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[EDITOR'S NOTE: Numerous letters and materials were submitted to the subcommittee which dealt with the wild and scenic rivers program. To the extent that they seem to present new information, they have been included in this appendix to the record.]

[Additional information concerning the North Fork of the American River.]


Auburn, Calif., June 8, 1973.

Chairman, House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee,
Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. HALEY: We understand that the Interior Committee will hold hearings on Wild and Scenic Rivers legislation, including H.R. 4326, on June 12, 1973. The North Fork Association is a non-profit corporation consisting of 25 members who jointly own approximately 5,000 acres of North Fork of the American River watershed.

We own a five-mile long section of the North Fork commencing near Heath Springs in Section 16, Township 16 North, Range 14 East and running easterly to a point in Section 8, Township 16 North, Range 15 East. The Association has owned this land for many years. It has been our goal to preserve the acreage in its original state. It is an area of delicate ecological balance which is not conducive for use by large numbers of people.

We support the purpose of H.R. 4326 which would authorize an indepth study of the deep river canyon area of the North Fork running from Auburn Reservoir to the upper end of the Royal Gorge for potential addition to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers system.

The State of California has already included the North Fork from the Sierra crest to the Auburn Reservoir in its Wild and Scenic River system which in fact prevents the building of dams or any other type of blockage of the natural flow of the river.

It is our recommendation that the words on Line 7, Page 1 of H.R. 4326 be amended by deleting the word "Cedars" and substituting the following words, "point where Palisade Creek enters it . . ." The reason we recommend this boundary is that it is the eastern boundary of the deep river canyon area. The river drops sharply for 3,500 feet from the crest of the Sierra to the pool of the river where Palisade Creek enters at a 4,400 feet elevation. Beyond this point the drop is gradual and the ecology that of a deep river canyon. From this point eastward the River runs from the upper end of the Royal Gorge for a distance of three-quarters of a mile through an impassable solid rock narrow river canyon ending at Heath Springs. The upper end access to the proposed deep river canyon park area is by way of Palisade Creek. The area from Heath Springs eastward to the crest of the Sierra is substantially in private ownership and is of a high Sierra character.

In fact, we are looking at two distinctly separate river sections both geographically and ecologically. Our recommended change of wording would clearly limit the study of a river park to the long deep river canyon.

In addition, the suggested amendment would clear up the confusion created by the use of the term "Cedars". The Cedars and the North Fork Association are one and the same. The "Cedars" also is used as a location of our camp on U.S.G.S. maps. If the term Cedars is used there would be confusion as to the location of the easterly boundary of the proposed park.

We urge that you recognize the essential difference in nature between these two sections of the river. We would be pleased to assist you in obtaining informa

tion on the river above Wabena Creek to the crest of the Sierra. We ask that this letter be made part of the record of the hearing on H.R. 4326.

Sincerely yours,


Board of Directors.

Sacramento, Calif., June 7, 1973.


Chairman, Subcommittee on Parks and Recreation,
House Office Building,

Washington, D.C.

DEAR CONGRESSMAN TAYLOR: We urge you to give a do pass on Congressman Johnson's bill HR-4326. It is our opinion that the North Fork of the American River between the Cedars and the Colfax-Iowa Hill bridge qualifies for Wild River status. Last year the State of California adopted the North Fork of the American River into the State Wild Rivers system. We feel that the North Fork deserves to be studied for possible consideration. Thank you for your consideration in this bill. Sincerely,


Chairman, Placer County Conservation Committee.

(Additional Information Concerning the Cahaba River)

Birmingham, Ala., June 18, 1973.

Hon. Roy A. TAYLOR,

Chairman, Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation,
House Office Building, Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. TAYLOR: I respectfully urge that the Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation of the House Interior Committee give favorable consideration to H.R. 2307, to study the Cahaba River in Alabama for possible inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System.

It would not be possible to tell you in one short letter of the many unique qualities of this most beautiful stream that make it so eminently qualified for such status. Suffice it to say that the Cahaba possesses outstanding scenic, recreational, geological, fish and wildlife, botanical, historical, archeological and other scientific and cultural values of great present and future benefit to the people.

The Cahaba flows through the center of the state, partially in the rugged hills and valleys of the Appalachian Province and partially through the inner Coastal Plains. It is unsuitable for intensive industrial development and its fluctuating flow makes it undesirable for power generation. It has consequently remained in a natural state, the only remaining major free flowing stream among our numerous Alabama rivers.

The Cahaba has always meant a great deal to all central Alabamians. There is a tremendous popular sentiment for preserving this valued stream, but steps need to be taken immediately because of the immense pressures for development along the river especially in the Jefferson-Shelby County area. Favorable action by your Subcommittee on H.R. 2307 would add impetus to much needed (and already introduced) local legislation directed towards protection of this priceless natural resource.

