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ANIMALS AND REASON tip of his tongue, will pick up individual In the article entitled “The Reasonable straws, and, collecting them in his mouth, will but Unreasoning Animals,” by Mr. John deposit them in one pile and so make a good Burroughs, in The Outlook for December 14, bed, where the most intelligent dog would the writer has compared only high types of

freeze to death? In turn, the feelings of a mind in the human with very low types of dog will be greatly affected by more or less animal mind, skipping over a vast number musical sounds from a musical instrument of intermediate minds. He says of his dog, which will not affect in the slightest any " I see him across a gulf.” Much as I like pig: I think I could give a hundred such dogs, I agree there is a gulf we cannot cross;

curious instances, from my own observation, but to go on and conclude that all animals of unequal distribution of useful faculties are across such a wide gap is to fail to count

faculties which, as we go up higher and in the higher animals and lower savage and higher in the scale, are more and more to be child minds which can only be counted on

found all in one animal ; yet at the top, in to fill this gap. The writer cites examples mankind, we do not find every faculty as and incidents to prove his position from our

acute as it may exist lower down. common birds and domestic animals, with

Mr. Burroughs cites a satisfactory and really which we are all familiar, and his reasoning from it that “ round and square are one."

beautiful quotation and manages to derive will appeal to persons unfamiliar with the orang-utan, the chimpanzee, the lower mon

Again, as I have said, few of us, if we have keys, and the long list of low savage and

the desire, have opportunity to witness the semi-civilized minds.

mind-workings of any of the types of animals Mr. Hornaday has studied the orang in higher than those the writer mentions. his native state, and also in captivity, to

Readers of The Outlook will not forget, gether with many of the other higher types however, that the higher animal types and of animal mind. Also in the tropics he has

the lower human types really exist to-day, seen the lower types of man. Mr. Burroughs, links

between higher man as we see him and

and that they naturally form the connecting drawing his conclusions from such animals as most people see about them, does not

the lower animals as we see them about us

in our domestic animals and common wild agree with Mr. Hornaday. A most learned psychologist may have

birds. A child is generally three years old that widespread weakness, which is human, before it can count five intelligently. Accordof a repugnance toward the minds between ing to Sir John Lubbock, no Australian lanours and the lower types of mind, and he guage contains numerals even up to four. may work downward with this bias of uncon

Yet according to Dr. C. J. Romanes a young scious repugnance affecting his judgment. chimpanzee was easily taught to count Better the opinion of a natural naturalist, if

straws up to five, and, if one straw in her I may express it so, who has no repugnance

hand was lacking, she would sometimes turn toward monkeys or savages and other low

up the end of another straw in her hand and types of men. Such observers, at the time

in that cute way make the number of straw they consider, can bring themselves down tips she was asked to show. Much more to the level of considering a lower animal as

along this line of proof might be given. A an equal, thereby getting in true sympathy great deal remains to be collected, and it is with its passions and desires. This is the to be hoped that the recent inroads into keynote of true observation, in this field at tropical Africa will not totally destroy any least, and the importance of it cannot be

of these invaluable forms before they have overestimated. Inability to have sympathy given to the world their share of precious with children as equals is widespread among

H. C. DE SLOW. adults, however learned. Good teachers of children are often poor learners from chil

HOW TO FURTHER NATIONAL dren, it being seemingly impossible for

DEFENSE them to maintain, with any child, that feel In a recent editorial note in The Outlook ing of equality, simple equality and nothing you say, in justifying our present navy, more, long enough for an understanding of “ Should the day ever come, as we hope it certain sensitive children.

may, when an International Supreme Court Mr. Burroughs says that "the lower animals at The Hague is firmly established, armies all seem to be upon the same plane.” How and navies will still be needed to carry out is it that a pig will hunt about and, with the the decrees of that court and to maintain

secrets.

international order, just as United States are informed about the sending of our fleet marshals are needed to sustain the authority to the Pacific to one who knows anything of of our domestic courts."

