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the counting-house as well as on the field of acter. What, he demands, is this nabattle; the feudal bars of iron are broken tional character? Where does it come down, and golden keys begin to unlock the doors of office and inåuence. The great min from ? And, still further, how identify isters of Tudor times, the Cromwells, the nationality itself? All of which leads Cecils, the Walsinghams, all spring from the him into a careful, painstaking, luminous middle, and not the old feudal, classes ; and discussion of the factors that have Queen Elizabeth herself was great-granddaughter of a London merchant. Politically, operated to distinguish an Englishman this expansion shows itself in the develop from a German, and a German from a ment of the House of Commons at the Frenchman, and, in fine, to give nationexpense of the House of Lords and of the ality its predominating influence in the monarchy; and, but for this middle-class aggression, Charles I. would never have laid
evolution of modern society. There is his head on the block, nor James II. have fled some capital analysis here—without, beyond the sea. Economically, the whole however, that minute particularization geographical movement, the search for new
which robs so many historical works of trade routes, the formation of great companies, the Merchant Adventurers, the East
their vitality. India Company, the Levant Company, are all It is unnecessary to enlarge on the expressions of the growth of a commercial more special topics with which Professor middle class.
Pollard concerns himself in the course Not that Professor Pollard fails to
Most of these, such as warn his readers against undue faith in Henry VIII. and the Reformation," general statements. He is, in fact, keenly Parliament," " Social Revolution,” “ Poalive to the ease with which generaliza- litical Ideas of the Sixteenth and Sevention may be employed to distort truth, teenth Centuries,” “ Church and State conceal ignorance, or avoid thought. in England and Scotland," and "CromThus, writing of nationality, which he wellian Constitutions,” relate to the considers the dominant note of modern Tudor and Stuart periods of English as opposed to mediæval and ancient history. Both of these, and more espehistory, he observes that when the ques- cially the Tudor period, Professor Pollard tion arises of why the sentiment of has made peculiarly his own. But in nationality prevailed over the old idea of his case the years devoted to diligent universality, it is not enough to say, as research have had none of the deadening some would, that this was simply the effects so often evident in the writings of result of the influence of national char- professional historical investigators.
of his pages.
Comment on Current Books
There are very few novelists from one sanitarium to another to taste and Novels and
indeed who could impart the test them all--these and many other types Tales
interest of animation and liv. are presented acutely, and with the obvious ing character to a discussion in fiction of moral that in the care of our bodies terror, medical fads and frauds. This is, neverth2 humbug, ignorance, and faddism are abomiless, exactly what Maarten Maartens has nations, and that a sane attention to hygiene, done in his “The New Religion."! The a cheerful view of life, and the choice of a delusions of people who think they are ill or physician who is known to the patient to be who really are ill (for there is nothing com- honest and intelligent rather than famous moner than a mingling of disease and delu- and wealthy, are the primary requisites. As sion), the smooth deceit of the fashionable usual, the author is lavish in plot-surprises specialist who sends his patient from one and queer incidents. The book is someexpensive treatment to another without gen- times puzzling and sometimes exasperating, uine belief in the benefit to be gained, the but it is never dull. self-deceived and honest discoverers of The author of the entertaining narrative promising remedies which fail in actual prac- called “Cupid: The Cow-Punch," } puts tice, the quack pure and simple, the con- rather a heavy strain upon her readers, for firmed valetudinarian, the patient who fits she allows “Cupid" to utter every word in
· The New Religion. By Maarten Maartens, D. Apple
& Co., New York. $1.50.
1 Cupid: The Cow-Punch. By Eleanor Gates. The McClure Company, New York. $1.50.
the book. While his good nature and clever of it with the real goodness it attempts to turns of phrase are infectiously amusing, mimic. In Edith Grainger is portrayed a one is left rather breathless at the end. thorough Christian gentlewoman. She is a In" The Plow Woman," by the same author, creation any novelist might be proud of. Eleanor Gates, there was more variety in Several of the other characters display clever characters, and a decided promise of excel- handling, particularly a pushing would be lent original work. That is not entirely society woman whose snobbishness and carried out in “Cupid," but there is sufficient hypocrisy form a foil to Edith's genuine vigor, wit, and clever handling of material refinement and goodness; also Ambrose and to encourage us to look for even higher Perpetua, a delightful pair of juvenile prigs. achievements.
