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strife. It has been advanced as an ex- planted by either a commission or a uniplanation of or excuse for the violence in cameral body of limited membership, to connection with the strikes of the West- the end that the responsibility for the ern Federation, that the surroundings faithful and efficient discharge of the are different from those in the more duties of our city officials may be thickly settled eastern country. The coal- assumed by men elected, not through miner in Montana or Wyoming lives in political pull or ward popularity, but the same atmosphere as the quartz miner. rather because of their approved intelliThe owner of a coal mine is not different gence, character, and ability.” This infrom the owner of a gold or silver mine, stance from St. Louis is only one among The difference appears to lie in the qual- many which show that American cities ity of leadership in the two unions and are more and more turning to the Texas the consequent policies of the organiza- idea, first demonstrated in Galveston tions. The results seem to justify the con- and Houston, for relief from municipal clusion that conciliation can accomplish inefficiency. The commission plan, cenmore than strikes and that diplomacy tering authority and responsibility in a is better than revolutionary utterances. board of perhaps five men elected at

large, does away with the difficulties of A Breakdown of

A noteworthy and divided responsibility and conflicting Ward Government

unexpected indorse- ward interests experienced by St. Louis

ment of the commis- and most other large American cities. sion form of municipal government has That it makes for efficiency and honesty come from a recent investigation by a has been amply demonstrated. Grand Jury of a bribery scandal in St. Louis. In its report the Grand Jury

With the beginning of declares that the lower house of the Preparations for

the new year prohibi

Prohibition St. Louis municipal assembly-known

tion will go into effect as the House of Delegates-elected by in Georgia. The enforcement of a prowards, should be abolished and that the hibitory law depends upon a supporting assembly should be supplanted by a public sentiment in the various localities commission or a unicameral body of of the State. In those communities limited membership. The upper house, where supporting public sentiment is elected at large, the Grand Jury finds to weak the law is likely to be loosely obbe composed of men of ability, dignity, served or but spasmodically enforced. and standing, and it commends their In Georgia conditions are largely favorwork. The lower house, composed of able to the new law. In the first place, twenty-eight ward representatives, it sentiment against the saloon has been says is “ a menace to decency, order, and spread widely throughout the State good government.” A large part of the under an effectual system of local option. trouble, in the opinion of the Grand Jury, County after county had expelled the is due to the ward representation. “ The saloon; out of about one hundred and idea,” the report continues, " that any forty only a score or so recognized it one member should represent his own as legal. In the second place, Atlanta, locality to the exclusion of the interests which, as the chief city of the State, of the entire municipality is repugnant might naturally be expected to regard in itself." Yet this is what has happened the saloon with lenity, was stirred with repeatedly, and the Grand Jury finds animosity toward the saloon by the expethat legislation of the most beneficial riences of the riot of September, 1906. public character has been held up and At that time it became evident that the denied. Existing conditions, it thinks, worthless blacks who were a menace to show that the charter of St. Louis has the city and the brutalized whites who become obsolete and that radical action composed the avenging mobs were fosis necessary. Therefore, the report says, tered if not produced by the drinking“We most heartily recommend that our places. It is believed that if a local present system of a bicameral legislative option election had taken place at that body, with its large membership, be sup- time the vote for no-license would have been overwhelming. The opposition to

No student of art the saloon in Atlanta is not merely a

American Painting should miss the op

Reflects sentimental feeling—it has become an

American Character

portunity of observelement in many men's business princi

ing the peculiarly ples. Consequently preparations for national note in American painting as enforcement are businesslike. Breweries afforded by the annual exhibitions of the are being transformed into ice-houses National Academy of Design in New and manufactories of “soft drinks.” On York City. Among some observers it Decatur Street one saloon at least is has long been the fashion to slight these giving place to a bank—the first to be exhibitions. This was notably true durlocated on that street. The city has ing the years when the Society of Amerbeen districted for the organization of ican Artists, a secession from the old law and order leagues ; these will under- Academy, held rival exhibitions. Yet take to prevent or drive out “blind even now, when the Academy has retigers. As for saloons under the guise absorbed the Society, some critics say of social clubs, a tax on such places laid that the exhibitions have reverted to the by the Legislature is expected to be pro- level of their least distinguished period I hibitive.