Alabama has been so abundantly blessed with its fresh water river systemthe largest of any comparable area in the United States-and so relatively lightly populated, that the people have not felt the need to legislatively protect these streams and their banks. The awakening realization of what has already been lost and the real necessity for constructive protective measures is now being felt, and the initial efforts are directed towards the Cahaba because, as I hear so many say, "If you can't preserve the Cahaba River, you can't save anything in Alabama".

I do fervently hope that your Subcommittee will act favorably on the Cahaba River's proposed consideration for the National Wild and Scenic River System.

It could mark the beginning of a new era in Alabama-an era in which Ala
bamians take action to preserve that which they have always held dear.
Thank you very much.

Clean Water Chairman.



The beautiful Cahaba River is prized by an ever growing army of Alabamians who are determined to see it saved for their use and for their descendents. As the last large free flowing stream in the state with no major impoundments, the Cahaba is unique in many respects.

It serves the largest concentration of people in the state, the six-county metropolitan area of Birmingham containing 767,230 people in Jefferson, Walker and Shelby and St. Clair Counties. The Cahaba drainage basin covers approximately 1870 miles in eight counties.

At least 60 per cent of Alabama's 3.4 million people live within a 100-mile radius of some portion of the Cahaba. Cities and towns easily accessible to the river include Birmingham, Bessemer, and all other towns in Jefferson County, Columbiana, Centerville, and Selma. Within a 100-mile radius are Tuscaloosa, Gadsden, Anniston, and Montgomery.


The Alabama Conservancy, a major state conservation organization representing around 10,000 people has urged preservation of the Cahaba River for the past four years. A study leading to the inclusion of the Cahaba in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System is the best way to insure protection of this much-loved waterway.

One of only two intrastate streams in Alabama, the Cahaba has escaped much of the degradation which plagues rivers over the United States. However, the pressures of population in the near future make it imperative to act on the Cahaba now. The Conservancy urges that the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation begin a study of the Cahaba as soon as possible to determine those segments which qualify and the classification under which they properly fall.

To facilitate this study the Alabama Conservancy will undertake to assist KOR in every way possible. We have had considerable experience in this field in the Bankhead National Forest where the Wilderness Committee of the Conservancy undertook a feasibility study in cooperation with the United States Forest Service.

Three bills are pending before the Alabama Legislature to protect the water quality and integrity of the Cahaba. Representative Ben Erdreich plans to introduce a bill to create an Alabama Scenic Rivers System including the Cahaba, and also a Resolution in both Houses of the Legislature urging the passage of H.R. 2307.


Many Alabamians believe that he Cahaba is the most scenically attractive, historically significant, and biologically reproductive river in the state. The Cahaba is often the central or sole recreation resource in the rural areas of the counties through which the river flows. Families live along the Cahaba; fish, swim and boat in it, hunt and hike along its shores. Enjoying the Cahaba is a way of life handed down through the years, and these people strongly resist any change which degrades the quality of their river.

The shores and islands of the Cahaba abound in great trees, flowering shrubs, ferns and hosts of wildflowers. Mountain laurel lines the cliff tops and wild azaleas perfume the air. The beautiful white spider lily, Hymenocallis coronaria, grows in great profusion in both riffles and shallows, especially in the area of Lily Shoals, Boothton Ford and the Piper Bridge. The Department of the Interior has investigated Lily Shoals for designation as a National Natural Landmark.

The Cahaba serves as a refuge for many species of fishes now extinct or seriously depleted in other Alabama waters. A total of 123 of the 148 species of fresh water fishes found in Alabama are native to the Cahaba. Several species are found only there and a number are endangered. It has long been a favorite river for Alabama's fishermen.


Much of the Cahaba is bordered by timber producting lands where hunting is excellent. Deer and turkey are abundant. The Department of Conservation manages two areas totalling 65,000 acres.

The river flows through several very different geological strata which create contrasting scenery and habitats along the way and encourage the growth of a wide variety of plants and animals.

The Cahaba is rich in Indian relics, and the first permanent capital of the state was established on its banks in 1819. There are several sites along the Cahaba worthy of designation as National Historical Landmarks.

An excellent discussion of the Cahaba with a map of the drainage basin appeared in the Alabama Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan. Volume 11, "Potential Wild and Scenic Rivers Program for Alabama," October 1971. This Chapter accompanies this statement for inclusion in the hearing record.

The Alabama Conservancy hopes for an early favorable report on H.R. 2307 introduced by Representative Walter Flowers and protecting one of Alabama's priceless natural treasures.


Hon. Roy A. TAYLOR,

BIRMINGHAM, ALA., June 20, 1973.

Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.:

I strongly urge your support of House bill H.R. 2307. Passage of this bill is vital to protecting our beautiful Cahaba River environment by making it a potential addition to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System.

A study of Cahaba River is essential for future preservation of this beautiful and scenic river area. Your help is greatly appreciated.