The days of New York when brocades, It has become a habit among ministers to powder, and patches were worn, when, inwrite novels, and as fiction is the favorite stead of automobiles and electric light, sedan vehicle for all sorts of discussion and mate- chairs and link-boys were in vogue—these rial, their choice is not surprising. Dr. R. S. are the times portrayed in “ The Van RensHolmes writes of theological problems, mak- selaers of Old Manhattan."! The heroine ing an original old Scotchman chief speaker, rejoices in the name of India, and is a and his hero, a young minister, chief actor. hoyden, as her starched old Tory relative “The Maid of Honor," I though described as appropriately but impolitely informs her. transcendingly charming, is really too rude Still, she is so attractive that her path is to be accepted seriously. She should have literally besieged by the gallants of the day. been taught her manners before she was old Among her charms is an “arch gurgle," enough to attend her friend's wedding as which is very often called into requisition ; maid of honor. The unobtrusive and alto- and she is remarkably demonstrative in gether unusualdevotion or the young dominie
The other characters include the finally melted her hard heart, however, and hero, a young Tory of fallen fortunes, a she consented to marry a minister, disclosing desperate and most repulsive villain, and an the fact that her determination not to do so actress; while George Washington appears was the cause of all her bad behavior. As upon the scene, though very cursorily. usual in these stories, emphasis is laid upon There is very little plot, too much declamathe high type of real religion found outside tion, and a constant striving to produce atthe church, and David Henderson, the mosphere that is too apparent and therefore Scotchman, though strong on dogma, is
fails of its effect. The effort, too, to carry also mighty in good works.
on the tale in the language of the period The marriage question in relation to dis- results in a stiited style that is very weariparity of age is less often touched upon in some in spite of occasional anachronisms, fiction than are some other phases. This as- such as “chortle” and “his nibs." pect is the pivot of Mr. E. F. Benson's novel A heartless flirting mother, a selfish weakin which Hugh Grainger, a man of twenty- willed father, and a little neglected daughter four, marries a widow of forty-two, whose are the dramatis personæ in this book of earlier marriage was a disastrous one. In George Madden Martin's stories. Besides this union there is perfect harmony of tastes these appear officers of different standing and mind and a passionate mutual love; and their wives, "non-coms,” and “strikers." there is nothing to prevent its being an ideal Strikers, be it known, are soldiers who add coupling of two human beings except the to their finances by performing, if they great gulf between twenty-four and forty- choose to do so, various duties in the housetwo-with the seniority on the wrong side. holds of the officers, in whatever fort they No "little rift" appears to open gradually are stationed. Letitia's comfort and well-being and silence the music of this marriage, depend greatly in the earlier stories on the though the wife feels an occasional qualm amount of milk of human kindness existent in as she glances into futurity, knowing that the striker her mother selects to be the guardthe years that will bring only maturity to ian of the lonely little girl ; fortunately, being Hugh will bring old age to her; what will a shrewd woman and having a keen eye to be the outcome? There is only one ending her own advantage, she usually selects judithat can avert unhappiness in such a case, ciously. The stories are amusing and give and Edith's qualms were needless. Mr. a good insight into wandering military life; Benson's most admirable point as a writer is the characters are avowedly reproduced from his hatred and clever setting forth of cant living types, and are vividly depicted and and priggishness and his clear contrasting
1 The Van Rensselaers of Old Manhattan. By Weymer The Maid of Honor. By Richard S. Holmes. The Jay Mills. The Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York. Fleming H. Revell Company, New York. $1.50.
2 Sheaves. By E. F. Benson. Doubleday, Page & Co., Letitia : Army Corps, U.S.A. By George Madden New York. $1.50.
Martin. The McClure Company, New York.
$1 50, net.
not overdrawn; but the language is some- then to the fore in the public life of the times marred by obscurity owing to an obvi- United States-Webster, Clay, Calhoun, ous effort to imitate Kipling's style.
