supported the shrines 500

trace. It is generally believed that the first marks of silver."

miracle- plays were invented and acted by Leofric is a distinctly historical character. He pilgrims to and from the Holy Sepulchre for was the fifth Earl of Mercia, a district which com- their edification. At this time the subjects were prised the present counties of Warwick, Worces- exclusively Scriptural. At a later period the

Nottingham, Northampton, Lincoln, Leices- priesthood, seeing a means of gain in them, ter, Derby, Stafford, Gloucester, Chester, Salop, took them under their own charge. The Pope and Oxford. He was, under Canute, Captain- granted indulgences to those who went to see General of the royal forces; took an active part them. In the MS. of the Chester plays in the in securing the succession of Harold ; assisted British Museum (MS. 2124] the author speaks in the elevation of Edward the Confessor, and of his having gone to Rome to obtain leave of in upholding the monarch against Earl Godwyn. the Pope to have the mysteries” done into the He and his Countess were buried in the great English tongue-showing that they were origin. porch of the church of this monastery, of which ally in Latin. At this second period, under the Reformation left not one stone upon another. the priests, there was a large introduction of

But while this great monastery remained un-elements from the Apocryphal Gospels and der such magnificent endowment and patronage the Legends of Saints. Toward the close of Coventry became the centre of French pilgrims the 15th century the legend of St. George and and place - hunters. Indeed these swarmed the Dragon seems to have been a great novelty through the Earl of Mercia's realm, so that I in Coventry, and had a great

St. find the most ancient laws of the city written in George, it must be remembered, was, according French. With these came the “mysteries,” or to the unquestionable authority of the “ History “ miracle-plays,” with which Coventry is above of the Seven Champions of Christendom,” born all other towns associated. Thus Dugdale writes: in Coventry, and after his great achievements

“ Before the suppression of the monasteries this cittye brought his bride hither : was very famous for the pageants that were play'd therein upon Corpus Christi day. These pageants were acted

“Where being in short space arrivid, with mighty state and reverence by the fryers of this

Unto his native dwelling-place, house, and conteyned the story of the New Testament,

Therein with his dear love he lived,

And fortune did his nuptials grace. which was com pored into old English rime. The theatres for the several scenes were very large and high; and be

They many years of joy did see, ing placed upon wheeles were drawn to all the eminent

And led their lives at Coventry." places of the cittye, for the better advantage of the spec

Percy's Reliques. In that incomparable library belonging to Sir Thomas Cotton there is yet one of the books which per- When, in the year 1474, Prince Edward, son teyned to this pageant, entitled Ludus Corporis Christi, of Edward IV., visited Coventry, he was first or Ludus Corentriæ. I myselfe have spoke with some addressed in an octave stanza by one representold people who had, in their younger yeares, bin eye. witnesses of these pageants soe acted; from whom I have ing Edward the Confessor, and afterward by St. bin told that the confluence of people from farr and neare George in armor : a king's daughter stood holdto see that show was extraordinary great, and yielded noe ing a lamb, and supplicating his assistance to small advantage to this cittye."

protect her from a terrible dragon. The ChamIn the 15th century it became the fashion to pion was placed upon a conduit" "running make these plays a leading feature in royal fes- / wine in four places, and minstrelsy of organ



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playing.” Gradually the Scriptural personages, the Penates, and conducted to her privy-cham-
the saints and angels, were put more and more ber by Mercury; in the afternoon, when she
in the back-ground, and the present royal per- condescended to walk in the garden, the lake
sonages more in the front; as, in another kind was covered with Tritons and Nereids; the
of art, the Venetian nobility were represented pages of the family were converted into Wood-
pictorially as Madonnas and Saints by the serv- | nymphs, who passed from every bower; and the
ile masters. And yet the dramatic Darwin of footmen gamboled over the lawn in the figure
the future will no doubt trace Shakspeare's of Satyrs.
celebrations and representations of kings and The “Lady Godiva Pageant" which still lin-
heroes back to these courtly interpolations on gers at Coventry, being one of three ancient
the part of the Jeremys and Josephs for the pageants whose ghosts still haunt the England
gratification of their royal patrons. Indeed Mr. of to-day, the other two being the Lord Mayor's
Howard Staunton, the well-known Shakspearian and the Shrewsbury Shows, is certainly trace-
editor and critic, has shown me several compara- able to the “mysteries” I have been describing.
tive notes that he has made, indicating that I find in a Coventry book, the author's name I
Shakspeare has used various expressions ex- do not know, a statement that there is one tra-
plicable only by reference to the plays and dition in the city that when the monasteries
shows of Coventry (a short distance only from were suppressed and the Catholic religion pro-
Stratford-on-Avon), which he must have seen, hibited, the plays and pageants for which the
and which may have been the original means city had been so famous were continued as a
of kindling his genius. In the time of Shaks- mockery. According to this account:
peare, however, the “mysteries,” or “miracle-