It is true that the average of the nearly

four hundred pictures at this year's If such a reform is to be show is far from reaching the averSubstitutes for

made the Saloon

permanent, restrict- age of the Ten American Painters'

ive measures must be Exhibition, for instance. To Amersupplemented by measures that are icans in general, however, the Academy constructive. This many churches of exhibitions are more varied, interestthe city have realized. In place of the ing, and suggestive; they serve as a saloons they are undertaking to provide specially popular object-lesson to the wholesome resorts. We are informed that whole country in present-day American the churches for the whites are project painting, as distinguished from French, ing “institutional” facilities to cost over Dutch, or any other. More and more a half million—the Baptists two hundred our painters reflect our restless, nervous, and fifty thousand, and the Methodists but virile energy, our instinct and sense four hundred thousand dollars. For the for the vivid in anything, our vivacity negro population one colored church is and touch-and-go of manner, whether in preparing similar facilities. The minister an individual's movement, carriage, conof the church, Dr. H. H. Proctor, one of versation, gestures, or in a painter's the leaders of his race in the South, has brush-work. These qualities are emphaprepared plans for an enlargement which sized this year in two departments of will include a reading-room and library, painting in which our artists have won prea gymnasium, bath, model kitchen, sew- eminence-portraiture and landscape. ing-room, etc. This movement has the As examples of the first, Mr. Kenyon indorsement of the Governor of Georgia, Cox's portrait of Saint-Gaudens, Mr. the Mayor of Atlanta, Dr. Booker T. Alexander's portrait of Mr. Worthington Washington, and others. The white Whittredge, Miss Emmett's “ Father and people of Atlanta are supporting this Son," and Mr. Wiles's “ The Twins," movement financially, and, with what Dr. may be selected. Expressed by more or Proctor is securing in the North in addi- less competent technique, one feels the tion to what his own people are giving varying vigor and vitality of the subto the limit of their ability, this significant jects. Emphasis is placed upon the movement would seem assured-a move- tenderer aspects of portraiture in Mr ment to utilize the religious sentiment of Henry Oliver Walker's “ Brother and a race for its practical betterment by Sister," as is usual with this painter, harnessing it to life. In the effort to whose refined workmanship also rarely secure temperance and orderliness these loses sight of the purely decorative as positive measures taken by the citizens an ideal.

But neither with him nor and the churches of Atlanta are as im- with any other of our best men has this portant as the new law.

ideal been lowered to a mere prettiness

excom

SO

a reproach too often and too indis- bishop, surrounded by priests bearing criminately leveled by foreigners at our flaming candles, who at the last word painters. Indeed, a certain set of young simultaneously cast them on the floor men, in particular, Mr. Bellows, Mr. Luks, and trod out the flame as though they and Mr. Henri, now go to the opposite were human souls snuffed out in eternal extreme; they deliberately and consci- night. But the weapon was too freentiously paint the ugly wherever it quently used, and this constituted one of occurs ; holding that only so can they the many causes for the Protestant Refdelineate life as it really is. This idea ormation. In Scotland, for instance, if is also accentuated in the department of a poor husbandman failed to pay his landscape. Nature is now being treated tithes, he was excommunicated. In Gernot only in some but in all of her moods; many, for the contumacy of some citiMr. Ochtman's austere - December" or zens, a whole city was excommunicated, Mr. Redfield's impressive - March " will as in the case of Nuremberg. In Engserve as example. The quality increas- land and Italy Papal excommunications ingly apparent, however, is the atmos- had already provoked immortal protests. pheric—that something which makes Wyclif declared, “No man can be exone“ breathe " the picture, that fidelity communicated who does not excommunito primal tones, that exact iridescence cate himself;" and Savonarola wrote, of color which, as seen in the canvases in protesting against his own of a Claude Monet, spells the final word munication : We ought to obey our in landscape painting thus far. In Superior in far as he holds the American art, if Mr. Childe Hassam place of God. But he does not hold has not Monet's peculiar power of the place of God, and he is not our Suimagination, he is equally interesting to perior, when he commands what is conthe student, for he reveals precisely how tiary to God.” In the struggle for Italian a nervous American aạpreciates the unity. half a century ago, though Cardiquivering vitality of the physical world. nal Antonelli, Secretary of State to Pius

IX.. declared that the greater excom

munication had not been put into force According to the New since the Middle Ages, and would not What is Greater Excommunication ?