Van Buren, and many others. His book is This' is a charming and overflowing with anecdotes—most of them Greece and the
worth while—and with pleasant little glimpses Ægean Islands finely illustrated book by a
of the life of old Charleston and of anteNew Englander, a philhellene, who would make of benefit to others his
bellum New York. So that, whether viewed
from the historical, social, or personal angle, experience that "it is as easy now to view
it has much to commend it to an extended and enjoy the visible remnants of the glory that was Greece as it is to view those of the
circle of readers. grandeur that was Rome." Athens has been
Charles Clark Munn writes
The Healthful abundantly described by many writers, but
Life there are other and remote places which have
pleasantly of “ Boyhood Days
on the Farm," ' and Frank T. been less adequately made known to tour
Merrill furnishes the illustrations of a book ists; much also which even the latest tech- that will bring many memories to readers of nical accounts of archæologists imperfectly similar experiences. A New England lad, present. There is ground, therefore, which Orlo Upton, tells of his routine work, and this volume covers as no other has yet done, the play and dreaming that came daily into and the journeys to which it invites involve, his young life. Ghosts, queer happenings says Mr. Marden, no more discomfort than in the fields and woods, tales told by "Old a journey through Italy. With this volume Remus,” the boys' friend, and everything in hand any intelligent traveler should find that makes up the human interest of a counthe rough places made smooth, with the try neighborhood, come in to this quiet, direction and information that the stranger well-told story of real life.
Volume XI. of the collected Those who were fortunate Colonel Lathers's
works of Ibsen' contains enough to read the bio
“ Little Eyolf,” “ John Gabriel Borkman,” Reminiscences
graphical memoir which and “When We Dead Awaken,” translated, appeared at the time of Colonel Richard with introductions to the three plays, by Lathers's election as an honorary member of Mr. William Archer. “Little Eyolf” was the Grand Army of the Republic have a written in 1894, “ John Gabriel Borkman" lively recollection of the account there given was presented for the first time at Copenof Colonel Lathers's energetic but futile hagen in 1896, and “When We Dead efforts as a peace-maker on the eve of the Awaken” was published shortly before Civil War. Born in South Carolina, Colonel Christmas in 1899. The latter play was Lathers was a prominent New York business written in such a passion that Ibsen's friends man when the agitation over slavery reached were seriously alarmed by his feverish state its most critical point. A Southerner, he was of mind. This play is perhaps less known none the less loyal to the Union, took a lead- by the great majority of readers of Ibsen ing part in framing the New York appeal to than any of the earlier dramas. Mr. Archer the South, and carried this appeal in person interprets it as a piece of self-caricatureto a number of Southern cities. At Mobile a series of echoes from the earlier plays. the news of the firing on Sumter brought to With the publication of this volume the new a sudden end the meeting at which he was edition of Ibsen's works is completed. It delivering his plea in behalf of the Union ; has fulfilled its promise of being a thorand his mission was abruptly terminated at oughly satisfactory piece of book-making. New Orleans when the mayor of that city
The recent disturbances in ordered him to leave town on the first train. Earthquakes
California and South America After which, he returned North and was
have turned public attention and curiosity active in the raising of money and men for
very strongly toward inquiry into the causes the successful conduct of the war by the
and results of earthquakes. Professor Hobbs, Union armies. All this, and much more, is
who occupies the chair of geology at the now to be found in his “ Reminiscences,
University of Michigan, gives us in his new posthumous volume of striking interest. Although he died only four years ago, Colonel volume what we believe to be by far the
most thorough study of the subject, which is Lathers's manhood recollections stretched
couched in fairly untechnical language, and back to the early forties, and he writes from
may be read with a clear understanding by personal knowledge of many men who were
Boyhood Days on the Farm. By Charles Clark Munn. 1 Greece and the Ægean Islands. By Philip Sanford Mar- The Lothrop. Lee & Shepard Company, Boston. $1.50. den. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. $3, net.
