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CHAPTER XI.

Scanty accounts of Upper Peru-Sucre reappointed by congress-Colombian troops-Sucre's address on his election-Bolivian code sworn to— Movement of Fuente on Puno-Sucre stands neutral as to Peru-His address to the Colombian army-Conspiracy in Bolivia-Acquisition of Arica--Bolivia not recognised by Buenos Ayres-Sucre intends to resign.

THE remoteness of BOLIVIA CO- ed to draw the attention of the rest operates with its retired position, of South America to this quarter, in the centre, as it were, of South has made Bolivia an object of some America, to render the accounts of jealousy among the patriots of Coits condition, which reach the Uni- lombia and Chili. Yet the country ted States, extremely scanty and is interesting and important, as well imperfect. As it possesses no sea- for the extraordinary richness of ports, the penetrating spirit of our its mines, as because it has been commerce has not yet lifted the veil the theatre of the famous insurrecfrom the rich cities of La Paz, La tion of Tupac Amaru, who attemptPlata, and Potosi. Our informa ed to restore the empire of the Intion of this region, therefore, comes cas, and of some of the fiercest batto us through channels which can- tles and most remarkable scenes of not be trusted implicitly in all the revolution. The few authentic cases; because their separate in- facts in its history, which come terests are apt to give an improper within the scope of this chapter, colouring to facts. Buenos Ayres may be briefly despatched. on the one side, and Peru on the other, would each gladly swallow up, or at least form a union with the new republic of Bolivia. And the celebrated Bolivian code, drawn up by Bolivar for the nation which his arms created, while it has serv

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We concluded our notice of Bolivia the last year, with a short account of the constitution prepared for this republic by Bolivar. The address to the constituent congress, which accompanies that code, we perceive is dated, May 25th, 1826;

and appears to have been written by Bolivar at Lima, where he then resided. On the same day the constituent congress had assembled at Chuquisaca, the capital of Upper Peru; and general Sucre, who bears the title of grand marshal of Ayacucho, resigned the discretionary command, which had been committed to him, into the hands of congress; requesting that body to place a native of the country at the head of the government. He alleged, that he himself was a Colombian, and therefore, in strictness, a foreigner, however closely united to them by the ties of association in victory, and of common suffering in the cause of independence. He urged upon them the danger of committing the liberties of the nation into the charge of a victorious general, whose very suc. cesses in war might render him unsafe as chief magistrate of the republic. But either dazzled by the splendour of his name, or overawed by their fears of him who possess. ed all the military forces of the country, they insisted upon his retaining his power; lest by his with drawing from the administration of the government, affairs should relapse into confusion and anarchy. At length, he consented to exercise the executive authority, until a constitutional president should be elected. But repelling with all the generous pride of a soldier, he said, the idea that thelustre of triumphs should

have any influence over the august act of giving a chief to Bolivia, he solicited and obtained a decree, submitting the appointment of president to the free choice of the people.

This was precisely the course adopted by Bolivar, it will be remembered, in order to obtain the perpetual dictatorship of Peru. Whether Sucre, whilst imitating the conduct of his general, was actuated by the same motives which influenced the latter, we have not sufficient means to judge. There remained in Upper Peru, at this time, a body of three thousand and three hundred Colombian troops, a division of the auxiliary liberating army. On Sucre's becoming charged with the executive authority of Bolivia, the troops stationed within the limits of this republic, were placed under the command of José Maria Córdova. The exact resemblance of these circumstances to what we have seen of the contemporary condition of Peru, produced the like result in both cases. Antonio Jose Sucre was presented as candidate for the office of president for life, by the nearly unanimous votes of the electoral assemblies; and the constituent congress accordingly pronounced him to be in fact president of the republic. It may be, that this was a perfectly free vote; and if the presidency had been for a term of years, instead of being for life, we should

entertain no doubt on the subject. However this may be, Sucre continued to make the strongest professions of his disinterestedness, and love of liberty; in evidence of which, on the 28th of October, 1826, he addressed the following communication to the constituent congress.

My

ment, when it was already time they should withdraw themselves from the authority of a general, who was upheld by victory, and was a foreigner likewise. conscience prompted me to resist these declarations drawn forth by gratitude from a nation, which potsponed all its interests to the

"To the sovereign constituent great cause of independence, its congress of Bolivia.

"The people of Bolivia sighed to attain that freedom, which they were the first in South America to proclaim; and independence to constitute themselves a nation, was the great object of their ambition. Fortune decreed, that the liberating army, at whose head I was, should be the instrument for breaking their chains on the field of Ayacucho; and rare circumstances, which inspired me with a presentiment of the interest I was to feel in this country, conduced to draw from me the decree of February 9th, which placed the Bolivians in the enjoyment of their rights, and gave them free control over their own destinies.

