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on an average ten days from port, and One advantage of the Western halibut as the out trip requires from two to four fishers is that the banks, which stretch days, according to the distance beyond for fifteen hundred miles up the coast, Cape Flattery at which a school of fish are fairly sheltered, while the Atlantic is located, the fish is not more than ten fleet has run into an ice pack as late as or twelve days out of the Pacific before June. In summer the Puget Sound it is in the stalls of a Chicago, Boston, steamers seldom need to go far outside or New York fish market.

the Straits of San Juan de Fuca before In 1897 the largest of these halibut the butter on the sounding-line gives shippers, located in Tacoma, shipped the sign that makes the captain order two or three cars a month. Now the the dories overboard, and often a good same company ships an average of a day's fishing means a holdful of fish.

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PACIFIC HALIBUT LANDED AT TACOMA

Within twelve hours they are shipped to the Eastern markets car-load a day during the busiest months, But as autumn brings rough weather off and other shipments from Seattle and Cape Flattery, the boats go farther north, Vancouver increase this to fifty car-loads and by midwinter the steamers lie by a month. At first a prejudice existed in and the fishing is done by Indians and the minds of Eastern consumers against others off the Alaska coast, the fish this Western fish, and the price obtained being shipped in ice from regular stafor it was only about half the price of tions at Juneau, Petersburg, and Wrangel Atlantic halibut. But within the past, on freight steamers. three years this prejudice has been over- Always as the halibut are slung from come, and to-day the average difference the dories to the decks of the fishing through the year is not more than ten to steamers they are cleaned, so that on twenty per cent, and that only because being unloaded at the dock on Puget of the vast quantity shipped, which dur. Sound they are packed in ice and trucked ing the best months is too great to justify direct from the dock to the cars sidethe asking of fancy figures.

tracked outside the warehouse, and within twelve hours from the time the boat dred to three thousand tons of fish. The comes in they are on their way East. greatest drawback to this industry in the

From the success of the halibut and · Northwest has been the absolute lack of salmon shippers, some Eastern cod facilities for making cartons or other dealers took courage to cast their lot packages for cod in its various commerand their lines in the Pacific. For many cial forms. In San Francisco this diffi

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UNLOADING SARDINES AT SAN PEDRO, CALIFORNIA years the Western market has been sup- culty has been met, but on Puget Sound plied with cod caught along the Alaskan there is not to-day a machine for making coast, the bulk of it being handled at cartons at a price that cod men can pay San Francisco. These newcomers, how- and offer their product in competition ever, located on Puget Sound, with the with Eastern cod under their own labels. Gloucester market in their minds. Bad For this reason they have been comseasons on the Grand Banks have afforded pelled to send it to Gloucester, and let it them a market there for twenty-five hun- go from there as Grand Banks cod.

The Middle West is their natural market, converted into oil and fertilizer by a but they are helpless with the cost of concern in Alaska. Yet herring is the packages almost as much as the market chief fish food of the poorer classes, and price of the fish.

more of it is sold than of any other As yet the teeming cod banks of the pickled fish, and here at our door is the Pacific and of Bering Sea, which can Orient buying its herring in Europe. be fished throughout the winter months, Red snapper is so plentiful that on one are scarcely touched, the five or six trip of our halibut boat sixty thousand thousand tons taken annually being no pounds were 'destroyed because we were more than a drop from a hogshead. not prepared to handle them.

While the development of the Pacific “In fact, there is everything of fish coast fisheries has been phenomenal kind, from sardines to whales. Two during the past fifteen years, the pos- canneries in California are at work on sibilities have an interest as piquant and the sardines, but the whales are left alone quite as romantic as the search for gold. to prey upon the smaller fish.” To quote one of the fresh-fish shippers Great as may seem the sins of comof the Northwest :

mission in the manner of developing “We know what exists from Goldfield these natural resources, to the thrifty to Seward in the way of gold; but no Yankee the Westerner's sins of omission one can conceive of the vast untouched must appear greater still. At every cansupply of fish in the Pacific. The oppor- nery and packing-house thousands and tunities surpass everything the Northwest thousands of tons of fish-cleanings are offers, with the possible exception of thrown back into the sea that by any one lumber.

but a wasteful Westerner would be con“ With the care now being taken, verted into fertilizer, for which there is though tardily, to perpetuate the salmon great demand. Elsewhere cod livers are supply by artificial propagation, this fish saved for their oil, fish skins and bones may be counted on indefinitely. Halibut for making glue, sounds of certain fish abounds, and only a limited part of its for isinglass, and still other parts for haunts have been disturbed. The cod cough troches and innumerable other supply has been barely touched. Millions by-products. But the West is yet young of barrels of herring as fine as any in in the fish business, and, in spite of the the world, often weighing a pound, are warning of the other coast, the seemingly wasted, except the few used as bait for inexhaustible supply has precluded all halibut and some thousands of barrels thought of economy.

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AMERICAN EXPANSION

BY H. ADDINGTON BRUCE

THIRD PAPER

ANDREW JACKSON AND THE

ACQUISITION OF FLORIDA

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N all the steps whereby the Amer- and experience had shown that so long ican people extended their dominion as Spain retained control of these streams

from sea to sea, the element of in- their navigation would be impeded. evitability is never so clearly discernible Again, notwithstanding Spain's centuries as in the acquisition of Florida. Desir- of occupation, no successful attempt at able before, possession of Florida became colonization and settlement had been essential to the welfare of the Nation made, and, outside of a few scattered and from the moment of the Louisiana Pur- paltry garrison towns, Florida was almost chase. Its geographical situation gave wholly given over to the wilderness and it command over the marine highway the savage, and was infested by a motley between the old and the new sections of population of Indians, fugitive slaves, the United States, and in alien hands it pirates, and outlaws of every sort, who thus constituted not merely an unwel- waged a vindictive warfare against the come break in the continuity of the frontier inhabitants of Louisiana and coast-line, but a possible menace to Georgia. This also, in the case of the American shipping and commerce. There Indians at any rate, despite the fact that was always the danger, too, and a danger Spain had by treaty solemnly pledged which speedily proved very real, that in herself to repress hostile outbreaks time of war it might be utilized by a against the border folk. To tell the foreign power as a base for military truth, she was not strong enough to keep operations. Its owner, Spain, was no- her obligation ; but her failure to do so toriously weak, as had been amply dem- only brought home more forcibly to the onstrated by Napoleon's course in the American Government the necessity of matter of Louisiana ; and it was more terminating a state of affairs that promthan doubtful whether she could enforce ised to grow constantly more dangerous the neutrality of her distant province to the peace and well-being of the Reagainst any power whatsoever. For the public. Indeed, as developed in the same reason, it was to be feared that if

course of our study of the Louisiana Purthe United States did not acquire Florida chase, so early as 1790 a formal propofor herself, ownership might pass to a sition was framed for the purchase of country stronger than Spain and by so Florida, and it was Florida rather than much the more undesirable as a neigh- Louisiana that was kept steadily in view bor.

throughout the negotiations which ended There were also minor but still cogent so happily in 1803. Immediately thereconsiderations urging immediate effort after the question of the acquisition of to extend American sovereignty to the Florida was raised anew, to remain peninsula. It was watered, in part, by unsettled, however, until fifteen years navigable streams affording American later the fearless patriotism of one of settlers a Gulf outlet for their products, the greatest of Americans forced it to an

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