2 Collected Works of Henrik Ibsen Copyright Edition). Reminiscences of Richard Lathers. Edited by Alvan F. Volume XI. Little Eyolf, John Gabriel Borkman, When Sanborn. The Grafton Press, New York. $2.50, net. We Dead Awaken. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1,
azy thu_ghtful layman.' He holds that seis- refers briefly to critical discussions of the
o ingy bus made more rapid advances dur- texts on which he discards the judgment of ing the past decade than any other branch the Revisers. of physical science except that relating to
• The Natural History
This' is a re. radiant energy. The perfection of delicately
of the Ten Commandments
publication in balanced instruments, watched constantly
book form of a by trained observers, now makes it possible recent article in the Century Magazine by to have a record of the motion of earth dis- Ernest Thompson Seton. Some scientists turbances the world over--a record which is will criticise it as imaginative; that, in our wonderfully accurate and complete. This view, is its virtue. We put it along with Henry gives a fine basis of actual fact to work Drummond's“ The Ascent of Man" as helpupon; and another set of scientists, with this ing to make rational the belief that man's record at their command, have taken up the spiritual nature, as well as his physical organstudy of earthquakes from the larger point ism, has been evolved from lower animal of view of the geologist. What has been conditions. Contrasted with Darwin's “Exlearned by both of these classes of students, pression of Emotions in Man and Animals,” and what are the best supported theories, these two books illustrate the scientific value are made plain in this volume with abundant of imagination which Professor Tyndall has illustration through diagram and photograph, illustrated in his famous essay. and with admirable system and arrangement
Matthew Arnold has wisely
The of material.
said that “three-fourths of
religion is conduct," and it Glory
that God is, is here a learnedly might be further added that three-fourths of
maintained by the veteran conduct is neighborliness-our duty to our theologian of Princeton. Text by text neighbor. In a village it is easy to know throughout the New Testament the various how to be a neighbor ; in a large city it titles given to Jesus, and the terms which he becomes a complex and almost impossible applied to himself, are adduced in support affair for most of us to be neighborly at all. of this contention. To one already holding Yet neighborly we must be if we are to solve to it, it seems conclusive. To an inquiring the problems of social service and commumind, indisposed or unable to scrutinize the nity living. Miss Richmond's little book' argument very closely, it may carry some is a timely help in this direction. It is a conviction. Rigorous search may lead the publication of the Sage Foundation, and skeptically inclined to regard it as the plea written by a worker of large administrative of an advocate rather than the report of an experience both in Philadelphia and Baltiunbiased investigator. E.g., the marginal more. Therefore it appeals to every social readings of the Revised Version in John i. worker. But perhaps its best value will be 18, Romans ix. 5, and Titus ii. 13 differ from for readers who know nothing about organthe readings in the text of the British edition, ized charity, but simply want to be good and the last of them is substituted for the neighbors wherever they may live. It is a British text in the American edition. Dr. pocket volume-only one hundred and fiftyWarfield avails himself of the marginal two small pages-but it covers the field, as reading in John, which favors his contention, the titles of its chapters show: “ The Child in but sticks to the traditional text in the other the City,” “ The Invalid,” “The Family in two cases, as sustaining his argument. Many Distress," “ The Contributor," “ The Church who hold the doctrine which Dr. Warfield Member," " The Tenant," etc. The parable thus advocates refuse to claim for it such of the Good Samaritan prefaces the book, doubtful ground. Tolerant as is the temper and the author voices the conviction of the of our times, it is intolerant of such methods best professional workers when she says: among scholars. Dr. Warfield makes the “ There are many things that the good neighgrand tactical mistake of claiming every- bor cannot safely leave to any agency; and thing in sight; e.g., “How can it be said that this conviction, which I hold very firmly, Mark knows nothing of the pre-existence of would seem to be my chief qualification for Christ when he records Jesus' constant the present undertaking.” And she adds: application to himself of the title “Son of "The twenty-five years just past,' said PresiMan '?”—which some fairly conservative dent Eliot at the beginning of the new Christian scholars will regard as very doubt- century, ‘are the most extraordinary twentyfully relevant. Still, he does not neglect five years in the whole history of our race. rejoinder in foot-notes to radical critics, and Nothing is done as it was twenty-five years
1 Earthquakes. By William Herbert Hobbs. D. Apple. 1 Natural History of the Ten Commandments. By Ernest ton & Co., New York. $2. ner.
Thompson Seton. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 50c. 2 The Lord of Glory. By Benjamin B. Warfield. The * The Good Neighbor. By Mary E. Richmond. The American Tract Society, New York. $1.50, net.