the enormous power and practical value of Many careful students of world problems organized ostracism as a substitute for who believe that a small international police navies. Thousands indulge in hysterics will be necessary as a substitute for our over a possible attack on the Philippines by present rival armies and navies stoutly main- Japan to one who has ever considered the tain that it will never be used to sustain the solution of the Philippine problem by a action of a world court against a civilized mutual agreement of the nations to neutralnation, its function being to suppress dis- ize them. Every one hears of prevention of order among savages and barbarians and to war by brandishing a big stick, but how prevent piracy. A very small force indeed many have yet estimated how much war would be sufficient for international pur- would be prevented were war loans prohibposes when national armies and navies were ited in every land, as Richard Cobden a no longer used to carry on international half-century ago, and Secretary Straus and dueling

W. J. Bryan have recently, advocated? Justice Brewer, of the United States Su- Whatever the United States may have failed preme Court, holds that ostracism would be to accomplish at The Hague, one recoman amply effective weapon in coercing a mendation of the Interparliamentary prorecalcitrant nation which was represented in gramme remains which it can accomplish the formation of the court. When we re- without co-operation with any other nation ; member that within the last hundred years namely, to vote a little Peace Budget. Had over two hundred and fifty cases have been Congress voted one dollar for this for every settled by arbitration between nations, and thousand it voted last year for war purposes, that in no instance did any nation refuse, and had this been expended by a commiswhen worsted, to abide by its pledged word, sion in inviting fifty eminent Japanese here the probability of recourse even to ostracism and sending fifty eminent American editors seems very slight. Says Justice Brewer: “ If to Japan a year ago, with other measures to all the civilized nations would say, 'From promote an entiente cordiale, we might have this time forward, until you submit your saved ordering the last $10,000,000 battledispute to arbitration, we will withdraw all ship. Let the American press but give the our diplomatic representatives, we will have civilian less news of maneuvers and naval no official communication with you, we will tactics, and discuss these newer and more forbid our citizens having any business trans- practical methods of defense in which all actions with your citizens, we will forbid your can share, and we can save from fifty to one citizens coming into our territory, we will hundred million dollars annually in our war make you a Robinson Crusoe on a desert budgets and attain far greater National island, there is no nation, however mighty, security. For, as business prosperity rests that could endure such an isolation. The not on gold, neither does peace rest upon business interests of the nation would com. steel plate and explosives, but both alike pel the government to recede from its posi- upon that invisible thing called confidence. tion and no longer remain an outlaw on the

LUCIA Ames MEAD. face of the globe.” The very threat of such Boston, Massachusetts. ostracism would make force as unnecessary to compel a nation to obey as it is unneces

AN EXPLANATION sary to compel obedience to the decisions of our United States Supreme Court. If, in the

The editorial notice in your issue of Nomost extreme imaginable case, ostracism

vember 9 of Morgan's “ Ancient Society,"

lately issued by the publishing house of were used, it could be withstood only a few

which I am manager, contains a sentence weeks, and would leave behind it no such bitterness and desolation as a bombardment

which is strictly correct and yet neverthe

less might be misleading without some or “punitive expedition.”

explanation. While half the Nation is looking on with approval at the building of $10,000,000

You say: “ This book, it may perhaps be Dreadnaughts and the cost of victualing

as well to recall, was not written by its schol

arly author with any reformative ideas in and coaling and target practice of our short

mind." lived battle-ships, is it not worth while for

In connection with this statement, permit the other half to suggest the less spectacular but far more effective methods of National

me to quote the following paragraph from defense which, if applied, could reduce our

Morgan's book at the end of his last chapter: naval budget to a fraction of its present