"A Naked Woman on horseback was introduced to ridi. plays," had fallen more or less into desuetude, cule the Sacred Host; immediately after her came a Merry having been replaced considerably by “pa- Andrew, to divert the populace with profune jests; he was geants” and “moralities."* The acting of re

drawn in a kind of house on wheels, and from looking freligious subjects had been originally a real thing, Tom; but one of these adventurers dying on leaving the

quently out of the window, acquired the name of Peeping and the people were solemnly impressed by the house, no one could afterward be found with sufficient Bible stories which so few could read, and which hardihood to follow his example, hence Peeping Tom were to them literally novels. But when they ceased to form part of the Procession. Before the naked began to be patronized and appropriated by this gigantic figure was preceded by a group of men, in

lady they placed a man in armor to represent St. George; royalty, it became impossible that all the long rusty bits of armor, as mock guards, and the procession speeches should be made or listened to. The closed with a burlesque against the Bishops and Clergy." characters were dressed up and paraded in cos- This tradition adds: “From this public prof. tumes and attitudes along the streets when the anation of sacred things the city of Coventry bekings and queens were to pass, or the play was came so despicable as to give rise to the wellthus transformed into the pageant.

known proverb of 'Sending a man to Coventry,'* And now came the Reformation, which swept which is to say, he is not worthy to be spoken to the friars and their plays out of existence, by men of reputation. As the inhabitants of burned vast quantities of “mystery” literature, Coventry have long been ashamed to acknowla leaf of which could now bring any price, but edge this as the origin of their splendid show, which, after its first fury was past, really left they esteem it more creditable to consider its the people of England very much the same as celebration as a memorial of their gratitude to before. The passion for pageants was greater the Countess Godiva.” I give, quantum valeat, than ever before or since. All through the 16th this theory in which the Roman Catholic intercentury the chronicles are crowded with accounts

est is very discernible, and which has a suspiof the pageants which attended every step of cious completeness, and procecd to discuss the royalty. In these many of the personages of probabilities in the case. the “miracle" and “morality” plays—as King Only those who have particularly looked into David, Moses, Justice, Truth, etc.—appeared in the history of the twelfth and thirteenth centua kind of carnival. The age of Elizabeth was ries can know how much of the trade of England above all an age of pageants. Warton says that in those days was carried on by means of Fairs. on account of the encouragement given by her Steam and advertisements have done away with to classical learning, the entire ancient mythol- much of their importance, though they are still ogy was wrought into spectacles for her honor. kept up with much spirit and with considerable When she paraded through a country town al-profit to the neighborhoods in which they occur ; most every pageant was a pantheon. When she paid a visit at the house of any of her no- * The following-which I find quoted without name in a bility, on entering the hall she was saluted by Coventry LocalGuide-seems to mea mere probable sccount

of this phrase: “ The inhabitants of this inland city were "Theatrically considered, Mysteries' are dramatic formerly most decidedly averse to any correspondence with

A female known representations of religious subjects from the Old or New the military quartered within its limits. Testament, or Apocryphal Story, or the Lives of Saints; to speak to a man in a scarlet coat became the object of • Moralities' are dramatic allegories, in which the char- town scandal. So rigidly indeed did the natives abstain acters personify certain vices and virtues, with the intent from communication with all who bore his Majesty's milito enforce some moral or religious principle. Moralities tary commission, that officers were here confined to the were of later origin than Mysteries, but they existed to interchanges of the mess-room, and in the mess-room the gether, and sometimes each partook of the nature of the term of sending a man to Coventry, if you wish to shut other."-IIone.

him from society, is supposed to have originated."