York Sun's special be used against the revolutionary Pied

despatch, Pius X., in montese who had brought about the loss his campaign against Modernism, has of the Province of Romagna to the States pronounced the Greater Excommunica- of the Church, the Pope did launch that tion against all in any way concerned in excommunication against all who had the production or reading of the Italian promoted or abetted that separation. liberal monthly review, Il Rinnova- A decade later, Pius IX. similarly anathmento. Excommunication, as practiced ematized all who had taken part in by the Roman Catholic Church, may be the downfall of the Papacy's temporal either temporary or perpetual, partial or power. Such a decree now strikes, if total. Total or greater excommunica we may believe the Sun's despatch, not tion involves the loss not only of the only the proprietors and editors, but the sacraments but also of the society and whole staff of printers and others emfellowship of the faithful in this world ployed in producing the Rinnovamento, and the next, and makes the offender, as as well as its every contributor, subfar as the Church has the power, an out- scriber, and reader. The Rinnovamento law. The greater excommunication was is not antagonistic to religion, but oppronounced by the Council of Vicæa poses the Vatican's present policy, as against the Arians, and in the Middle other protesting Modernists have done. Ages by the Council of Trent against The sentence was communicated on all heretics. Throughout the Middle Christmas Eve to ihe directors of the Ages excommunication was used with review by Cardinal Ferrari, Archbishop tremendous emotional effect both on of Milan, who, so says the despatch, heretics and believers. The awful words

also ordered to publish the were solemnly read at evening by the edict from the pulpit of his cathedral,

was

whence, it is stated, no similar manifesto been finished nor had any indictment has ever before resounded. The decree been formulated. A request that the corwill certainly sadden many Roman Cath- respondent be allowed to interview Mr. olic Liberals who, like Signor Fogazzaro, Tchaykovsky was at first refused ; but the author of “ The Saint,” have felt that later it was intimated that the almost they could combine loyalty to their unheard-of privilege might be granted. Church with liberty of learning. It is a satisfaction to note, however, that their sadness does not overcome their sense

A correspondent of

Church and State either of justice or of their right to be

the New York Sun

in France heard. According to the despatch, the

has recently given a proprietors of the Rinnovamento have very interesting résumé of conditions in replied to the Papal fulmination by an the Roman Catholic Church, as he sees announcement of their intention to con- them, after two years' separation from tinue a firm but respectful resistance to the State. When that separation took the Vatican's policy, which, they declare, place, many Catholics feared that it might is crushing the liberty of research em- result in the disorganization of the bodied in the aim of their review. It Church in France; others believed that may seem to them and to us as if the it would be followed by a reawakening of punishment were disproportionate to the faith among the members of that Church. crime. In reality, however, Pius X.'s In the judgment of the correspondent, action shows a keen appreciation of the neither the fears nor the anticipations Rinnovamento's real influence. The have been entirely realized. The Church, fact that he would not discharge his high- he says, has gained independence in powered gun at a mosquito is the clear- ecclesiastical appointments and more est possible recognition of his adver- freedom in the exercise of its religious saries' strength.

ministry, and it has suffered a serious loss of property and finds itself deprived

of legal status, since the State no longer Under the caption takes legal cognizance of its existence. Assurances of a

