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ways run on time, the carriages are clean some wonderful carving, which is happily and comfortable, and the tunnels are so unspoiled by restoration; and three or constructed that you ride through them four ruined towers, in the depths of which with windows wide open without being remain the terrible dungeons where deluged with cinders and foul gases." Louis XI vented his spite on luckless From this it will appear that our expe- foes, when he got hold of them, and rience with French railways was uni- luckless friends, when he wearied of formly pleasant. But the best thing them or began to suspect them. The about them is the country through which dungeons, unlike many to be found they pass. Doubtless parts of France in other mediæval castles, have every may be uninteresting to look upon, but appearance of reality. In a square doubtless we did not find them in our cell a hundred feet below ground the wanderings.

walls, half-revealed by the flickering Loches, like Gaul, is divided into lantern of the guide, are covered with three parts: a church dating from the reminiscences of the sojourn there of tenth century, with several unusual archi- Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, called tectural features; the château itself, built Il Moro, A little square, carved in the by Charles VII and Louis XII, contain- rock, marks the only spot reached by the ing the beautiful tomb of the fair Agnes daylight, struggling through the minute Sorel, with its inscription, more pleasing slit in the fourteen-foot wall. Rude fresperhaps to the lover of romance than to cos, among which appears twice a porthe puritan, “a sweet and simple dove, trait, in heroic size, of a man in a helmet, whiter than the swans, more rosy than give a hint of how the prisoner in exile the flame," and the oratory of Anne de passed his time. That the portraits repBretagne, a little apartment glorified by resent attempts at the delineation of his

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“IN THIS COUNCIL HALL JEANNE D'ARC MET THE KING" own countenance is a tradition, if not in which the task of showing les oubliettes true, at least ben trovato. The Cell of is divided among the members of the the Bishops, still deeper in the earth, has custodian's family, with an eye to multiin its wall a rough carving of an altar plied gratuities. and a cross. The deep holes beneath the window slit, worn by the captives in Our last day in Tours and in Touraine their struggles to gain a precarious foot- was spent in getting Gray Brother ready hold for one glimpse of the day, are a for his long journey home, and in a brief vivid reminder of the most awful aspect visit to the Cathedral. Then we turned of this subterranean imprisonment. The our faces toward Brittany for a voyage gruesomeness of the dungeons is re- with another Gray Brother, if we could lieved only by the matter-of-fact manner find one, though of a less docile and of the guide and the business-like way less comely race.



HE public is accus- which he drafted, based on the informa

tomed to regard the tion.procured in this legal contest, was
technicalities of the made inoperative by injunction.
law as the peculiar When a two-cent-fare bill came up, the
weapon of corporation Attorney-General had a suggestion. He
attorneys. That Her- knew that in an Alabama toll-road case
bert S. Hadley, the the United States Supreme Court had

young Attorney-Gen- held that a Federal circuit court could eral of Missouri, has employed them on not enjoin the enforcement of a State's behalf of the people has made him the criminal law. So he drafted a section presumptive nominee of his party for the making a violation of the passenger-rate Governorship of his State.

law a misdemeanor. By this device he This quality of his service, which hoped to have it adjudged a criminal merely means good ability exercised statute. under the antiquated legal procedure of But the railway attorneys felt confident the United States, has appeared most that the plan would fail. When the day conspicuously in his fight with the rail- came for the law to take effect, they ways crossing Missouri. For many years assembled in Kansas City and invoked these corporations dominated the politics the protection of the United States Cirof the State. No measure which they cuit Court against confiscation of propopposed could become a law. Theyerty. The Attorney-General was on hand maintained a highly efficient lobby at with figures from the railways' own Jefferson City, to which most of the other reports to show that most of them important corporations of the State were already were hauling passengers-inforced to contribute. Recalcitrant inter- cluding those riding free—for two cents ests were brought into line by the simple a mile or less. Moreover, he had embarexpedient of the sand-bagging bill. rassing evidence from the old freight

Meanwhile farmers and other shippers rate case introduced by the railways to complained of excessive freight rates. show that the cost of passenger business There was an elective board of Railway was proportionately small and that most Commissioners, with authority to correct of the expense came from transporting abuses. But elective boards—undemo- freight. But the eminent attorneys opcratic devices of ostensible friends of posed to him confidently appealed for democracy-rarely make trouble for big the guaranty of the Fourteenth Amendinterests that are active in politics. ment, and it was generally believed Nothing was done.