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but in those days they were the means of supply- diva, beloved of God, ascended her horse baked, loriza ing every country region with the articles it re- her long hair, which clothed her entire body esepte quired, and noblemen sent to them for every by none, returned with joy to her husband, who regates

snow-white legs, and having performed the journey, seg kind of stock. Among these none was more it as a miracle, thereupon gruated Coventry a Charters important than that which was chartered at Freedom, confirming it with his seal." Coventry in the year 1217 by Henry III., and Sir William Dugdale, who wrote before the which to this day annually draws together vast Restoration, and, I need not add, in the far prs. crowds from every part of Warwickshire. The skeptical era of history, accepts the story Corpus Christi plays occurred during this Fair, hesitatingly, and supposes the immunity secared and were an important source of attraction. by Lady Godiva's ride to have been More particularly, it would seem, did the in

"A kind of manumission from such servile ters, variable play of Adam and Eve attract multi- whereby they then held what they had under this great tudes by its prurience. The destruction of the Earl, than only a freedom from all manner of tell, exxx monasteries and the discontinuance of the“ mys- horses, as Knighton afirms; in memory whereof the teries” was a heavy blow to the wealth and trade ture of him and his said lady was set up in a south

dow of Trinity Church, in this city, about King Kidari of Coventry. Its population was reduced by the Second's time, and in his right hand holding a Charter, over twelve thousand, and its Fair was not well with these words written thereon : attended. The inhabitants had sufficient rea

" }, Zorich, for love of the son to mourn that the “good Eva" no longer

Doe make Coventre tol-free." exhibited herself in puris naturalibus among them annually; and there is some reason to believe There is no doubt that the city received is that they for a time tried to revive the attraction Charter, and none that the window and inseri; in a pageant in which they persuaded some wo- tion referred to by Dugdale existed in Trinity man to represent Eve on horseback.

Church until about the fifteenth century. Subsequently this pageant was discontinued The story of Peeping Tom is a much later for at least a century, and Coventry still went one. No early historian makes any mentioa downward. Its Fair had lost its fame as an any proclamation having been made by the lady's emporium of commerce, and even the Restora- herald that tion did not improve matters much. Under

“-As they loved her well, these circumstances the authorities hit upon the

From then till noon no foot should pace the street,

No eye look down, she passing." idea of reviving the pageant, and the licentious period of Charles II. enabled them to do so. It And indeed such a course would not have occurred in the year 1678. The Mayor and been a fulfillment of Leofric's condition that it corporation had been always in the habit of going should be in sight of all the people (populo a through the streets and proclaiming the opening gregato), nor explain his conclusion that ber of the Fair; but they were on this occasion ac- having been unseen was “a miracle." It is companied by the trading companies of the city quite certain that this was an invention added displaying flags. The city authorities were attended by boys fancifully dressed as pages, who took the place of the angels in the former Corpus Christi pageant; but, instead of Eve, Lady Godiva rode in the procession in a state of nudity, as the local legend affirmed that she had done to obtain the enfranchisement of the city. The ingenuity of the corporation was rewarded; the Coventry Fair became what it had been in its best days, and along with the pageant has been kept in good repair ever since.

The first historian to mention Godiva and her famous exploit was Matthew of Westminster, who has been closely followed by all others who have alluded to it. It is found in the Flowers of History," and is, by literal translation, as follows:

“ This Countess devoutly anxious to free the city of Coventry from a grievous and base thraldom often besought the Count her husband that he would, for the love of the Holy Trinity and the Sacred Mother of God, liberate in the reign of Charles II. The effigy of Peepit from such servitude. But he rebuked her for vainly de. ing Tom which was used in the earliest Godira to move further therein. Yet she, out of her womanly procession (1678) is still preserved, and is as pertinacity, continued to press the matter, insomuch that little like a tailor of the eleventh century as can she obtained this answer from him. Ascend," he said, be imagined, with his military coat and cocked

thy horse naked, and pass thus through the city from one hat and feather. There are several versions end of it to the other, in sight of the people, and on thy about this P. T., one being that Lady Godira return thou shalt obtain thy request.' Upon which she returned, 'And should I be willing to do this wilt thou give was somewhat moved with compassion for the me leave?" "I will,' he replied. Then the Countess Go- | poor man who alone could not resist her charms



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