“ Revolutionists and There has been no outburst of religious Fair Trial

Patriots” The Outlook fervor, but a large number of bishops last week described the efforts made in report that their dioceses have lost noththis country to secure the release or at ing by the separation, from the religious least open trial of Nicolas Tchaykovsky point of view, and that progress has and Catherine Breshkovsky. An Asso. been observed in various directions since ciated Press despatch from St. Petersburg the separation went into effect. It was now reports that the Russian Premier, feared, among other things, that the Mr. Stolypin, has received the American number of candidates for the priesthood petition, to which now some five thousand would be diminished. As a matter of names have been affixed. It is gratify- fact, in some dioceses it has actually ing to add that Mr. Stolypin, after per- increased. Many bishops are pressing sonal inquiry into these cases, authorized the necessity of concentrating in importhe Associated Press correspondent to tant parishes in order to make them say from him that “the American public missionary centers, freed from adminis

rest assured that everything will trative interference and from the propabe done to avoid delay in the inquiry, gation of political ideas. The priests, and to give M. Tchaykovsky a fair trial according to some reports, are taking on before a competent court as

more and more the character of evangelpossible.” Russian and American ideas ists, and devoting themselves to social as to what constitutes a fair trial differ, duties. “My ideal,” says a leading but we hope that this utterance may be ecclesiastic, “is this: that the priest liberally construed. Mr. Stolypin re- should be the teacher, the public benegretted his inability to reveal the details factor, rendering to his fellow-citizens all of the accusation against the prisoner, as the moral and material service in his the preliminary investigation had not yet power, and devoting himself to them

can

soon as

often sung

unconditionally with entire unselfish- two years of separation, the Sun's correness.” Another ecclesiastic puts his spondent declares the results seem to finger unerringly on one of the most indicate that the process of reorganizadisastrous blunders of the past when tion is well on its way, but that its proghe says, “We must abandon our isola- ress must be slow, and that persevering tion, get again in touch with the nation, efforts will be required to bring order appear among our contemporaries as and solidity into the church organizauseful factors, be not the men of a tion. It is significant of the Pope's religious party, but the men of all, the anxiety to help in the movement of remen of God."

organization that the number of French cardinals has been increased from five

to eight. According to this correReorganization

spondent, the two necessary tasks awaiting the Church are the A New Year's Homily development of religious teaching, and the spirit of association. The Church The praises of memory have been is now obliged to substitute its own

But to be able to forget organizations for that which the State what should be forgotten is as advanformerly furnished. In many dioceses tageous as to be able to remember what a double organization has been ar- should be remembered. We praise a ranged, one administrative, taking the good forgettery. place of the former administrators of Forget your enmities. Forget the church property, the other of propa- wrongs that have been done you, the ganda, taking the place of Catholic com- insults that have been offered you, the mittees on religious activity, the former injuries you have suffered. Or remember having as their first duty the financial them only to seek out some occasion for administration, the latter the founding of helping him who has wronged you. You schools and mission work through the have vowed that he shall never have an press and by lectures. An admirable opportunity to insult you again. Right. step has been taken in the direction of One way is to avoid him; the other way publicity, and almost everywhere the is to make him your friend. Church is receiving and giving openly, Forget your faults and failures.

Or and according laymen a large share remember them only to learn the lesson in the management of collections and they have to teach, the frailty or folly or the uses to which they are put. “Since wickedness of spirit which they should the public is called upon to pay the disclose to you—the vanity that weakens, expenses," writes Monsignor Ricard, “it the pride that hardens, the greed that is clear that it may consider it has the corrupts. Let your past be not a ball right to know the budget of receipts and and chain tied to your ankle to keep you expenses." Reports from many quarters back, but a journal to tell you what road show that the receipts collected by these you have traveled. Then, looking back improvised organizations are sufficient only long enough to see where you are for the annual maintenance of worship. and what your course should be, forget A broader participation in the life of the the things that are behind and press Church on the part of laymen appears forward. to be one of the features of the present Forget not your sorrows. You cannot condition; and another promising fea- forget them. You do not wish to forget ture of that condition is the apparent them. But forget their bitterness. Fordetermination of the bishops not to form get the despairing, failing battle against a Catholic party. That idea the Sun them. Forget the doubts of God's goodcorrespondent characterizes as “chimer- ness and life's value which they awakical and dangerous,” and declares that ened in you. Remember the alleviait is no longer to be feared. It has been tions, the consolations, the love of the rejected by a majority of authoritative loved one in the past, the sympathy of Catholics and by the bishops. After friends in the present, the comfort of

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