T. B. Lippizoott Company, Philadelphia. 60c, net.
ago.' Set over against this statement the better but for two unfortunate circumstances: contrasting fact that the road from Jerusa- one is that in some way a great deal of the lem to Jericho is still unsafe, that robberies material gathered by Shirley (almost every. have occurred there within the memory of body called him Shirley) for the express purmen still living, and we get some conception pose of making a book of reminiscences has of the difference between a static and dy- been, through family differences, unavailable; namic civilization. Into our dealings with the other reason is that Mr. Layard, bound the evils of a dynamic civilization bring apparently to make a portly volume, has not once more the remedy of Christ, the remedy digested, selected, and rejected from among of a larger neighborliness, and the next his material as carefully as one might wish. twenty-five years would be as wonderful There was naturally and inevitably a great spiritually as the last twenty-five have been deal that was ephemeral and trivial about materially.” A good book to read, to lend, Brooks's humorous writing, and even brillor to give to other neighbors
iantly genial letters do not always sparkle as Adventures in Mr. David Grayson in these they should after half a century. Shirley
Brooks was an extraordinarily adaptable 'dwells on country life, Contentment
its broadening and elevating man, ready to write anything from a threeinfluences. He describes the beautiful things volume novel to a three-line squib at a of nature—the smell of freshly plowed loam
minute's notice. He was a capital editor on a spring day, when the clouds hang low and a most agreeable fellow, but he left nothand the birds are calling from the budding ing that lives in the way of literature. One trees; the joy of seeing the little green blades of the most unconsciously humorous bits in pushing up, of watching them grow and grow
this book'is the repetition of the announcetill the bearded heads wave with every breath
ment that “ Once a Week” was to be braced of wind in billows over the field ; and, finally, acceptable fiction through the serial publica
up from a weakness caused by printing unthe delight of harvesting the goodly crop. He is fair, too; he admits that country life
tion of Shirley Brooks's “ The Silver Cord”
the unacceptable novels which had preceded has its disadvantages, such as harnessing a muddy horse in the rain, or driving intrusive
were Reade's “ The Cloister and the Hearth"
and Meredith's “ Evan Harrington "! chickens continually out of the barn, also that women are apt to demand an inordinate
In his latest published amount of kindling-wood. In spite of these
Aspects of War
work’ Captain Mahan drawbacks, Mr. Grayson considers that out
treats of war under several door life is happy and healthful enough to phases: its moral aspect, its practical aspect, compensate a man amply for sacrificing and as viewed from the Christian standpoint. wealth and position in order to enjoy it. His Also he writes of the Hague Conference of enthusiasm is such that he almost infects a 1907 and the question of immunity for belmillionaire with his views; he is less success- ligerent merchant shipping, In maintaining ful, however, with some of his farmer neigh- that war has a moral raison d'être, Captain bors, who evidently regard him as mentally Mahan remarks that no evil that war can wanting in expressing ideas so little in ac- bring can equal the moral declension that a cord with the "get rich quick” spirit of the nation inflicts upon itself and upon mankind twentieth century.
by deliberate acquiescence in wrong which Shirley Brooks
it recognizes and which it may right. Even Books of reminiscence, if of Punch good in their class, are
if war is made upon mistaken premises, this among the most enjoyable judgment stands-it is not the accuracy of of all books. One dealing with a famous
decision but the faithfulness to conviction editor of Punch in Punch's palmiest days which constitutes the moral worth of an accould not fail to be jovial. Mark Lemon, speaks of the “ control from good to evil of
tion, national or individual. Captain Mahan Leech, Tenniel, Thackeray, Tom Taylor, the sword,” pointing to the birth of the Percival Leigh, were Brooks's personal inti- United States, to the resultant lesson chang. mates and professional associates. Brooks ing Great Britain from the mistress to the succeeded Lemon, Punch's first editor, as editor-in-chief, and he has been described as
mother of her dependencies; to the French “ perhaps the most brilliant and useful
. Revolution; to the betterment in India's and around man who ever wrote for Punch.” Egypt's condition. One of the beneficent There is mighty good picking here, then, for results of war was seen in 1898, when the the lover of anecdotes and personal sketches.
veil that parted two great English-speaking But, good as the book is, it might have been 2 Shirley Brooks of Punch: His Life, Letters, and Diaries.
By George Somes Layard. Henry Holt & Co., New York. 1 Adventures in Contentment. By David Grayson. Double- 1 Some Neglected Aspects of War. By Captain A. T. day, Page & Co., New York, $1.20.
Mahan, U.S. N. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. $1.50, net.