GEORGE G. SEIBELS, Jr., Mayor, city of Birmingham, Ala.


Mr. Chairman, the Tuscaloosa, Alabama group of the Sierra Club urges a favorable report and prompt passage of H.R. 2307, a bill providing funds for study of the Cahaba River in Alabama for possible inclusion in the Wild and Scenic River system. Members of our group use the Cahaba extensively for canoeing and other recreational activities, and are vitally interested in the preservation of this wild stream.

The Cahaba is the only major free-flowing stream in Alabama. For much of its length the river flows through or near the Birmingham metropolitan area. This fact indicates both the need for immediate inclusion in the system and the great benefits which will result.

The wild state of the Cahaba is threatened by a growing number of construction projects and water diversion schemes resulting from urban sprawl. The need for quick action to protect the river from this uncontrolled growth is clear. By the same token, the wild Cahaba is within a few miles of over one million Alabamians. As a result, the benefits envisioned by those who fostered the Wild and Scenic River system-preservation of free-flowing rivers for the enjoyment of large numbers of citizens-could nowhere be more easily achieved.

Much of the botanical and zoological study necessary before the inclusion of a river in the system has already been done on the Cahaba by members of our group and other interested Alabamians. They would of course be happy to share these studies, and undertake other required investigations, in order to reduce the cost of the Cahaba's inclusion. Whatever the cost, the Cahaba merits inclusion in the system, and hopefully passage of H.R. 2307 will be a major step toward that goal.

Thank you.

BIRMINGHAM, ALA., June 8, 1973.


Chairman, Interior and Insular Affairs,
House Office Building, Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. HALEY: In reference to H.R. 2307 introduced by Walter Flowers and to be heard on June 11th and 12th, we of the Birmingham Canoe Club would like to express a strong sentiment in favor of including portions of the Cahaba river in Alabama as a part of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. This river, in certain stretches, could easily have a wild river designation and many more miles of it could be classed as a scenic river under the term set forth in this act.

We would also like to highly recommend that four other rivers in Alabama be considered for wild or scenic classification. These are: the Locust Fork of the Warrior River, particularly that section extending from Royal, Alabama to Highway 160; Little River in DeKalb and Cherokee County and within the boundaries of the Canyon Division of DeSoto State Park; West Fork of the Sipsey in the Bankhead Forest, and finally Hatchet Creek. Thank you for your assistance in this matter.

Sincerely yours,


President, Birmingham Canoe Club.

(Additional Information Concerning the Oklawaha River)


Florida Defenders of the Environment, Inc. is a non-profit organization with headquarters at 35 North Main Street, Gainesville, Florida. FDE is a volunteer coalition of about 300 specialists-scientists, economists, lawyers, land-planners and concerned citizens-dedicated to the protection of environmental quality in Florida through the preparation of special reports based on reliable information. One of the major projects of FDE has been to prevent the damage and/or destruction of the Florida environment by construction of the now defunct CrossFlorida Barge Canal project. In pursuing this goal FDE specialists studied the Oklawaha regional ecosystem and, in March 1970, published a 117 page report, "Environmental Impact of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal with special emphasis on the Oklawaha Regional Ecosystem."

Among the recommendations resulting from our report are the following: (1) restoration of the section of the Oklawaha Valley damaged by canal construction (the river proper in this region has not been channelized-just drowned); (2) inclusion of the canal-right-of-way lands in the Oklawaha Valley in the adjacent Ocala National Forest; and (3) designation of the Oklawaha River Valley from the Dead River Swamp area downstream to the St. John's River as a National Wild and Scenic River.

Florida citizens have worked hard for many long years in the effort to set aside the river as part of our natural heritage. An article, "The Oklawaha River Wilderness," published in the Florida Naturalist in August, 1965 (copy attached to this statement), describes the characteristics and values of this Florida asset and conservationists as early as 1964 adopted Save the Oklawaha as their slogan. Some of the Florida conservation organizations that have been engaged in the struggle to save the river over the past eight years are: Florida Audubon Society, Florida Wildlife Federation, Florida Chapter of the Sierra Club, Florida Division of the Izaak Walton League of America, and the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs.

Ten years ago, 1963, the Oklawaha River was included as one of 63 rivers of America recommended for wild river status by a Joint Wild Rivers Study Team of the United States Department of Agriculture and the United States Department of the Interior. The Oklawaha is part of the national natural treasure. That it is recognized as such is indicated by the fact that the following national organizations banded together to form the National Coalition to Save the Oklawaha; Sierra Club, National Parks Association, National Audubon Society, Trout Unlimited, Friends of the Earth, Environmental Defense Fund, Citizens Committee on Natural Resources, Izaak Walton League of America, The Wilderness Society, and National Wildlife Federation.

A majority of the elected officials of the State of Florida are in favor of saving the Oklawaha. This was indicated by a poll of candidates, taken in


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