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THE

AMERICAN

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

1871.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

VOLUME XI.

NEW YORK.
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

549 & 051 BROADWAY.

1872.

Str to impi

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872 by

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

PREFACE.

The volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for the year 1871 presents the close of the most serious conflict in Europe, within a recent period, by a treaty of more than usual hardship to France; the rise and frightful struggle of the Paris Commune; the development of the International Societies; the seating of a king, elected by the people, on the ancient throne of Spain; the peaceful operation of a republic in France, one of the oldest of modern kingdoms; the condition and progress of Italy united under one sovereign, claiming to hold his authority by the votes of the people; the consolidation of the numerous States of Germany under the powerful house of Prussia, together with other changes brought about under the influence of popular or monarchical principles among the people of Europe. The leading public questions and the relations of the various nationalities arising from race, numbers, military power, wealth, and the combined or antagonistic interests in operation, are here set forth with fulness and completeness.

Neither was there less of interest or importance in the affairs of the United States than during previous years. The details of the census of 1870 have been more fully worked out in relation to origin, numbers, and classes of population, industrial pursuits, products of agriculture, commerce, etc., and are inserted in these pages. The rapid recovery of all sections from the effects of the late conflict; the development and establishment of the central authority in its supremacy; the changed relations of a portion of the citizens; the efforts to secure equal political rights and privileges to every one; the progress of all the States, and especially the Southern, under these new relations; the struggles of factions; the local disturbances of citizens; the rapid material improvement of the people; and the measures adopted by Congress, with the debates thereon, are herein fully presented.

The details of the internal affairs of the United States embrace the resources and expenditures of the Federal Government; the results of taxation ; the progress in the reduction of the public debt; the principles upon which the management of the finances is conducted; the banking system, with its expansions and contractions; the extension of internal trade and commerce; the financial affairs of the States; the various political conventions assembled during the year, with their platforms; the results of elections; the proceedings of State Legislatures; the extension of educational and charitable institutions; the rapid extension of the facilities of transportation by railroads, and of communication by telegraphs, and all those facts which determine the rapid progress of the people.

The Diplomatic Correspondence of the Federal Government presents all those portions relating to the recent treaty with Great Britain, and a copy of the treaty is also given.

The advance of Mechanical Industry has been no less useful than in other · years, although manifested in less expensive and magnificent works.

The discoveries in the various branches of Astronomical, Chemical, and other sciences, with new applications to useful purposes, are extensively presented.

Geographical Discoveries have been actively pushed forward in various quarters of the globe, and awakened high anticipations.

The record of Literature and Literary Progress is not less interesting than in any previous year, and ample details are given of its state in each of the countries on the Continent of Europe.

The history of the religious denominations of the country, with the results of their conventions, and their branches, membership, and progress of opinions and numbers, are here given from official sources.

Brief biographical sketches of some persons distinguished during the events of the year have been added to the sketches given of deceased persons of note in every department of society.

All important documents, messages, orders, treaties, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.

An Index at the end of this volume contains a list of all the subjects treated in the previous volumes of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, with a statement of the volume and page where each may be found.

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