Since the advent of civilization, the outgrowth of

property has been so immense, its forms so diversified, colossal size? A hundred thousand citizens its uses so expanding, and its management so intelli

gent in the interests of its owners, that it has become, impression that they do. Hence, I wonder if on the part of the people, an unmanageable power. The human mind stands bewildered in the presence of

we can be included in the implied prophecy its own creation. The time will come, nevertheless,

of your words. To be sure, the constituency when human intelligence will rise to the mastery over of the Universalist denomination is of more property and define the relations of the state to the

mixed theological ancestry than the Uniproperty it protects, as well as the obligations and the limits of the rights of its owners. The interests of

tarian; but, on the whole, it seems to me clear society are paramount to individual interests, and the enough that our" affinities” are with Congretwo must be brought into just and harmonious rela- gationalism. Whether the fact that the tions. A mere property career is not the final destiny

writer's forbears were all nurtured in “ the of mankind, if progress is to be the law of the future as it has been of the past. The time which has passed

historic Puritan churches of New England" away since civilization began is but a fragment of the colors his view.point or not, is neither here past duration of man's existence; and but a fragment

nor there. I have often felt, and said, that of the ages yet to come. The dissolution of society bids fair to become the termination of a career of

I would like to live here long enough to see which property is the end and aim; because such a just this consummation—the union of such career contains the elements of self-destruction. De

churches as ours and the Unitarian with the mocracy in government, brotherhood in society, equality in rights and privileges, and universal education, Congregational Church, the main branch of foreshadow the next higher plane of society to which

the historic Puritan Church of New England. experience, intelligence, and knowledge are steadily If you counsel us that we must modify our tending. It will be a revival, in a higher form, of the liberty, equality, and fraternity of the ancient gentes.

dogmatism, I may answer that so are we

doing. We are not elevating the speculative A careful reading of this paragraph will aspects of religion as of supreme concern; show that your reviewer was perfectly correct we are rapidly abandoning the old exegesis, in stating that Morgan did not write with whereby almost any Scripture text will dem. any “reformative" ideas in mind. On the

onstrate“ universal salvation;" and some of other hand, it shows that he did write with

us, anyway, think that one of the inherent certain distinctively revolutionary ideas in requirements of the present crisis which the mind. He was probably the first prominent church faces is that of the removal, gradually, American writer to realize the evolutionary of old lines of cleavage-many of them no necessity of an industrial revolution, doing longer respected by a growing body of thinkaway with the parasitical class which is now

ing people-in a process looking to the ultiin control. Of course no one who is the

mate reunion of many churches, like those least familiar with the writings of modern named.

W. F. SMALL, Socialists imagines that they wish to return Pastor Universalist Church, Santa Paula, to the primitive communism of warring

California. tribes. They simply point out that the next

[Historically, the Universalist churches, probable step in evolution is the organization of industry by and for the working class, the New England Congregational body, and

no less than the Unitarian, originated from with the abolition of privileged classes. It organized themselves into a denomination at is, of course, true that we value Morgan's

an earlier date. The Outlook paragraph work because it demonstrates so clearly the

referred to was written in consciousness of falsity of the argument that wealth and pov

this fact.—THE EDITORS.) erty are eternally inevitable.

CHARLES H. KERR. ( Chicago, Illinois.

DISINTEGRATION OF THE TURKISH

EMPIRE UNITARIANS AND UNIVERSALISTS

Disintegration seems to be taking place in In your issue of October 12 you quote a many parts of the Turkish Empire. Arabia few words uttered by the Rev. Dr. C. G. is always in rebellion, and Yemen, its most Ames, the eminent Unitarian preacher, at a valuable province, has resisted all attempts communion service in King's Chapel, during to conquer it, although thousands of soldiers the recent sessions of the Congress of Relig- have been sacrificed in the attempt to bring ious Liberals. Your comment on Dr. Ames's it into subjection. words runs that their utterance seems “to In Erzroom last year the people rose up bring into sight the ultimate reunion of the in rebellion against a new tax, some officials historic Puritan churches of New England.” were killed, and the Vali (Governor-General) Now, I'm not peevish regarding this matter, saved his own life by taking refuge in a but, as a Universalist minister, I subscribe mosque and promising to leave the city. unreservedly to Dr. Ames's words, as you Finding the collection of the obnoxious tax quote them. I cannot say with definitive impossible, the central Government forgave authority that the majority of Universalist it. The people in that province are prepared preachers indorse Dr. Ames's position; but I to rebel if they are crowded too hard. certainly feel safe in advancing it as an A condition somewhat similar exists in