from the remarks of the judge that the Then came the reform wave in Mis- temporary injunction would be granted. souri that carried into office Joseph W. Then Mr. Hadley arose. Folk and a majority of honest legis- “Your Honor," he said, “ if the raillators. Impatient at the inaction of the roads in the Federal court enjoin the Railway Commissioners, the Legislature enforcement of a criminal law of Misattempted hastily to regulate freight rates souri, I shall go into the Supreme Court by law. Through a Federal court the of this state with quo warranto proceedrailways enjoined its enforcement. As ings to ask by what right they transact Attorney-General, Mr. Hadley fought for business here and refuse to obey the the people—his clients, as he is fond of State's criminal laws. And on that calling them-and fought hard. But question the circuit courts of the United the statute was still tied up in the courts States have no jurisdiction to stop me." two years later, when the next Legisla The effect on the opposing attorneys ture assembled. A new freight-rate law was almost ludicrous. They had been lolling back at ease. At the words “quo Born in Kansas in 1872, he was warranto" they woke up with a violent graduated from the State University start. One who had been gazing ab- and from the law school of Northwestern straciedly through a window, almost University. He began to practice law leaped from his seat. The others jumped in Kansas City, and went into politics bolt upright, one with his jaw dropped. because, as



once explained, he Later they admitted privately that they “thought that the quickest way for a knew Hadley could make good his threat young lawyer to gain a practice.” A and that he had the nerve to do it. fortunate split in the Democratic party

An adjournment was taken over Sun- in the county elected him prosecuting day. Monday morning they spent in a attorney on the Republican ticket. His perspiring conference with the Attorney- record was good, but on a return to General.

normal conditions he was defeated for You can go ahead with your inter- re-election, and then, as he expressed it, State commerce,” he told them, “but if he decided to make himself immune you refuse to give this law a fair trial from any danger of further office-seeking you will run your trains through Mis- by becoming an attorney for the street souri with locked doors. A militia guard railway company. will see to that detail if necessary. And At the Republican State Convention if you attempt to do business within the in 1904 the supposedly empty honor of State at three cents a mile, your local the nomination for the Attorney-Generalofficers will be arrested in every county ship was not eagerly sought by prominent your roads run through."

lawyers. A Kansas City delegate, under Tactics analogous to these had often instructions from his chairman to get up been used by the gentlemen with whom and “ nominate somebody," began one he was dealing. But they were not of the customary “man-who” speeches, accustomed to such resourcefulness on with nobody particularly in mind. At the the part of the lawyers of the people. close he decided, as he told afterwards, For a time they struggled with the Attor- that Hadley fitted his description better ney-General. Then they yielded. Would than some others. So he named him, he compromise ? Certainly he would if The modest salary of the office was less they would agree to give the law a fair than the young lawyer was drawing from trial. He had no desire to confiscate the street railway, and he had a family property, but he believed they would find to support. But his friends persuaded that a two-cent rate allowed fair compen- him, against his will, to make the race, as sation. A three months' trial he thought it would mean only a brief interruption would convince them.

of his work for the canvass. To the When court convened that afternoon, astonishment of the Missouri candidates, the spokesman for the railway attorneys however, the popularity of President assured the judge that while they Roosevelt carried through the Repubregarded the proposed rate as confis- lican State ticket, with the exception of catory, nevertheless they were public- the nominee for Governor, whom Mr. spirited enough to sacrifice their feelings Folk defeated. and their clients' property in order to Though he had fought Mr. Folk vigorestablish the fact beyond doubt. There- ously throughout the canvass as the head fore they suggested that the court give of the rival ticket, Mr. Hadley at once the law a trial for ninety days. So the gave the Governor hearty co-operation order was made. At the expiration of in his work for better government. the three months the railways continued When Republicans in the Legislature to sell tickets through Missouri at two were disposed for party reasons to fight cents a mile. Should the rate be made salutary measures introduced at the inpermanent, the State would have the fer- stance of the Democratic Executive, it tility and courage of its Attorney-General was the Attorney-General who induced to thank.

them to take a larger view. This inMr. Hadley was both nominated and dependent attitude, stamping him as elected Attorney-General by accident. belonging to the new school of politics,

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