"The people of Bolivia, overcome by gratitude, have lavished upon me considerations and respects, which might compromise their own condition, and even their liberty itself. At one period they surrendered their direction to me, in the shape of discretionary command; at another, their representatives

forced me to accept the govern

only dearest object. Feeling myself touched in the tenderest point, the noble pride of a soldier, and unwilling that the splendour of triumphs should have influence in the august act of giv. ing a chief to Bolivia, I ventured to solicit the national representa tion to pass the law of July 3d ; which finally left it to the discretion of the people to nominate the president of the republic.

"The people, judging indulgently of my administration, or penetrated, it may be, with transports of enthusiasm towards him who led the conquerors of Ayacucho, have desired to place me among the candidates for the constitutional presidency. But I should be false to my duties, and to my love for the land which is distinguished by the name of the most illustrious mortal, if I did not hasten humbly to implore the fathers of the country, to strike me out from among those who are called to the perilous charge of directing the nation. Permit me also here, that, in the exercise of my rights as a ci.

tizen of Bolivia, I may appeal in behalf of the dignity of the republic, representing to the sovereign congress that it should consider insufficient the votes with which I have been honoured. The influence of prejudices and of power was in my favour; and the national act of Bolivia electing the constitutional president, ought to be freed of all considerations, but the prosperity of the state, the public liberties, and the independence of Bolivia: Interests, too sacred to be trusted to any but a man who first saw the light in the country nearest the heart of Bolivar.

"The patriotism of those who were selected from a people elevated above the level of weak minds, will reflect that the act of this day is the triumph of the cause and spirit of the nation; and that in it, their names may either be degraded, or invested with the glory merited by the first of legislators. It will be my happiness, if, in showing them that in giving this day, a constitutional chief to the republic, their responsibility remains for ages, I shall contribute to the great end of placing the condition and the destinies of this country in the hands of the most worthy Bolivian.

ANTONIO JOSE DE SUCRE.” Of the subsequent proceedings of the constituent congress, after declaring Sucre to be duly elected, we know little; but we find it sta

ted in a Chilian journal, that this body took measures for the ratification of the Bolivian code, which was sworn to on the 9th of December; and at the same time dissolved, to give place to the assembling of the regular legislature prescribed by the constitution. It was on the same day, the anniversary of the victory of Ayacucho, that Bolivar's Peruvian constitution was sworn to in Lima; and of course the Bolivians could have no anticipation of the coming revolution in the neighbouring republic. But when that event had happened, much anxiety was entertained in Peru, as to the course which Sucre and the forces under general Cordova would pursue. Some anticipated that the auxiliary army in Bolivia would imitate their brethren of the third division, and overturn the new constitution. Others apprehended that Cordova would march his troops into Peru, and strive to counteract the measures of the revolutionary party. The movement in Peru, it will be recollected, was confined to the corps stationed at Lima; those at Are. quipa, the southern extremity of the country, having taken no part in the insurrection. So soon as the prefect of Arequipa, Gutierrez de la Fuente, received intelligence of what had transpired in the capital, he marched the Colombian battalion Pichincha towards La Paz, to secure the means of forming a junc

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In this expectation, it seems, he was disappointed. Sucre marched towards the confines of Peru; but without any hostile purpose. The Condor, the government paper of Bolivia, took pains to refute the suspicions which this movement awakened in Peru. That journal declared, that it was no part of the policy of president Sucre, to intermeddle with the domestic affairs of a foreign country, which was united to the Bolivian republic by relations of amity; that the march of the president had for its only object to secure the tranquillity and prosperity of the state, which had committed itself to his care; that the Bolivian government could not declare war without the consent of the legislative body; and that the constitution forbade the president to quit the territory of the republic without the consent of congress. Sucre himself, in his direct communications with the Peruvian government, manifested a disposition entirely pacific. He solicited transports for the conveyance to Colombia of the battalion Pichin

cha, and a squadron of hussars, which had marched to Puno, and entered the territory of Bolivia ; and, as we have seen, these troops were accordingly embarked upon the earliest occasion which offered itself. He assured the government of Peru of his determination to be strictly neutral in respect to the events following upon the 26th of January; and he interposed in them so far only as to express his desire that the third division might leave Peru without delay, lest their insubordination should increase, and lead to bad consequences; and perhaps prevent the constituent congress from deliberating in full freedom.

But neither as a Colombian general, nor as president of the republic of Bolivia, could he remain indifferent to the spirit manifested by the third division, which he might justly fear would prove contagious, and produce pernicious effects among his own troops. Sucre's sentiments on the subject are expressed in a military address to the troops, pronounced at La Paz the 8th of March:

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