Bitlis. A mob killed the Chief of Police, sent to the mountains, but we hear that they and the Vali saved his own life by resigning are having a sorry time of it. The Koordish and getting out of the way. Like all other tribes are often at war with one another, but parts of the Empire, the oppression has when they are attacked by the Government reached an extreme limit, and further bur- they combine, retreat to high mountains, and dens will not be tolerated.

carry on a guerrilla campaign. The snow In Van, according to reports, matters have which is now coming will probably put a taken a shape still more advanced. It is stop to the present attempt to subdue them, said that one of the most influential of the but unless they are finally put down they local Beys has called together the leading will become a far more disturbing element citizens, Turks and Christians, and said to in their immediate neighborhood than the them that they have no use for the central other movements which I have already menGovernment. "If there is a war in any part tioned. of the country, our soldiers are called out Another disturbing element is found in and we must pay the expense, while we that part of the Mesopotamian plain which receive no benefit from Constantinople. The belongs to the Diarbekir province. The best way for us is to set up for ourselves.” Arabs and Koords in those regions have There may be some exaggeration in this had long-standing feuds with one another. report, although it comes with directness, Some weeks ago two large bands of these but not from the missionaries. There is a people were preparing to go to war against large revolutionary element in Van. Before one another, but the last report is that they this event the Vali was sent away, and he have come to some sort of agreement among was killed on his way to Constantinople. As themselves, and decided to assume a practireported to me, twenty-five thousand people, cal independence of the Government; and the leading men of the city and vicinity, now comes the word that the people in the pledged themselves to independence, and city of Diarbekir itself have invested the they hoped to secure the co-operation of telegraph office, and that messages intended Erzroom and Bitlis. For a good while past for Diarbekir are copied at Harpoot and the Armenian revolutionists have assumed sent by mail, as delivery from the office is the right to control the whole Armenian impossible. The reason for this movement community, including the Protestants, and is not understood, but it is suspected that it there is a strong body of revolutionary Turks is of the same nature as has been mentioned there, although they have not been so out- in regard to Van. spoken as the Armenians. The simple truth All these things show a condition of politi. is that there are very few people thoroughly cal unrest bordering upon anarchy, and this loyal throughout the whole Empire. On the is increased by the abnormal cost of living, occasion of the Sultan's birthday, or the owing to light crops, while bribery and the anniversary of his accession, the newspapers relentless collection of taxes continue unrepresent that his Majesty is one of the abated. In private conversation it is diffimost just and enlightened rulers that the cult to find a man who does not condemn the country or the world has ever seen, but if Government, and a common expression is, you read between the lines you will see that " May God send a protector to our country!" there is a vein of sarcasm running through The discontent is too deep and widespread these articles.

to be put down by force, and there are signs That part of the Anti-Tarus Mountains that the army cannot be implicitly trusted. which is called the Dersim is inhabited by Hundreds and thousands of the most intelliKuzzel Bash Koords. It belongs to the gent Turks are in exile in all parts of the Harpoot province, and it is some forty or country, and naturally their influence helps fifty miles to the north of Harpoot city. to promote general discontent. Many who These Koord. are a lawless set, and during have taken refuge in Europe publish papers the last summer they plundered caravans, which are smuggled into the country and ravaged villages, drove away flocks and eagerly read. The country waits for a strong herds, and made themselves a terror in the leader like Garibaldi, a man strong and upwhole region about them. The Government right, one who will inspire confidence, to has of late been quietly collecting soldiers to take possession and institute a new order. punish them-a not easy task, as the soldiers Is there such a man? Corruption is too are needed in so many parts of the Empire. deep for an easy remedy; divine help is Two or three weeks ago the soldiers were needed. For that let us pray.

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President of the Carnegie Foundation for

the Advancement of Science

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